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1.
Emerging infectious diseases ; 14(12): 1890-1893, Dec 2008. tabilus
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17735

RESUMO

Bat coronaviruses (Bt-CoVs) are thought to be the precursors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We detected Bt-CoVs in 2 bat species from Trinidad. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and helicase confirmed them as group 1 coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Animais , Quirópteros , Coronavirus , América do Sul , Trinidad e Tobago
2.
The journal of clinical endocrinology & metabolism ; 93(11, Supl.1): S1-S8, nov.2008. tabgraf^cmapas
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17879

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Obesity has emerged as a global public health challenge. The objective of this review was to examine epidemiological aspects of obesity in the Western Hemisphere. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Using PubMed, we searched for publications about obesity (prevalence, trends, correlates, economic costs) in countries in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. To the extent possible, we focused on studies that were primarily population based in design and on four countries in the Western Hemisphere: Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Data compiled by the International Obesity Task Force show a substantial level of obesity in all of or selected areas of the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Chile, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and Venezuela. Furthermore, countries such as Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States have experienced increases in the prevalence of obesity. In many countries, the prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men and in urban areas than in rural areas. The relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity depends on the stage of economic transition. Early in the transition, the prevalence of obesity is positively related to income whereas at some point during the transition the prevalence becomes inversely related to income. CONCLUSIONS: Like other countries in the Western Hemisphere, the four countries that we focused on have experienced a rising tide of obesity. The high and increasing prevalence of obesity and its attendant comorbidities are likely to pose a serious challenge to the public health and medical care systems in these countries.


Assuntos
Humanos , Epidemiologia , Obesidade , Trinidad e Tobago , América do Norte , América Central , América do Sul , Região do Caribe
3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 22(6): 425-431, Dec. 2007. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17359

RESUMO

Underserved regions in the developing world are challenging areas to provide emergency medical care. As populations in these often remote or isolated districts may have minimal access to regular health care, contacts with medical providers are frequently episodic and driven by an acute condition. Health promoters—practitioners who provide basic medical care and promote public health in numerous countries across Central and South America, Asia and Africa—help to fill this void. Typically, health promoters are certified through a formal training program in their country and come from the same population as the clients they serve, which helps them form a link between their community and the dominant health care system in the region (1-2). Access to health and social services in regions served by health promoters is usually minimal, resulting in high morbidity and mortality associated with preventable diseases. Health promoters strive to improve the overall health of these communities by supplementing and improving the curative, preventive, and promotional aspects of the existing health system.


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , América Central , Tratamento de Emergência/tendências , América do Sul , Assistência à Saúde , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento
4.
Rev. panam. salud p£blica ; 18(4/5): 303-313, Oct.- Nov. 2005. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The paper reviews data on drug use in relation to the spread of human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS in South America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Information was gathered by thoroughly reviewing major bibliographic databanks, web sites of international institutions and regional networks working with substance misuse or human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS, and abstracts from conferences and meetings. RESULTS: Although some gaps remain, a growing body of evidence documents the significant role of injected cocaine in the Brazilian and Southern Cone epidemics. The Caribbean and the Andean areas have thus far been changing in Southern Cone epidemics. The Caribbean and the Andean areas have thus far been spared in large part from the spread of injection drug use and its consequences, but the situation has been changing in Southern Cone countries towards a higher prevalence of harmful injection habits. Additional challenges have been posed by the increasing availability of heroin in the Andean Area and the abuse of crack cocaine and its impact on the sexual transmission of human innunodeficiency virus in many cities. Harm reduction strategies have been established in most areas of Brazil and are gaining momentum in Argentina. Other countries in the Region still face serious limitations due to restrictive legislation and lack of broader support. CONCLUSION: Greater participantion of Latin American and the Caribbean countries is research protocols and continued debate on both successful and failed experiences should be encouraged in order to minimize existilng barriers to the full adoption of effective measures to curb the human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS epidemic in this Region(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , HIV , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Região do Caribe , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Cocaína
5.
Heredity ; 91(3): 322-330, Sep. 2003. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17614

RESUMO

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) has been cultivated in Central America since pre-Columbian times. The type of cacao cultivated in this region was called Criollo; cacao populations from the Amazon basin were called Forastero. The type of Forastero most commonly cultivated until 1950 was named Amelonado. Historical data show Trinitario cacao to have originated in Trinidad, resulting from natural hybridisation between Criollo and Amelonado Forastero. Doubts persist on the source of the Amelonado Forastero involved in the origin of Trinitario; the Amelonado parent may have come from the Lower Amazon, the Orinoco or the Guyanas. Most of the cacao cultivated worldwide until 1950 consisted of Criollo, Trinitario and Amelonado. From the early 1950s, Forastero material collected in the Upper Amazon region during the 1930s and 1940s began to be employed in breeding programmes. To gain a better understanding of the origin and the genetic basis of the cacao cultivars exploited before the utilisation of germplasm collected in the Upper Amazon, a study was carried out using restriction fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Trinitario samples from 17 countries were analysed. With molecular markers, it was possible to clearly identify three main genotypes (represented by clones SP1, MAT1-6 and SIAL70) implicated in the origin of most Trinitario clones.


