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1.
Port of Spain; Caribbean Epidemiology Centre; 3 ed; June 2011. vi,25 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17905

RESUMO

All CAREC member countries must have functioning surveillance systems for communicable and noncommunicable diseases and deaths. Each country must also have guidelines approved and endorsed by relevant authorities in the Ministry of Health to support these systems. This regional policy guidelines document is: i) a guide for the development or strengthening of national surveillance guidelines for communicable and non-communicable diseases and deaths; ii) intended to be used as an advocacy tool for the development of national and regional surveillance systems for communicable and non-communicable diseases and deaths; iii) a description of the regional surveillance systems for communicable and non-communicable diseases and deaths.


Assuntos
Vigilância Sanitária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Vigilância da População , Caribbean Public Health Agency , Doenças Transmissíveis
4.
Rev. panam. salud publica ; 10(4): 226-231, Oct. 2001. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16964

RESUMO

Objective: To apply a recently proposed model and assessment tool created by the authors for critically evaluating the data available on the prevalence of hypertension in LAC and assessing their usefulness for surveillance. Methods: A bibliographic search to identify all publications that estimated the prevalence of hypertension was performed. Each of the papers located was assessed using a critical appraisal tool. Results: Of the 58 studies published between 1966 and 2000, only 28 of them (48percent) met the critical threshold to be considered useful for surveillance purposes. The distribution of the 28 studies in terms of their usefulness for surveillance was as follows: minimally useful, 16 studies; useful, 8 studies; and very useful, 4 studies. Several methodological shortcomings were identified, from inadequate sampling procedures and sample size to the poor quality of the primary data for planning purposes. Discussion: Published studies on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean have, as a whole, limited usefulness for surveillance activities (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipertensão , América Latina , Pesquisa/métodos , Região do Caribe , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Vigilância Sanitária
7.
West Indian med. j ; 47(Suppl. 3): 14-5, July 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1785

RESUMO

This study was designed to demonstrate how multiple public health data sources can be used to improve the surveillance of our pregnant population from conception to one year postpartum. South Carolina's vital record registry was reviewed to obtain maternal deaths recorded form 1992 to 1996. Multiple data sources associated with pregnancy were then computer linked to death certificates of women between the ages of 10 to 50 years, for 1992 to 1996. These death certificates (over 6 000) were manually reviewed for written notation of pregnancy. Coroners' records are being reviewed to identify cases that have indications of pregnancy recorded. These provide us with cases of pregnancy associated (PA) deaths that will be analyzed to confirm cause of death and its relationship to pregnancy. Preliminary analysis of available data shows an 80 percent increase in our maternal mortality ratio for the period 1992 to 1996. Using our multiple data sources we were able to identify additional deaths in both prepartum and postpartum periods. Our surveillance identified deaths occurring from as early as 13 weeks of pregnancy to one year postpartum. No individual data source linkage was found to be more efficient than others. PREMMS is a complementary system where one data source complements the inadequacy of another. Using multiple public health data source enabled us to improve the surveillance of maternal deaths and enhance our ability to report mortality more accurately. Ultimately this will improve our ability to detect trends, identify risk factors, high risk individuals and avoidablity of death, and to develop intervention policies aimed at decreasing maternal mortality.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Criança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Vigilância Sanitária , South Carolina
11.
West Indian med. j ; 42(Suppl. 1): 58, Apr. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5091

RESUMO

In September, 1992, a series of training sessions was commenced on the islands of St. Martin and Guadeloupe to collaboratively develop a data collection instrument with operational definitions for the first stage of a CIP research project, focused on undertaking a multi-island descriptive assessment of perinatal deliveries in the Caribbean. These meetings resulted in the development of an international, transcultural, multi-lingual epidemiological surveillance tool that was pilot-tested from December, 1992 to March, 1993. This communication will present the data collection instruments, the procedures for determining the operational definitions unique to each data collection team, and the initial results of the pilot test. In addition to reviewing the socio-demographic and medical risk characteristics of the population surveyed, a discussion of the problems encountered with reporting completeness, and data validity will be presented. Specific emphasis will be placed on reviewing the potential problems to data interpretation that stem from variations in item operational definitions, between data collection sites. Finally, the presentation will introduce the new project summary reports that were developed to provide quarterly information to each participating data collection site and suggestions for expanding this project to other interested islands (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Perinatal , Vigilância Sanitária , Região do Caribe , Projetos Piloto , Vigilância da População
12.
West Indian med. j ; 42(Suppl. 1): 58, Apr. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5092

