Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 96
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Filtros aplicados
Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Ministry of Health; [2019?]. [2] p. tab.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-908586

RESUMO

This summary of expenditures and estimates of personal emoluments (PE) relates to "Established Staff", viz.: the Chief of Operations and the Vector Control Technician as well as "Unestablished Staff", viz.: Spraymen who are employed in Vector Control. Sub-totals for social security and salaries are presented for each category of staff. The PE total for the current year 2018/2019 as well as estimates for the years 2019/2020 and 2020/2021, are stated respectively as: $138,271.50; $139,680.50; and $141,089.50.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Orçamentos/organização & administração , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insetos Vetores , Belize/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Controle de Vetores
2.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Ministry of Health; 2018. 8 p. graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-908794

RESUMO

This communicable diseases digest offers a summary of incidence rates for the Ministry of Health's epidemiological week 16. It draws on weekly data retrieved through the Belize Health Information System (BHIS) which seeks to improve individual health outcomes and public health performance as well as to optimize resource utilization. Using graphics, national, seasonal and weekly trends are compared for the following: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs), a leading cause of death among children under the age of five; Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARIs), which have the potential for large scale epidemics; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Vector Borne Diseases; Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs); and Other Communicable Diseases/Outbreaks/Public Health related incidents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Belize/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya , Dengue/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Incidência , Insetos Vetores , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Zika virus
3.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Ministry of Health; 2018. 8 p. graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-908812

RESUMO

This communicable diseases digest offers a summary of incidence rates for the Ministry of Health's epidemiological week 17. It draws on weekly data retrieved through the Belize Health Information System (BHIS) which seeks to improve individual health outcomes and public health performance as well as to optimize resource utilization. Using graphics, national, seasonal and weekly trends are compared for the following: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs), a leading cause of death among children under the age of five; Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARIs), which have the potential for large scale epidemics; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Vector Borne Diseases; Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs); and Other Communicable Diseases/Outbreaks/Public Health related incidents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Belize/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Incidência , Vírus Chikungunya , Dengue/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Zika virus
4.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Ministry of Health; 2018. 8 p. graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-908857

RESUMO

This communicable diseases digest offers a summary of incidence rates for the Ministry of Health's epidemiological week 19. It draws on weekly data retrieved through the Belize Health Information System (BHIS) which seeks to improve individual health outcomes and public health performance as well as to optimize resource utilization. Using graphics, national, seasonal and weekly trends are compared for the following: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs), a leading cause of death among children under the age of five; Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARIs), which have the potential for large scale epidemics; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Vector Borne Diseases; Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs); and other Communicable Diseases/Outbreaks/Public Health related incidents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Belize/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Incidência , Vírus Chikungunya , Dengue/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Zika virus
5.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Ministry of Health; 2018. 8 p. graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-908944

RESUMO

This communicable diseases digest offers a summary of incidence rates for the Ministry of Health's epidemiological week 20. It draws on weekly data retrieved through the Belize Health Information System (BHIS) which seeks to improve individual health outcomes and public health performance as well as to optimize resource utilization. Using graphics, national, seasonal and weekly trends are compared for the following: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs), a leading cause of death among children under the age of five; Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARIs), which have the potential for large scale epidemics; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Vector Borne Diseases; Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs); and other Communicable Diseases/Outbreaks/Public Health related incidents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Belize/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Incidência , Vírus Chikungunya , Dengue/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Zika virus
6.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Ministry of Health; [2017?]. [2] p. tab.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-908581

RESUMO

This summary of expenditures and estimates of personal emoluments (PE) relates to "Established Staff", viz.: the Chief of Operations and the Dengue Technical Officer as well as "Unestablished Staff" viz.: Squad Leaders and Spraymen who are employed in Vector Control. Sub-totals for social security and salaries are presented for each category of staff. The PE total for the current year 2017/2018 as well as the estimates for years 2018/2019 and 2019/2020, are stated respectively as: $170,148.30; $170,925.22; and $171,717.67.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Orçamentos/organização & administração , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insetos Vetores , Controle de Vetores , Belize/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública
7.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Ministry of Health; [2016?]. [4] p. tab.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-908563

