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Soc Sci Med ; 42(3): 313-24, Feb. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3169


Sociologists and, more recently, critical medical anthropologists have been arguing for a refocusing of the analysis of health and health care towards a perspective which considers the broader political economy. In the context of the debt crisis and IMF/World Bank-inspired structural adjustments policies, the political economy theoretical perspective is becoming even more relevant in the analysis of health underdevelopment in many Third World countries. This study focuses on the direct and indirect effects of the Jamaican debt crisis and structural adjustment programmes on health care services and health standards. In this paper it is argued that there are methodological problems using quantitative data when studying the effects of structural adjustment. In addition to providing a limited account of the effects, it is argued that the basic problem is a matter of the availability and reliability of the quantitative data in many Third World countries. It is argued that some of these problems could be overcome by the application of qualitative micro-level analysis. This type of methodology is important to ascertain the effects of global processes at the grass root levels and to gain insights into what those working in the health sector are experiencing and what they perceive as the effects, if any, of structural adjustment policies. This has often been missing from the impersonal accounts offered by quantitative research on the subject to date. (AU)

Humanos , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Agências Internacionais , Pesquisa , Medicina Social , Jamaica
Bull Pan Am Health Organ ; 30(2): 95-105, Jun. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3167


There is some uncertainty about the extent to which Latin America and the Caribbean have participated in the advances of health-related industrial biotechnology. This article reviews the available literature and seeks to provide an overview of the prevailing situation. In general, national governments and multinational agencies have provided most of the health-related biotechnology investments within this region. Efforts to achieve technology transfers, a subject of prime concern, have been developed by a number of programs including the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, the UNDP/UNESCO/UNIDO Regional Biotechnology Program for Latin America and the Caribbean; PAHO's Program for the Regional Development of Biotechnology as Applied to Health; the PAHO/WHO Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI); and PAHO's Regional System of Vaccines (SIREVA). Regarding current production capacity, some successful efforts have been made to produce a variety of therapeutic products including recombinant and natural ionterferons, interleukins, insulin, and recombinant streptokinase; but in general the region's current potential in this area is at best incipient and uncertain. However, the region does have a limited ability to make diagnostic products and a well-established capacity for vaccine development. Overall, this picture suggests that the region has the potential to play a small but significant role in health-related biotechnology (AU).

Humanos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Produtos Biológicos/biossíntese , Pesquisa , Financiamento Governamental , Agências Internacionais , Transferência de Tecnologia , Vacinas/biossíntese , América Latina , Região do Caribe
Kingston; National Family Planning Board; 1994. ix, 24 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3810


Reports of a project aimed at importing the effectiveness and sustainability of Jamaica's National Family Planning Programme in light of the planned phasedown of international donor support particularly the reduction of USAID-donated contraceptive supplies. A "Mapping Study and Private Physicians Survey" was designed to collect background information on the existing infrastructure of service delivery points (SDPs)and a better undrestanding of physicians' skill and interest levels pertaining to long-term and permanent methods. This information would enable interventions to be designed that would target less-well-served areas offer appropriate incentives for private-practice physicians to become more involved in family planning, and meet specific needs among the private physician community as they try to become more involved. Among the noteworthy findings of this study are, given that a key goal of the project is to increase use of longer-acting methods, these methods are not readily available at affordable prices to rural consumers/patients ie. half the Jamaican population. long-term and permanent methods are concentrated in urban areas and offered primarily by private physicians. Short-term or supply methods were widely available to both urban and rural users and were quite affordable. Another significant finding is that private physicians have an interest in increasing their understanding of and involvement in family planning, widespread interest was expressed in the Private Physicians' Pilot Project. The private sector it was found offers the most SDPs, the widest range of methods and the greatest number of hours of operation, however, it is the public sector that provides the most services ie. about 60 percent of family planning services. These was a tendency for private sector providers to be concentrated in urban areas due to available supporting medical services; a further intra-urban clustering of private sector sites was also found; ther was a tendency among newer doctors to establish practices in urban areas outside of Kingston; a more evenly distributed pattern for public sector SDP was found, along with a clear emphasis on serving rural communities; an expansionary trend in terms of number of SDPs in urban areas is noticeable whereas a slight reduction in overall number of SDPs serving rural areas was noted. The recommendations are, to use the findings from this mapping study to plan future activities; to improve availability on long-term and permanent methods for rural groups; to encourage the private sector to increase its participation in family planning; to engage pharmacies and private physicians in expanded social marketingprogrammes; and that the social marketing programme be encouraged to expand its marketing support to include longer-acting methods. (AU)

Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Jamaica , Agências Internacionais , Médicos
Int J Health Serv ; 19(1): 79-93, 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12345


This article is part of a study that described and analyzed the development of nursing education in Trinidad and Tobago from self-government in 1956 to 1986, with special emphasis on the forces that helped to shape the society from colonial times, and consequently, nursing education. Adaptation and application of major concepts from theories of underdevelopment and development and colonialism formed the basis of the study's theoretical framework. The article focuses on the impact of the metropolitan countries on the development of health care polices. Because of the nation's historical legacy of colonialism and its current linkages with the United States and Canada, a major area fundamental to the analysis was to determine whether those two countries had superseded traditional British influences in determining health care policies. This raised the issue of whether or not health care policies could be autonomously developed to meet the needs of the people. (AU)

Humanos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Política de Saúde/tendências , Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Educação em Enfermagem , Planejamento em Saúde , Agências Internacionais , Sistemas Políticos , Saúde Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Trinidad e Tobago