RESUMO

At the last international Symposium of the Caribbean Institute of Perinatology (CIP), a research proposal for a multi-island investigation of perinatal deliveries was presented. This project, conducted under the auspicies of the CIP, has been provided with initial funding to undertake a two-part investigation that will implement a perinatal surveillance system to support a multi-island descriptive assessment of perinatal deliveries in the Caribbean and will subsequently conduct a controlled trial of an intervention based on modifying the definition of post-maturity and its clinical response. This project was formally initiated in September, 1992, with the commencement of a pilot study in St. Martin and Guadeloupe. This communication will review the activities of the project to date. The details of the pilot test will be presented along with the revised data collection forms and coding manuals that were amended, based on discussions held during the training sessions and a review of the pilot test. The presentation will overview the work plan for implementing the project and expanding it to other island communities. A summary of the success of the investigators in obtaining additional funding for the project will be given. Finally, this communication will report on recent efforts to develop a Caribbean-based, summer training institute, focused on providing instruction in the use of perinatal data for health status monitoring, programme development and policy enactment (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Perinatal , Vigilância Sanitária , Região do Caribe , Projetos Piloto
13.
West Indian med. j ; 42(Suppl. 1): 44-5, Apr. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5120

RESUMO

In 1988, the Caribbean Health Ministers declared the goal of indigenous measles elimination by 1995 in the light of the success of measles vaccination programmes, introduced in 1982, in decreasing disease occurrence. Prior to 1982, measles occurred continuously in larger territories and Caribbean-wide epidemic activity occurred every 3 to 4 years; the last epidemic being in 1989/90. One of the key strategies for measles elimination was a mass immunization campaign conducted in May - June 1991 with a 91.4 per cent vaccination uptake rate among the target population aged 9 months - 15 years. Nine countries achieved coverage rates of > 95 per cent. This was followed by the introduction of an active and sensitive surveillance system on 1st September, 1991 and up to October 31, 1992, 504 suspected cases of measles were reported. However, there were only two (2) confirmed cases (from Barbados - one indiginous and one imported) and 124 compatible cases. Thus, in the 14 months since the launch of the new surveillance system, one case of indigenous measles has been indentified. Logically, the combination of widespread epidemic activity in 1989/90, followed by a very successful mass vaccination campaign in 1991, has enormous potential for breaking all chains of transmission in a population. Continued high-quality surveillance will be necessary to certify elimination but transmission appears to have been interrupted throughout the English-speaking Caribbean. If this is possible in the Caribbean, across a wide variety of territories, then global eradication is one step closer to being a reality (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sarampo , Vigilância Sanitária , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Sarampo , Programas de Imunização , Região do Caribe
14.
West Indian med. j ; 42(Suppl. 1): 44, Apr. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5121