RESUMO

This expenditures summary of the Vector Control Budget for 2015/2016 is presented under the following sub-headings accompanied by their respective expenditure: Personal Emoluments (PE) inclusive of salaries, wages and social security; Travel and Subsistence; Materials and Supplies; Operating Cost; Maintenance; Training; and Capital II which consists of purchase of other equipment. Total recurrent expenditure is stated as $922,922.01 and Capital II expenditure is stated as $30,000.00.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Orçamentos/organização & administração , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insetos Vetores , Controle de Vetores , Belize , Saúde Pública
8.
West Indian med. j ; 49(Supp 2): 29, Apr. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze plans and execution practices in 23 of 30 Caribbean countries for the control of dengue fever through the management of the vector Aedes aegypti during the period 1997-1998. DESIGN AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all public health authorities in 30 Caribbean countries soliciting information on the present status of their national dengue/vector control (VC) programmes. RESULTS: Ae aegypti was reported from 22/23 countries. The percentage of homes found to be positive for Ae aegypti production (House Index), ranged from 0 percent to 62 percent. In 19 (83 percent) countries, environmental sanitation was a key component of the programme while 61 percent routinely used community participation as a support for the official VC programme. Mass media have been used systematically to promote community participation in VC activities in 16 (70 percent) countries and biological control tools used in 50 percent of countries but evaluated in only 35 percent. Personnel employed for VC management varied from a low of 0.025 men/1,000 capita (Jamaica) to 0.44 men/1,000 capita (Trinidad). Quality of staff was also important. In the Cayman Islands, the only country successful in eliminating Ae aegypti, 3 entomologists were employed. Total programme expenditures for dengue prevention ranged from a per capita sum of US$12.89 (Bermuda) to $0.03 (Guyana). CONCLUSIONS: Selection of the best strategies for future strengthening of the various vector management programmes for dengue prevention must be informed by evaluations of current VC programmes.(Au)


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Insetos Vetores , Aedes/virologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados , Controle de Mosquitos
9.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene ; 62(1): 11-18, Jan. 2000. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17779

RESUMO

The expense and ineffectiveness of drift-based insecticide aerosols to control dengue epidemics has led to suppression strategies based on eliminating larval breeding sites. With the notable but short-lived exceptions of Cuba and Singapore, these source reduction efforts have met with little documented success; failure has chiefly been attributed to inadequate participation of the communities involved. The present work attempts to estimate transmission thresholds for dengue based on an easily-derived statistic, the standing crop of Aedes aegypti pupae per person in the environment. We have developed these thresholds for use in the assessment of risk of transmission and to provide targets for the actual degree of suppression required to prevent or eliminate transmission in source reduction programs. The notion of thresholds is based on 2 concepts: the mass action principal-the course of an epidemic is dependent on the rate of contact between susceptible hosts and infectious vectors, and threshold theory-the introduction of a few infectious individuals into a community of susceptible individuals will not give rise to an outbreak unless the density of vectors exceeds a certain critical level. We use validated transmission models to estimate thresholds as a function of levels of pre-existing antibody levels in human populations, ambient air temperatures, and size and frequency of viral introduction. Threshold levels were estimated to range between about 0.5 and 1.5 Ae. aegypti pupae per person for ambient air temperatures of 28 degrees C and initial seroprevalences ranging between 0% to 67%. Surprisingly, the size of the viral introduction used in these studies, ranging between 1 and 12 infectious individuals per year, was not seen to significantly influence the magnitude of the threshold. From a control perspective, these results are not particularly encouraging. The ratio of Ae. aegypti pupae to human density has been observed in limited field studies to range between 0.3 and >60 in 25 sites in dengue-endemic or dengue-susceptible areas in the Caribbean, Central America, and Southeast Asia. If, for purposes of illustration, we assume an initial seroprevalence of 33%, the degree of suppression required to essentially eliminate the possibility of summertime transmission in Puerto Rico, Honduras, and Bangkok, Thailand was estimated to range between 10% and 83%; however in Mexico and Trinidad, reductions of >90% would be required. A clearer picture of the actual magnitude of the reductions required to eliminate the threat of transmission is provided by the ratio of the observed standing crop of Ae. aegypti pupae per person and the threshold. For example, in a site in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, the ratio of observed and threshold was 1.7, meaning roughly that about 7 of every 17 breeding containers would have to be eliminated. For Reynosa, Mexico, with a ratio of approximately 10, 9 of every 10 containers would have to be eliminated. For sites in Trinidad with ratios averaging approximately 25, the elimination of 24 of every 25 would be required. With the exceptions of Cuba and Singapore, no published reports of sustained source reduction efforts have achieved anything near these levels of reductions in breeding containers. Practical advice on the use of thresholds is provided for operational control projects.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/virologia , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Medição de Risco , Processos Estocásticos , Temperatura , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Honduras/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 62(1): 11-8, Jan. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-766

