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In. Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75]. (West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-18073


OBJECTIVE: To examine high-priority environmental and occupational health (EOH) risks in Suriname and those common to the increasingly vulnerable Caribbean region. DESIGN AND METHODS: Multi-pronged needs assessments were conducted to document baseline capacity levels and community needs focused upon health outcome data, laboratory capacity, training programs, and environmental health policy. EOH research included determining gold mining-related mercury contamination; assessment of occupational and community risks for agriculturally related pesticides; and analysis of medicinal plants and nutriceuticals. RESULTS: EOH policies in Suriname and other Caribbean countries are either absent, or where present, not enforced. Mercury contamination had been confirmed in fish species, sediment, and communities near gold-mining areas but there were also indications that climate change may have influenced mercury deposition in non-gold mining areas. Produce analyses for key pesticides used in agriculture showed the presence of banned pesticides at levels above the WHO Maximum Residual Levels. Mobile health technology-enabled and competency–trained Community Health Workers assisted their community in identifying key pesticide use–related concerns and messages to promote safe pesticide use. CONCLUSION: The overarching significance of the CCREOH preliminary studies has been to gain insight into the major EOH issues Suriname is facing. Knowledge of the mercury-related contamination of the country’s estuaries and contamination of agriculture products with pesticide residues provide evidence-based direction for future EOH research. Assessing the healing properties of medicinal plants and nutriceuticals has the potential to advance knowledge in a culturally competent manner. CARPHA plays a key role in CCREOH’s policy translation and research dissemination.

Riscos Ambientais , Riscos Ocupacionais , Prioridades em Saúde , Suriname , Região do Caribe
Rev. panam. salud publica ; 1(6): 451-9, Jun.1997. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16891


A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers-as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown-tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similiarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25 percent (95 percent CI: 17 percent-33 percent). But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42 percent, as compared to 10 percent among those in higher stratum), accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign), worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropisitivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine. Overall, the findings supported the view that interventions targeted at female sex workers and their clients should be strengthened-more specifically, that concerted efforts should be made to intensify condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing; to improve STD services that provide treatment and counseling for female sex workers; and to increase educational activities among the workers' Guyanese clients (AU)

Humanos , HIV , Guiana , Trabalho Sexual/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Grupos de Risco , Riscos Ocupacionais , Soroprevalência de HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão
Kingston; s.n; 1996. 69 p. tab, gra.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-498


The health problems of workes in four companies in the manufacturing sector of Jamaican industry were explored in a sample of ninety seven workers. The workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire containing five sections; personal profile, occupational history, perceptions, attitude and recommendations. Over 50 percent of the workers reported having an accident with an associated injury while working, and more than 27.8 percent were of the perception that health-related risks associated with working conditions were high. The incidence of work related injuries in these companies is discussed, as well as factors associated with their occurence. The implications of these results are examined relative to the present coping mechanisms aimed at work injury prevention. Occupational health has not received much legislative attention in the past. Recent proposals for a new National Industrial Policy for Jamaica do not suggest imminent action in terms of injury prevention policies.(Au)

Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Riscos Ocupacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trabalho , Coleta de Dados , Jamaica
West Indian med. j ; 43(1): 2-5, Mar. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-8360


One thousand, five hundred and thirty-seven health staff, presenting for hepatitis B vaccination in Jamaica, were surveyed in 1990/91 for hepatitis B markers and/or expose to blood or hepatitis. Antibodies to either hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or hepatitis B core (HBc) were found in 19.8 percent of 817 persons tested. Males were more likely to have antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) than females (29 percent compared with 18 percent, Odds Ratio 1.6;95 percent CI 0.98-2.9). HBsAg was found in 5.3 percent of 562 persons tested compared with 1 percent of blood donors. One or more needlestick accidents were reported by 60 percent of the sample, and blood or liquid splashing on the face was reported by 48 percent. Jaundice and hepatitis were reported by 1.2 percent and 3.5 percent of health staff, respectively. HBaAg carrier status was associated with years of service (p=0.039). Prevalence of antibodies to HBV increased with age (p=0.004) and years of service (p=0.028). The effect of age and years of service appears to be largely independent (r=0.44). This survey reaffirms the importance of health workers being immunized with hepatitis B vaccine, and adhering rigorously to universal precautions in patient care and laboratory practice (AU)

Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Ocupações em Saúde , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Riscos Ocupacionais , Imunização , Jamaica , Exposição Ocupacional , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B
In. Levett, Paul N; Fraser, Henry S; Hoyos, Michael D. Medicine and therapeutics update 1990: proceedings of Continuing Medical Education symposia in Barbados, November 1988 & June 1989. St. Michael, University of the West Indies, (Cave Hill). Faculty of Medical Sciences, 1990. p.26-8.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15009


A brief look at the risks of transmission of the HIV virus to health care workers and what preventative measures should be employed to lower these risks. The article mentions briefly the use of protective barriers and emphasizes the importance of the implementation of recommendations such as initial orientation and training about the epidemiology, modes of transmission and prevention of transmission of HIV and other blood borne infections. Provision of equipment and supplies necessary to minimize the risk of infection

HIV , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Riscos Ocupacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Líquidos Corporais , Acidentes , Fatores de Risco