Assuntos
Estudo Comparativo , Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't , Cacau/genética , DNA de Plantas/análise , Variação Genética , Geografia , Escore Lod , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , América do Sul , Região do Caribe
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 60(3): 364-76, Mar. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1345

RESUMO

A genetic and morphologic survey of Anopheles darlingi populations collected from seven countries in Central and South America was performed to clarify the taxonomic status of this major malaria vector species in the Americas. Population genetics was based on three techniques including isozyme, random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) markers. The results of the isozyme analysis indicated moderate differences in the allele frequencies of three putative loci (glutamate oxalaoacetate transaminase-1, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1, and phosphoglucomutase) of the 31 analyzed. No fixed electromorphic differences separated the populations of An. darlingi, which showed little genetic divergence (Nei distances = 0.976-0.995). Fragments produced by RAPD-PCR demonstrated evidence of geographic partitioning and showed that all populations were separated by small genetic distances as measured with the 1 - S distance matrix. The ITS2 sequences for all samples were identical except for four individuals from Belize that differed by a three-base deletion (CCC). The morphologic study demonstrated that the Euclidean distances ranged from 0.02 to 0.14, with the highest value observed between populations from Belize and Bolivia. Based on these analyses, all the An. darlingi populations examined demonstrated a genetic similarity that is consistent with the existence of a single species and suggest that gene flow is occurring throughout the species' geographic range.(Au)


Assuntos
21003 , Feminino , Anopheles/classificação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Malária/transmissão , Sequência de Bases , Belize , Eletroforese em Gel de Amido/veterinária , Anopheles/enzimologia , Anopheles/genética , Insetos Vetores/enzimologia , Insetos Vetores/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/química , Isoenzimas/análise , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fosfoglucomutase/química , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul
7.
Pediatrics ; 103(1): E5, Jan. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this article is to determine the effect of community income as a co-factor in the association of low birth weight, race, and maternal nativity in New York City. METHODS: New York City birth records, 1988 through 1994, provided data on maternal and infant characteristics. There were 274,121 white and 279,826 black mothers included in this study. Black mothers were classified as US-born (South and Northeast) and foreign-born (the Caribbean, South America, and Africa). Based on the 1990 US census income data, census tracts of the city were aggregated by tertile of per capita income as low-, middle-, and high-income communities. Incidence of low birth weight was estimated by race, maternal nativity in the city as a whole, and each income community. RESULTS: Overall, black women had a substantially higher risk of low birth weight infants (<2500 g) than did whites (13.1 percent vs 4.8 percent). Foreign-born black mothers had a birth weight advantage over US-born black mothers (10.0 percent vs 16.7 percent). After controlling for socioeconomic and medical characteristics, the risks of low birth weight for blacks compared with whites were 0.95 (95 percent confidence interval: 0.86-1.03) and 0.86 (0.69-1.02) for Caribbean- and African-born black mothers, respectively. Moreover, in low-income communities, compared with white mothers, the risks for Caribbean- and African-born black mothers were 0.88 (0.79-0.97) and 0.77 (0.61-0.96), respectively. By contrast, US and South American-born black mothers had a consistently higher risk of low birth weight infants, regardless of community income level. CONCLUSION: Low birth weight was significantly less frequent among whites than among blacks. However, this overall finding masked substantial variation among blacks, determined by maternal nativity and the income level of the community in which they lived. In fact, Caribbean- and African-born black mothers had birth outcomes generally similar to and, in poor communities, even more favorable than those for whites.(Au)


Assuntos
Estudo Comparativo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Renda , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Características de Residência , África/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/etnologia
8.
Postgrad Doc - Caribbean ; 11(6): 268-77, Dec. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5032