RESUMO

The expense and ineffectiveness of drift-based insecticide aerosols to control dengue epidemics has led to suppression strategies based on eliminating larval breeding sites. The present work attempts to estimate transmission thresholds for dengue based on an easily-derived statistic, the standing crop of Aedes aegypti pupae per person in the environment. We have developed these thresholds for use in the assessment of risk of transmission and to provide targets for the actual degree of suppression required to prevent or eliminate transmission in source reduction programs. The notion of thresholds is based on 2 concepts: the mass action principal- the course of an epidemic is dependent on the rate of contact between susceptible hosts and infectious vectors, and threshold theory - the introduction of a few infectious individuals into a community of susceptible individuals will not give rise to an outbreak unless the density of the vectors exceeds a certain critical level. We use validated transmission models to estimate thresholds as a function of levels of pre-existing antibody levels in human populations, ambient air temperatures, and the size and frequency of viral introduction. Threshold levels were estimated to range between about 0.5 and 1.5 Ae. aegypti pupae per person for ambient air temperatures of 28 degrees C and initial seroprevalences ranging between 0 percent to 67 percent. Suprisingly, the size of the viral introduction used in these studies, ranging between 1 and 12 infectious individuals per year was not seen to significantly influence the magnitude of the threshold. From a control perspective, these results are not particularly encouraging. The ratio of Ae. aegypti pupae to human density has been observed in limited field studies to range between 0.3 and >60 in 25 sites in dengue-epidemic of dengue-susceptible areas in the Caribbean, Central America, and South East Asia. If, for purposes of illustration, we assume an initial seroprevalence of 33 percent, the degree of suppression required to essentially eliminate the possibility of summertime transmission in Puerto Rico, Honduras, and Bangkok, Thailand was estimated to range between 10 percent and 83 percent; however in Mexico and Trinidad, reductions of >90 percent would be required.(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Feminino , Humanos , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Dengue/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Honduras/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/virologia , México/epidemiologia , Porto Rico , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medição de Risco , Processos Estocásticos , Temperatura , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
11.
Ann Trop Med Parasitol ; 93(5): 467-75, July 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-739

RESUMO

A focus of Plasmodium malariae infection has recently occurred on the island of Trinidad, some 30 years after a successful eradiction programme. Examination of bloodsmears revealed 22 cases of P. malariae in the Nariva-Mayaro area of Trinidad between August 1994 and September 1995. Most (77 percent) of the cases were male and, as seven were aged >25 years of age, it appeared that transmission had been renewed, probably by the vector Anopheles bellator. However, none of the 3000 mosquitoes tested by ELISA for circumsporozoite protein of P. malariae proved positive. Use of IFAT to check blood samples for P. malariae appeared more sensitive than direct examination of bloodsmears, indicating that 42 (13 percent) of the 325 samples tested were seropositive (at titres of 1:256 or greater). The levels of transmission of the parasite may therefore be even higher than indicated by examination of blood smears. The surveillance measurers adopted to understand the epidemiology of this outbreak of P. malariae in Trinidad are described. The need to maintain malaria surveillance in all the countries where P. malariae parasites once existed (prior to eradication) is emphasised. (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , 21003 , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium malariae , Surtos de Doenças , Malária/epidemiologia , Anopheles/parasitologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Seguimentos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium malariae/isolamento & purificação , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 60(3): 364-76, Mar. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1345