RESUMO

In response to concerns expressed about drug abuse among students attending the Cave Hill Campus, a survey was conducted among the entire campus community to determine views about a wide range of health related issues. The survey was conducted by a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, and was done on a single day on campus. The sample was chosen as a stratified sample of the campus personnel from the staff and student lists. Thirty-six per cent of the 1 in 4 sample responded to the questionnaire (7.9 per cent of all students, and 14 per cent of all staff). The age, sex, race and religious affiliations of the respondents were representative of the campus community. The numbers of responding students, administrative, academic and clerical staff were sufficient for their conclusions to be considered in the analysis. Staff and students generally considered themselves to be in good health. They were conscious of the bad effects on health of smoking cigarettes, and the use of ganja or cocaine. They also considered being overweight, worry and stress as being bad for health. Drugs were not a regular subject for discussion on the campus. While 3 of 5 respondents said they could recognise cocaine, crack or speed. Less than 1 per cent admitted to the use of any of these drugs and 80 per cent said they had never used cigarettes. Alcohol use was far more frequent, particularly among members of the academic staff, as was the use of cigarettes. Generally, members of the campus community were aware of the lifestyles that were at high risk for HIV, although 30 per cent of respondents considered lesbians as being at high risk. Using "one night stands" as indicative of high-risk sexual behaviour, 28.6 per cent of academics and 14.5 per cent of students said they had had such experiences within the last five years. Respondents reported a reduction in sexual partners compared to the previous year, and five years before. As regards problems which students considered may affect their health, concerns were expressed about stress, overwork, and insufficient money. Academics and students considered drug use as a minor problem among students, while clerical staff were more concerned about this as a problem. Generally, students did not consider themselves to be sexually harassed, although administrative and clerical staff expressed concerns in this regard. The campus emerges as a relatively abstemious one in every regard. However, both students and staff expressed significant concerns about stress and underfunding of students (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Vigilância Sanitária , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Tabagismo , Cocaína , Abuso de Maconha , Cocaína Crack , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , HIV , Homossexualidade Feminina , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
CAREC surveillance report ; 17(9): 1-6, September 1991. gra
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17250

RESUMO

Under the auspices of the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC/PAHO) and with funding from Aide Aux Lepreux Emmaus Suisse (ALES) a three day workshop was organised on the above subject for member countries of CAREC that have several new leprosy cases per year. Participants included Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago and the Turks & Caicos Islands ... The range of expertise available to the meeting included epidemiology, dermatology, physicians involved in the primary health care system, senior public health nurses and leprosy control officers (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/enfermagem , Hanseníase/reabilitação , Coleta de Dados , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/normas , Epidemiologia , Vigilância Sanitária , Controle de Infecções , Região do Caribe
19.
CAREC surveillance report ; 17(8): 1-3, August 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17249

RESUMO

Three separate meetings were held to discuss, and plan the intensification of measles surveillance which will be required for the elimination of the indigenous transmission of measles in the English-speaking Caribbean and Suriname by the end of 1995. Participants from Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Suriname, St. Christopher & Nevis, Saint Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Trinidad & Tobago and Turks and Caicos Islands were in attendance. Observers were from the Ministries of Health of Brazil and Mexico. Staff from the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) served as resource personnel. The major resource document was the Measles Elimination Field Guide which will now require further iteration as a result of the workshops (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sarampo/diagnóstico , Vigilância Sanitária , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Vacinação , Febre/diagnóstico , Região do Caribe , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa
20.
West Indian med. j ; 39(Suppl. 1): 28, Apr. 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5293

RESUMO

Hurricane Hugo struck the island of Montserrat during the night of 17th September, 1989. Sustained winds of 130 mph were experienced for 8 hours with damage to 93 per cent of buildings; 50 per cent seriously and 20 per cent destroyed. The main hospital lost its roof and most health centres were severely affected. Two thousand five hundred persons were rendered homeless, of whom 1,000 were housed in shelters. Three days after, environmental health surveillance revealed unsatisfactory conditions in shelters with inadequate water supplies and faecal disposal. Water was trucked to shelters and a pit latrine programme commenced so that by the first week of October, all shelters had acceptable faecal disposal facilities. Island-wide, symptom-based daily reports of disease surveillance was introduced 9 days after the hurricane for respiratory infections and gastroenteritis. This allowed daily monitoring of disease occurrence by locality, targeting of health education and environmental health measures, and made it easier to dispel rumors which occurred after the hurricane. There was an increase in gastroenteritis 10 - 14 days after, but this subsided as potable water supplies were established. One month after, 30 cases of fever of unknown origin were detected. At first suspected to be dengue fever, it turned out to be influenza A (hl, N1) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Desastres Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Vigilância Sanitária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Gastroenterite , Influenza Humana , Índias Ocidentais
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