RESUMO

Skin manifestations are a common feature of HTLV-1 associated disorders and of HTLV-1 infection itself. These include the lymphomatous skin infiltrates in adult T-cell lymphoma/leukaemia, most commonly manifesting as persistent, generalised papules, nodules and plaques with later ulceration, acquired ichthyosis and xeroderma in HAM/TSP, infective dermatitis of children, dermatomyositis, crusted (Norwegian) scabies, psoriasiform rashes which may precede one of the more serious disease associations, and possibly also seborrhoeic dermatitis. Disorders typically associated with immunosuppression such as disseminated herpes zoster, and ulcerative non-healing herpes simplex may also be seen occasionally both in ATK as well as in other wise asymptomatic HTLV-1 infection (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T , Dermatite , Dermatomiosite , Escabiose , Psoríase , Herpes Zoster , Herpes Simples , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical , Uveíte , Hipercalcemia , Anemia , Complexo Relacionado com a AIDS , Hanseníase , Sarcoidose , Dermatite Esfoliativa , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas , Eczema , Ictiose , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Anti-HTLV-I , Staphylococcus , Streptococcus , Bronquiectasia , Catarata , Polimiosite , Eritema , Edema , Sarcoptes scabiei , Dermatite Seborreica , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Região do Caribe , Estados Unidos , Haiti , Japão , América do Sul , África
9.
Bull Pan Am Health Organ ; 27(2): 154-67, 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-8467

RESUMO

This article provides an assessment of 1986 mortality from violent causes in the Americas. Directed at assisting with development of preventive public health measures, it employs data available in the PAHO data base to focus on the under-25 year age group, compare mortality from violent causes with mortality from infectious and parasitic diseases, and evaluate the relative role of motor vehicle traffic accidents, other accidents, suicide, homicide, and deaths from unknown causes in mortality from voilent causes. The study uses the classification of causes presented on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. The results show that 517,465 deaths from violent causes were registered in 28 countries and political units of the Americas in 1986, mortality from these causes ranging from 19.3 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in Jamaica to 125 in El Salvador. Examination of available 1980-1986 data from five countries points to steady increases in mortality from violent causes in Brazil and Cuba that began respectively in 1983 and 1984. Assessment of male and female 1986 mortality from these causes in nine countries showed male mortality to be substantially higher, the lowest male: female ratio (in Cuba) 1.9:1. Among infants,infectious and parasitic disease mortality was greater than mortality from violent causes in most countries. However, from age 1 to the study's 25-year cut off, mortality from violent causes was found to exceed infectious and parasitic disease mortality in most countries and to play an especially large role in deaths among those 19-24 years old. Data from eight countries suggested that accidents other than motor vehicle traffic accidents were accounting for much of the mortality from violent causes among infants and the 1-4 year age group in 1986, while motor vehicle traffic accidents rivaled other accidents in importance among the older (5-9, 10-14, 15-19, and 19-24) age groups. It appears that the information presented could prove of considerable use in developing policies designed to reduce morbidity and mortality from violent causes (1) (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Mortalidade , Violência , Fatores Etários , Causas de Morte , América Central/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , América do Norte/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Gen Virol ; 73(12): 3301-5, Dec. 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-8509

RESUMO

Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that has caused encephalitis in equine species and humans during sporadic outbreaks in the western hemisphere. The last, and most widespread, VEE outbreak occurred in South America, Central America, Mexico and the U.S.A. (Texas) during 1969 to 1972. We have cloned and sequenced the genome of a virulent VEE subtype I-AB virus, strain 71-180, isolated in Texas in 1971. Thirty four nucleotide differences were detected between the genome of 71-80 virus and that of subtype I-AB Trinidad donkey (TRD) virus isolated during the 1943 VEE epizootic in Trinidad. Fifteen nucleotide changes occurred in the non-structural genes, 16 in the structural genes and three in the 3' non-coding region. Only six of the nucleotide diferences resulted in amino acid substitutions: one change in each of non-structural proteins nsP1 and nsP3, two in the E2 envelope glycoprotein, one in the 6K popypeptide and one in the E1 envelope glycoprotein. The close genetic relationship between 71-180 virus and TRD virus, commonly used for production of formalin-inactivated VEE vaccines, suggests that incompletely inactivated virulent vaccine virus may have been the source of this and other VEE outbreaks. Use of formalized virulent virus was discontinued during the 1969 to 1972 panzootic. No VEE epizootics have been reported since the introduction of the live attenuated TC-83 vaccine virus (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , 21003 , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/patogenicidade , Encefalite por Arbovirus/microbiologia , Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Oeste/patogenicidade , América do Norte , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , América do Sul
11.
CLAN : Caribbean laboratory action news ; 1(1): 8-10, October 1991. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17294

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti (L) is the most important insect vector of disease in the Caribbean islands. Not only is it a potential vector of yellow fever, but it is the only vector of dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome in the Caribbean, Central and South America. Management of this mosquito should thus be accorded highest priority in public health, but in many Caribbean countries it continues to flourish and transmit dengue at will(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Aedes/virologia , Região do Caribe , Resistência a Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , América Central/epidemiologia , Entomologia , Aedes/parasitologia
12.
World Health Forum ; 12(3): 289-96, 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15944