RESUMO

A genetic and morphologic survey of Anopheles darlingi populations collected from seven countries in Central and South America was performed to clarify the taxonomic status of this major malaria vector species in the Americas. Population genetics was based on three techniques including isozyme, random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) markers. The results of the isozyme analysis indicated moderate differences in the allele frequencies of three putative loci (glutamate oxalaoacetate transaminase-1, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1, and phosphoglucomutase) of the 31 analyzed. No fixed electromorphic differences separated the populations of An. darlingi, which showed little genetic divergence (Nei distances = 0.976-0.995). Fragments produced by RAPD-PCR demonstrated evidence of geographic partitioning and showed that all populations were separated by small genetic distances as measured with the 1 - S distance matrix. The ITS2 sequences for all samples were identical except for four individuals from Belize that differed by a three-base deletion (CCC). The morphologic study demonstrated that the Euclidean distances ranged from 0.02 to 0.14, with the highest value observed between populations from Belize and Bolivia. Based on these analyses, all the An. darlingi populations examined demonstrated a genetic similarity that is consistent with the existence of a single species and suggest that gene flow is occurring throughout the species' geographic range.(Au)


Assuntos
21003 , Feminino , Anopheles/classificação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Malária/transmissão , Sequência de Bases , Belize , Eletroforese em Gel de Amido/veterinária , Anopheles/enzimologia , Anopheles/genética , Insetos Vetores/enzimologia , Insetos Vetores/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/química , Isoenzimas/análise , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fosfoglucomutase/química , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul
13.
kingston; s.n; 1999. xi,78 p. ilus, tab, gra.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1164

RESUMO

The control of dengue fever depends on the level of Aedes aegypti infestation and thus relies heavily on the measures for controlling the vector. Quite recently, despite the implementation of mosquito control measures, the Aedes aegypti population has still escalated. The vector apparently has adapted to or resisted most of the control methods. The failure of Aedes aegypti control programmes has been blamed on the vector's biological features fostering the development of species resistance to chemical control or environmental factors favouring the increase of the Aedes aegypti' population at a faster rate than the control methods can reduce them. Nevertheless, many Aedes aegypti control programmes are improperly planned and implemented or the control measures are often used as reactive methods of controlling dengue fever outbreaks, rather than as continuous proactive strategies preventing disease. Aedes aegypti breeding is basically a problem of domestic sanitation and therefore communities have an essential role to play in source reduction activities. The activities of some governmental departments, non governmental organizations and the private sector may encourage the increase of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes or play a positive role in vector control. Consequently, intra sectoral and intersectoral in vector control are very important. This study examined the control measures applied by the Jamaican Ministry of Health, Vector Control Department and the community for Aedes aegypti surveillance and control, and determined the effectiveness of and obstacles to the mosquito control activities presently being applied. The aim of the study was achieved through the execution of an entomology survey, an environmental survey, an insecticide susceptibility test, key informant interviews with vector control staff from the Ministry of Health and the administration of a Knowledge-Attitude-pracitce survey. The research results showed that the environmental conditions in the study area were conducive to Aedes aegypti breeding and proliferation, especially during the months of July to October. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were present throughout the study area, with a higher density of Aedes aegypti larvae in Tavern and Gordon Town. Aedes aegypti larvae collected from Mona and Hermitage were highly susceptible to a 1 percent abate larvicide.(Au)


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Aedes/parasitologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Colaboração Intersetorial , Programas Governamentais , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/tendências
14.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 14(2): 131-6, Jun. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1638

