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West Indian med. j ; 41(Suppl 1): 56, April 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6543


Childhood origins of adult disease may be important in the Caribbean, for instance in the later sequelae, if any, of under and malnutrition. Several such hypotheses can be tested for diabetes, including severity of the initial episode(s) leading to pancreatic fibrosis, and weight gain after puberty, causing further B-cell stress. The 1985 WHO criteria defined a malnutrition-related diabetes (MRDM) category, but causal evidence is slim. We examined a series from a chort (N=311) of survivors of infant marasmus (M), Kwashiorkor (K) and age-matched controls (C), all followed since presentation, for over 20 years. Cases were defined on infant weight for age < 2 SDs below expected. Of the first 90 subjects invited, 84 (93 percent) attended for a standardized portocol by trained observers, of a full 2-hour glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measures. (The results are shown in a table). These preliminary results show that average catch-up growth was complete in these previously severely malnourished young adults. While fasting blood glucose (FG) results were similar, following challenge the 2 hr values (2hr G) were significantly higher in female M than respective C(t=3.25, p<0.001) not accounted for by their greater weight, and higher in all M than C (p=0.02). Waist/Hip ratios were no different. Thus, despite these young people being well-adapted in a generally favourable socioeconomic setting, there is some evidence of glucose intolerance following challenge. This could be a prodrome for later development of diabetes. As they are also the first to have responded to the follow-up invitation, those who may not respond may be less well-adapted and hence at even greater risk of glucose intolerance and perhaps other problems (AU)

Humanos , Adolescente , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Barbados , Diabetes Mellitus , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica , Kwashiorkor , Peso-Idade , Peso-Estatura , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
Proc Nutr Soc ; 51(1): 71-9, May 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-7771


Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is diagnosed by comparing children's anthropometric measurements with reference values for their age and sex. It is estimated that 177 million children under 5 years of age in developing countries have weights-for-age below two standard deviations of their expected value. Low weight-for-height (wasting) is less common but low height-for-age (stunting) is estimated to affect 35 percent of children between 24 and 59 months of age (Grant, 1991). If PEM has a detrimental effect on children's mental development the implications are obviously enormous. In the present paper, studies which have addressed this problem in Jamaica over the last 15 years will be discussed. No attempt is made to review the international literature which has been reviewed recently (Simeon & Grantham-McGregor, 1990). First those studies concerning severe and mild to moderate PEM in young children will be discussed, then studies conducted in school-aged children (AU)

Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Nutrição da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Jamaica , Peso-Estatura , Peso-Idade , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Mental
West Indian med. j ; 39(Suppl. 1): 69, Apr. 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5235


Saba is a northern Caribbean island of the Netherland Antilles with a population (1986) of 1,065 persons of Caucasian and non-Caucasian descent. The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of Saban infants (0-12 months) and school children (6-18 years). A longitudinal anthropometric study of all 83 infants born during the period June, 1980 to December, 1986 was done. At 6-weekly intervals, length was measured, using a length board and nude weight, using a Seca baby scale. During January to June, 1985, a cross sectional anthropometric study was done on 163 (M = 72, F = 91) of all 166 Saban children aged 6-18 years. Standing height, unclothed (except for underpants) body weight (n= 163) and skinfold thickness at the biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac areas (n= 143) were measured. Values of weight for age (WfA), height for age (HfA), and weight for height (WfH) obtained from Saban babies compared favourably with North American reference standards. Generally, Saban schoolgirls were "fatter" than schoolboys and female gender is significantly related to WfA. Boys were shorter and had less subcutaneous fat than girls. WfA and HfA increased with socio-economic-status. Compared to a 1956 survey, present day Saban children were on average 5 cm taller and 7 kg heavier and their nutritional status was similar to that of an industrialized country (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Criança , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Peso-Idade , Peso-Estatura , Classe Social , Índias Ocidentais
West Indian med. j ; 38(Suppl. 1): 51, Apr. 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5660


This study was done to ascertain the validity of the conclusion that, on the basis of weight for age, between 20 per cent and 30 per cent of children attending Child Welfare Clinics (CWCs) in 1985 were undernourished. Further, this study sought to demonstrate the need to obtain length/height measurements to adequately assess nutritional status of children. Anthropometric data collected by the staff of the 8 CWCs during 1986 were sampled according to criteria suggested by the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, Jamaica. In addition, weight and height were measured in a similar sample of children attending the same 8 CWCs and 1 additional CWC in Tobago during 1988. All data were analysed using the Centers for Disease Control Anthropometric Software Package, version 3.0, on an IBM PC. Analysis of the 1986 data showed prevalence of undernutrition, on a weight for age basis, was > 20 per cent in only 2 of the 8 CWCs and ranged from 6.5 per cent to 25.0 per cent in the others with an overall prevalence of 12.7 per cent and > 20 per cent in the same 2 CWCs. When the 1988 data were analysed, using weight and height to assess nutritional status, the overall prevalence of undernutrition in the 9 CWCs was 3.0 per cent (range 0-6.7). The prevalence of stunting ( < 90 per cent of median in reference population) ranged from 0 per cent to 3.9 per cent with a mean of 1.8 per cent. None of the infants < 6 months of age in 6 to 9 CWCs was undernourished (weight/age) and no infant was undernourished (weight/height) under 1 year of age. Children attending CWCs are not representative of the country's under 5-year age group being over-represented in the 0-11-month and under-represented in the 24-59-month age groups (AU)

Estado Nutricional , Avaliação Nutricional , Peso-Idade , Jamaica , Peso-Estatura
Ann Hum Biol ; 6(3): 249-68, 1979.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-7850


Weight-for-height standards in children are usually constructed on the basis that the expected weight for a given height does not depend on age, an assumption which is unjustified. The present paper investigates regression standards of age-standardized weight for age-standardized height, the standardization being achieved by expressing weight and height as fractions of the 50th centile for age from a suitable growth standard. The precise choice of standard is not critical. Data on 4631 children from five different countries, exhibiting a wide spectrum of growth status, show that throughout childhood until puberty, the following ratio is appropriate as a simple and convenient index of weight-for-height: age-standardized weight/(age-standardized height). During puberty a larger power than 2 is required, so the index as specified is inappropriate. Approximate values for the distribution centile of the index are suggested. The index may be used to assess degree of malnutrition or obesity, for the individuals or groups seen on a single occasion. A slide-rule is described which calculates the index directly, given the child's sex, age, height and weight. (Summary)

Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Peso-Estatura , Peso-Idade , Crescimento , Índias Ocidentais , Gâmbia , Uganda
Kingston; Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute; Apr. 1976. 34 p. tab. (CFNI-T-36-76).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15061


Reports on a survey which covered approximately 25 per cent of the estimated population under 5 years. The study looked at the following areas: weight for age; weight at birth; hospital admissions; haematology; intestinal parasites; and food intake. Findings show that 40 per cent of children suffered from some degree of malnutrition and that a high percentage of children were born underweight as a result of the poor diet of the mothers during pregnancy. There is also a high prevalence of intestinal diseases. Suggestions are given for a well balanced diet for severely malnourished children; supplememtal feeding programmes at the child welfare clinics; the deworming of children in school in the short term and improving the water supply in the long term. The report strongly favours that priority be given to the development of a supplemental feeding programme for pregnant women even over the feeding of pre-school children

Estado Nutricional , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Anemia , Hematologia , Peso ao Nascer , Peso-Idade , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Consumo de Alimentos , Ficha Clínica , Clínicas de Orientação Infantil