RESUMO

Progress in the campaign against neonatal tetanus in South and Central America and the Caribbean is reviewed. The main emphasis is on immunizing women of childbearing age who live in high-risk areas, although importance also attaches to routine tetanus toxoid treatment, adequate care during the prenatal period and delivery, and epidemiological surveillance. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Adolescente , Feminino , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Tétano/congênito , Toxoide Tetânico/uso terapêutico , América Central/epidemiologia , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Tétano/epidemiologia , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 41(6): 687-725, Dec. 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12484

RESUMO

A review of the epidemiologic aspects of the new world leishmaniases, including their known geographic distribution, etiologic agents, zoonotic reservoirs, and insect vectors, based on biological and molecular characterization of Leishmania isolates is presented. Data summarized in this paper on parasite taxonomy and geographic distribution come from our studies of >1,000 new world leishmania isolates identified by species-specific monoclonal antibodies using an indirect radioimmune binding assay and from scientific literature. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , 21003 , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , América Central/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
14.
Anon.
Washington, D.C; Pan American Health Organization; 1989. 424 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14238
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 28(5): 415-24, 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12481

RESUMO

Commoditization of food systems, defined as the use of agricultural goods or sale rather than for home consumption, affects nutrition of rural families via economic, social and mechanisms in addition to direct dietary effects. Broad-scale mechanisms include alteration in land tenure, increased stratification of wealth, widespread labor migration, urban bias, food price changes, disruption of tradional reciprocal social relations, and ecological changes accompanying commercial agriculture that may limit long-term food production. At the family level, the replacement of food with cash is often problematic as regards nutrition, due to low prices to producers, increased cash needs, the "lumpiness" of earnings during the year, reduced decision-making power of women, and often decreased dietary diversity. Three case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean, from Peru, Jamaica, and Mexico, illustrate that commoditization tends to have a negative impact on nutrition in poor rural households. Although commoditization is theoretically advantegeous on a national level by allowing the use of "comparative advantage", in actuality its potential benefits are eroded by inequitable uses of foreign exchange. Commoditization is in essence a more efficient means by which to extract surplus value from small agricultural producers. While commoditization is a necessary component of economic growth, policies to safeguard health and nutrition and improve the status of women in development programs must be implemented within an overall strategy to meet basic needs of the population. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Agricultura/economia , Estado Nutricional , Dieta , População Rural , América do Sul , Índias Ocidentais
16.
Cave Hill; University of the West Indies, (Cave Hill). Department of History; 1989. 24 p.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-7926

RESUMO

High blood pressure of unknown cause (essential hypertension) is the major chronic illness contributing to premature morbidity and mortality in western hemisphere Blacks. As a group, blacks in the western hemisphere have higher mean blood pressure levels than blacks from Sub-Sahara Africa where essential hypertension is strickingly less common. Because of the similar heritage of these populations it has been suggested that blood pressure differences between them is most likely due to environmental differences such as variations in diet or biobehavioral stress. We suggest a new hypothesis: selective survival related to sodium (Na+) metabolism during the slavery period of Western hemisphere blacks and Sub-Sahara African Blacks which now play a major role in these geographic variations in blood pressure. Most blacks in the western hemisphere are descendants from a population of sub-Saharan Africans that survived the selection pressure of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and new world slavery; ancestors of most current Black Africans had no such experience. The present atricle reviews the importance of Na+ metabolism in the causes of mortality during the slave trade and estimates Na+ losses due to sweating, diarrhea and vomiting. The magnitude of these potential losses make it likely that fatal Na+ depletion was a major contributor to the high mortality. Thus, we suggest that the slave trade imposed severe demands on Na+ homepstasis and those most likely to survive were most capable of conserving Na+ than those who did not. In today's high dietary Na+ enviroment the descendants of African slaves may be more susceptible to Na+ sensitive" hypertension than the descendents of Black Africans without this heritage. (AU)


Assuntos
Sódio/metabolismo , Hipertensão/etiologia , Índias Ocidentais , América do Norte , América do Sul , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/mortalidade , África/etnologia , Aculturação
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 34(6): 1219-24, Nov. 1985.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15900

RESUMO

Twenty-eight populations representing a worldwide distribution of Aedes aegypti were tested for their ability to become orally infected with yellow fever virus (YFV). Populations had been analyzed for genetic variations at 11 isozyme loci and assigned to one of 8 genetic geographic groups of Ae. aegypti. Infection rates suggest that populations showing isozyme genetic relatedness also demonstrate similarity to oral infection rates with YFV. The findings support the hypothesis that genetic variation exists for oral susceptibility to YFV in Ae. aegypti.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , 21003 , Feminino , Aedes/microbiologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/enzimologia , África , Ásia , América Central , Estados Unidos , Variação Genética , Índias Ocidentais , Isoenzimas/análise , Boca/microbiologia , América do Sul
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