RESUMO

When the currently used larval surveillance system (visual inspection) for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti was compared with the surveillance for the presence of eggs by ovitrapping in Port of Spain, Trinidad, it was found that the latter (39.1 percent) was significantly more sensitive than the visual inspection system (10.1 percent). At the same time, the presence of the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus was detected in 38.4 percent of the households. Both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus showed preference for ovipositional attractants in ovitraps: hay infusion > yeast suspension > plain tap water. Although all the socioeconomic and geographic areas produced both mosquito species in 1996, upper middle class (UMC) areas (8.6-43.4 percent), produced more Ae. aegypti than did lower middle class (LMC) area 7.8-38.8 percent), which produced more than working class (WC) areas (3.9-29.9 percent). For Cx. quinquefasciatus, the order of production was reversed with WC areas (50.1 percent) > LMC areas (30.0 percent) > UMC areas (26.0 percent). Change in vector surveillance strategies incorporating some ovitrapping and stratified sampling are recommended for Caribbean countries(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Estudo Comparativo , Feminino , Aedes , Dengue/transmissão , Insetos Vetores , Culex , Oviposição , Vigilância da População , Estações do Ano , Trinidad e Tobago
15.
West Indian med. j ; 46(Suppl. 2): 42, Apr. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2430

RESUMO

Spatial patterns of genetic variants in natural populations are the combined effects of various evolutionary forces and demographic structure. Population life history and mating structure have genome-wide effect, but selection, affects only the target loci or closely-linked loci. This study examines the spatial patterns of 4 natural Aedes aegypti populations of Trinidad and Tobago, through registration fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16 genetic loci representative of mosquito genome on 870 individuals. These populations have been subjected to numerous organophosphate (OP) insecticides for more than 2 decades, but have not been subjected to DDT over this period. We predicted that genes closely-linked to the OP target loci would be strongly affected in gene polymorphism, and probably be the most differentiated loci in the genome, but gene flow has homogenized frequencies for the gene conferring resistance to DDT. As predicted, low DNA polymorphisms and gene deletions were found for loci in the general chromosomal region of the OP target site, and these exhibited large scale FST value. The gene conferring resistance to DDT shows similar polymorphisms and genetic differentiation to other loci in the genome. We concluded that gene flow was not sufficiently frequent to prevent genetic differentiation due to genetic drift or selection, but could be a powerful force for the spread of insectide resistance genes. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Aedes/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , DDT , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Trinidad e Tobago , Insetos Vetores
16.
West Indian med. j ; 46(Suppl. 2): 43, Apr. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2432

RESUMO

The incidence of human myiasis due to the warble fly Dermatobia hominis was studied in Trinidad from 1988-1996. A total of 19 cases were identified among nationals of Trinidad and Tobago, with one additional case imported from Belize. Sixteen of the 20 cases occurred among males and, apart from two infants, the age range of persons affected was from 18-61 years of age. It appears that the major risk factor for infection is linked to occupational and residential association with forested areas. Sixteen of the 19 locally acquired cases lived near or worked near forested areas. This study alerts physicians to this condition, especially in patients associated with forested areas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Miíase/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
17.
WEST INDIAN MED. J ; 46(suppl. 2): 46, Apr. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2438

RESUMO

Dengue is endemic in Grenada and is grossly underreported and underestimated as a source of morbidity. Seroprevalence and knowledge, attitude and practice surveys were conducted in the area of Mount Tout/Grand Anse Valley in the parish of St George's. Many people were knowledgeable about the basics of dengue fever and mosquitoes, but knowledge of the important relationship between mosquitoes, human behaviour and disease transmission was absent. Results indicated that though most respondents (98 percent) reported never having dengue fever before, 93 percent had a positive IgG-ELISA test, indicating past exposure. This suggests that, although most people have basic knowledge of dengue, more education on the disease and vectors is required. Education and modified behavioural responses may help to reduce Ae. aegypti numbers and in turn help to prevent dengue fever and the most severe form, dengue hemorrhagic fever. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Dengue/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aedes , Insetos Vetores
18.
West Indian med. j ; 46(Suppl.2): 41, Apr. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2448

RESUMO

Dengue is endemic in most countries of the Americas. The presentation of the disease can range from an undifferentiated fever to a more life-threatening form, ie., the dengue shock syndrome. Four serotypes of the viruses are distinguished: the most common ones in the American regon are types 2 and 4. It is transmitted primarily through the Aedes aegypti, a vector widely found in the region. Dengue is also a health problem in Curacao, where since 1973 endemicity has been established. The objective of the present study is to describe the dengue situation in Curacao with regards to the prevalence, surveillance system and vector control, as well as the evaluation of these. This was done on laboratory-based surveillance data of the years 1993, 1995 and 1996. Cases were either confirmed by laboratory results or classified as probable cases based on clinical information, using the case definition of the Pan American Health Organization. Results of the surveys on larval indices of the same years are presented. The surveillance data show that there was an outbreak in the first few months of 1993. One death was reported in February. During this outbreak, dengue types 2 and 4 were isolated. In 1995, there were two outbreaks, one in March/April and another one later in the year during the year during the months October/November. At the beginning of 1996 the last cases of the 1995 outbreak were detected, but in the second half of the year no confirmed cases were reported. Both the curent surveillance system and the vector surveys hae provided valuable data. Nevertheless, the prevalence of the disease in 1995 shows that the availability of information is not enough for the prevention of disease if not combined with a defined plan of action. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Dengue/epidemiologia , Aedes , Insetos Vetores
19.
West Indian med. j ; 46(Suppl. 2): 33, Apr. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2472

RESUMO

When the currently used larval surveillance system (visual inspection) for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Linn.) was compared with the surveillance for the presence of gravid females by ovitrapping in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, it was found that the latter (39 percent) was significantly (p<0.001) more sensitive than the visual inspection system (10 percent). At the same time, the presence of the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) was detected in 38 percent of the households. Both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus showed preference for ovipositional attractants in ovitraps: hay infusion > yeast suspension > plain tap water (p,0.001). While the socio-economic and geographical areas produced both mosquito species in 1996, upper middle class (UMC) areas (35- 25 percent) produced more Ae. aegypti than lower middle class (LMC) areas (32- 37 percent), which produced more than working class (WC) areas (28-29 percent ). For Cx. quinquefasciatus, the order of production was reversed with WC areas (44-53 percent)> LMC areas (21- 30 percent) > UMC areas (9- 27percent). Change in vector surveillance strategies incorporating some ovitrapping and stratified sampling are recommended for member countries. These data will help improve management strategies aimed at further reduction of the prevalence of these two mosquito species in urban areas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Insetos Vetores , Aedes/virologia , Trinidad e Tobago
20.
West Indian med. j ; 45(suppl. 2): 16, Apr. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4654

RESUMO

We report the results of a country-wide pupal survey of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Trinidad designed to identify the most important Aedes aegypti-producing containers, importance being a function of a container's abundance and productivity. Numerically, the most common loci were outdoor drums, water storage tanks and buckets, laundry tubs, discarded tyres and small miscellaneous containers. The average number of foci per hectare was 287 (range 65 to 499). The average standing crop per container of Ae.aegypti pupae was 9.5 and ranged 12-fold, the most and least productive being the flower pot (> 30) and the small indoor vase (<3), respectively. Seven of the 11 types were responsible for < 10 percent of all Ae.aegypti pupae and the remaining 4 types, outdoor drums, tubs, buckets and small containers, accounted for > 90 percent. If targeted, source reduction programmes were directed by the importance of various container types, efforts designed to eliminate the ubiquitous small receptacle and tyres would reduce mosquito densities by 43 percent and the provision of an adequate water supply, precluding the need for water storage, could eliminate an additional 38 percent for a total of > 80 percent of Ae.aegypti in the country. The traditional Stegomyia indices used to document the density of Ae.aegypti and predict the threat of transmission - the house, container, and Breteau indices - were seen to have virtually no correspondence with the actual number of pupae per hectare or per person. We conclude that pupal survey is more appropriate for assessing risk and directing control operations (AU)


Assuntos
Aedes , Pupa , Saneamento , Insetos Vetores , Trinidad e Tobago
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA