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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2022 Jan 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019224

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare low-bone mass skeletal Mendelian disorder characterized by bone fragility leading to bone fractures, with deformities and stunted growth in the more severe phenotypes. Other common, nonskeletal findings include blue sclerae and dentinogenesis imperfecta. It is caused mainly by quantitative or structural defects in type I collagen, although dysregulation of different signaling pathways that play a role in bone morphogenesis has been described to be associated with a small fraction of individuals with OI. Recently, a homozygous variant in the translation start site of CCDC134, showing increased activation of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway, has been reported in three families of Moroccan origin with a severe, deforming form of OI. We report on a 9-year-old Brazilian boy, harboring the same homozygous variant in CCDC134, also presenting severe bone involvement. This report contributes to the phenotypic delineation of this novel autosomal recessive form of OI, which presents with high prevalence of nonunion fractures considered rare events in OI in general. In addition, it expands the phenotype to include base skull anomalies, potentially leading to serious complications, as seen in severe forms of OI. A poor response to bisphosphonate therapy was observed in these individuals. As the variant in CCDC134 leads to dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway, drugs targeted to this pathway could be an alternative to achieve a better management of these individuals.

2.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(11): 950-956, 2021 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816986

BACKGROUND: Williams-Beuren syndrome is a multisystemic disorder caused by a microdeletion of the 7q11.23 region. Although familial cases with autosomal dominant inheritance have been reported, the vast majority are sporadic. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main complaints and clinical findings of patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome. METHODS: A total of 757 parents of patients registered in the Brazilian Association of Williams-Beuren Syndrome (ABSW) received a questionnaire via WhatsApp from March to July 2017. RESULTS: In total, 229 parents answered the survey. Age of diagnosis ranged from 2 days to 34 years (median: 3 years). The main clinical findings reported by the parents were abdominal colic (83.3%), failure to thrive (71.5%), feeding difficulty in the first year (68.9%), otitis (56.6%), urinary tract infections (31.9%), precocious puberty (27.1%) and scoliosis (15.9%). Cardiac defects were present in 66% of patients, and the most frequent defect was supravalvular aortic stenosis (36%). Arterial hypertension was reported in 23%. Hypercalcemia was reported in 10.5% of patients, mainly during the first year of life. Hyperacusis and hypersociability were common complaints (both present in 89%). Other behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms reported by the parents included attention deficit (89%), anger crises (83%), excessive fear (66%), depression (64%), anxiety (67%) and hypersexuality (33%). The most common complaints were hypersensitivity to sounds, talkative personality, emotional dependence and learning difficulties. In 98.3%, the parents denied family history. CONCLUSIONS: Williams-Beuren syndrome requires close follow-up with different medical specialties due to their variable clinical comorbidities, including language and school learning difficulties, behavioral and psychiatric problems.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713566

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare, microdeletion syndrome characterized by facial dysmorphisms, intellectual disability, a friendly personality, cardiovascular and other abnormalities. Cardiovascular defects (CVD) are among the most prevalent characteristics in WBS, being supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) the most frequent, followed by peripheral pulmonary stenosis (PPS). A comprehensive retrospective review of medical records of 127 patients with molecular diagnosis of WBS, in a period of 20 years, was done to evaluate the incidence, the natural history of cardiovascular disease, and the need for surgical intervention, including heart transplantation (HT). A total of 94/127 patients presented with CVD. Of these 94 patients, 50% presented with SVAS and 22.3% needed heart surgery and/or cardiac catheterization including one that required HT due to severe SVAS-related heart failure at 19 years of age. The patient died in the postoperative period due to infectious complications. Cardiovascular problems are the major cause of sudden death in patients with WBS, who have a significantly higher mortality risk associated with surgical interventions. There is a higher risk for anesthesia-related adverse events and for major adverse cardiac events following surgery. End-stage heart failure due to myocardial ischemia has been described in WBS patients and it is important to consider that HT can become their only viable option. To our knowledge, the case mentioned here is the first HT reported in an adolescent with WBS. HT can be a viable therapeutic option in WBS patients with adequate evaluation, planning, and a multidisciplinary team to provide the required perioperative care and follow-up.

4.
Front Genet ; 12: 708348, 2021.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512724

Chromoanagenesis is a descriptive term that encompasses classes of catastrophic mutagenic processes that generate localized and complex chromosome rearrangements in both somatic and germline genomes. Herein, we describe a 5-year-old female presenting with a constellation of clinical features consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Coffin-Siris syndrome 1 (CSS1). Initial G-banded karyotyping detected a 90-Mb pericentric and a 47-Mb paracentric inversion on a single chromosome. Subsequent analysis of short-read whole-genome sequencing data and genomic optical mapping revealed additional inversions, all clustered on chromosome 6, one of them disrupting ARID1B for which haploinsufficiency leads to the CSS1 disease trait (MIM:135900). The aggregate structural variant data show that the resolved, the resolved derivative chromosome architecture presents four de novo inversions, one pericentric and three paracentric, involving six breakpoint junctions in what appears to be a shuffling of genomic material on this chromosome. Each junction was resolved to nucleotide-level resolution with mutational signatures suggestive of non-homologous end joining. The disruption of the gene ARID1B is shown to occur between the fourth and fifth exon of the canonical transcript with subsequent qPCR studies confirming a decrease in ARID1B expression in the patient versus healthy controls. Deciphering the underlying genomic architecture of chromosomal rearrangements and complex structural variants may require multiple technologies and can be critical to elucidating the molecular etiology of a patient's clinical phenotype or resolving unsolved Mendelian disease cases.

5.
Clin Genet ; 100(5): 615-623, 2021 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341987

Congenital limb deficiency (CLD), one of the most common congenital anomalies, is characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of one or more limb bones and can be isolated or syndromic. The etiology in CLD is heterogeneous, including environmental and genetic factors. A fraction remains with no etiological factor identified. We report the study of 44 Brazilian individuals presenting isolated or syndromic CLD, mainly with longitudinal defects. Genetic investigation included particularly next-generation sequencing (NGS) and/or chromosomal microarray. The overall diagnostic yield was 45.7%, ranging from 60.9% in the syndromic to 16.7% in the non-syndromic group. In TAR syndrome, a common variant in 3´UTR of RBM8A, in trans with 1q21.1 microdeletion, was detected, corroborating the importance of this recently reported variant in individuals of African ancestry. NGS established a diagnosis in three individuals in syndromes recently reported or still under delineation (an acrofacial dysostosis, Coats plus and Verheij syndromes), suggesting a broader phenotypic spectrum in these disorders. Although a low rate of molecular detection in non-syndromic forms was observed, it is still possible that variants in non-coding regions and small CNVs, not detected by the techniques applied in this study, could play a role in the etiology of CLD.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(12): 3916-3923, 2021 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405946

Sotos syndrome is characterized by overgrowth starting before birth through childhood with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies. The majority of patients are large for gestational age with developmental delay or intellectual disability. The majority of cases are caused by pathogenic variants in NSD1. The most consistent physical features in this disorder are facial dysmorphisms including prominent forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, prognathism with a pointed chin, and a long and narrow face. We present a follow-up to a cohort of 11 individuals found to harbor heterozygous, pathogenic, or likely pathogenic variants in NSD1. We analyzed the facial dysmorphisms and the condition using retrospective over 20 years. Among these patients, followed in our medical genetics outpatient clinic for variable periods of time, all had a phenotype compatible with the characteristic Sotos syndrome facial features, which evolved with time and became superimposed with natural aging modifications. We present here a long-term follow-up of facial features of Brazilian patients with molecularly confirmed Sotos syndrome. In this largest Brazilian cohort of molecularly confirmed patients with Sotos syndrome to date, we provide a careful description of the facial phenotype, which becomes less pronounced with aging and possibly more difficult to recognize in adults. These results may have broad clinical implications for diagnosis and add to the global clinical delineation of this condition.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(10): 3099-3103, 2021 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080768

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a Mendelian phenotype, member of a group of disorders sharing neurocardiofaciocutaneous involvement, known as RASopathies, caused by germline variants in genes coding for components of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Recently, a novel gene of the RAS family (MRAS) was reported to be associated with NS in five children, all of them presenting, among the cardinal features of NS, the same cardiac finding, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We report on a 2-month-old infant boy also presenting this cardiac anomaly that evolved to a fatal outcome after a surgical myectomy. In addition, a thick walled left ventricle apical aneurysm, rarely described in NS, was also disclosed. Next-generation sequencing revealed a missense, previously reported variant in MRAS (p.Thr68Ile). This report reinforces the high frequency of HCM among individuals harboring MRAS variants, contrasting to the 20% overall prevalence of this cardiac anomaly in NS. Thus, these preliminary data suggest that variants in MRAS per se are high risk factors for the development of an early, severe HCM, mostly of them with left ventricle outflow tract obstruction, with poor prognosis. Because of the severity of the cardiac involvement, other clinical findings could not be addressed in detail. Therefore, long-term follow-up of these individuals and further descriptions are required to fully understand the complete phenotypic spectrum of NS associated with MRAS germline variants, including if these individuals present an increased risk for cancer.

8.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(5): 559-566, 2021 May 18.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033296

Objective: Our aim is to establish genetic diagnosis of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) using targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS), also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS). Methods: Nine unrelated individuals with a clinical diagnosis of CGL were recruited. We used a customized panel to capture genes related to genetic lipodystrophies. DNA libraries were generated, sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq, and bioinformatics analysis was performed. Results: An accurate genetic diagnosis was stated for all nine patients. Four had pathogenic variants in AGPAT2 and three in BSCL2. Three large homozygous deletions in AGPAT2 were identified by copy-number variant analysis. Conclusion: Although we have found allelic variants in only 2 genes related to CGL, the panel was able to identify different variants including deletions that would have been missed by Sanger sequencing. We believe that MPS is a valuable tool for the genetic diagnosis of multi-genes related diseases, including CGL.


GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized , Lipodystrophy , Alleles , GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lipodystrophy/diagnosis , Lipodystrophy/genetics , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized/diagnosis , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized/genetics , Mutation/genetics
9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(5): 1561-1568, 2021 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645901

Cerebellofaciodental syndrome is characterized by facial dysmorphisms, intellectual disability, cerebellar hypoplasia, and dental anomalies. It is an autosomal-recessive condition described in 2015 caused by pathogenic variants in BRF1. Here, we report a Brazilian patient who faced a diagnostic challenge beginning at 11 months of age. Fortunately, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed, detecting the BRF1 variants NM_001519.3:c.1649delG:p.(Gly550Alafs*36) and c.421C>T:p.(Arg141Cys) in compound heterozygosity, thus finally achieving a diagnosis of cerebellofaciodental syndrome. The patient is currently 25 years old and is the oldest patient yet reported. The clinical report and a review of published cases are presented. Atlanto-occipital fusion, a reduced foramen magnum and basilar invagination leading to compression of the medulla-spinal cord transition are skeletal findings not reported in previous cases. The description of syndromes with dental findings shows that such anomalies can be an important clue to relevant differential diagnoses. The cooperation of groups from different international centers made possible the resolution of this and other cases and is one of the strategies to bring medical advances to developing countries, where many patients with rare diseases are difficult to diagnose definitively.


Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Cerebellum/abnormalities , Craniofacial Abnormalities/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Muscular Atrophy/genetics , Nervous System Malformations/genetics , TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors/genetics , Tooth Abnormalities/genetics , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnostic imaging , Abnormalities, Multiple/physiopathology , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellum/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Craniofacial Abnormalities/physiopathology , Developmental Disabilities/diagnostic imaging , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Developmental Disabilities/physiopathology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Infant , Intellectual Disability/diagnostic imaging , Intellectual Disability/physiopathology , Male , Muscular Atrophy/diagnostic imaging , Muscular Atrophy/physiopathology , Nervous System Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Malformations/physiopathology , Tooth Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Abnormalities/physiopathology , Whole Exome Sequencing
10.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Jan 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436522

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic heterozygous SIX1 variants (predominantly missense) occur in branchio-otic syndrome (BOS), but an association with craniosynostosis has not been reported. METHODS: We investigated probands with craniosynostosis of unknown cause using whole exome/genome (n=628) or RNA (n=386) sequencing, and performed targeted resequencing of SIX1 in 615 additional patients. Expression of SIX1 protein in embryonic cranial sutures was examined in the Six1 nLacZ/+ reporter mouse. RESULTS: From 1629 unrelated cases with craniosynostosis we identified seven different SIX1 variants (three missense, including two de novo mutations, and four nonsense, one of which was also present in an affected twin). Compared with population data, enrichment of SIX1 loss-of-function variants was highly significant (p=0.00003). All individuals with craniosynostosis had sagittal suture fusion; additionally four had bilambdoid synostosis. Associated BOS features were often attenuated; some carrier relatives appeared non-penetrant. SIX1 is expressed in a layer basal to the calvaria, likely corresponding to the dura mater, and in the mid-sagittal mesenchyme. CONCLUSION: Craniosynostosis is associated with heterozygous SIX1 variants, with possible enrichment of loss-of-function variants compared with classical BOS. We recommend screening of SIX1 in craniosynostosis, particularly when sagittal±lambdoid synostosis and/or any BOS phenotypes are present. These findings highlight the role of SIX1 in cranial suture homeostasis.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(3): 774-780, 2021 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382187

Noonan syndrome (NS) and NS related disorders (NRD) are frequent monogenic diseases. Pathogenic variants in PTPN11 are observed in approximately 50% of these NS patients. Several pleiotropic phenotypes have previously been described in this condition. This study aimed at characterizing glucose and lipid profiles in patients with NS/NRD. We assessed fasting blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol (total and fractions), and triglyceride (TG) levels in 112 prepubertal children and 73 adults. Additionally, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 40 children and 54 adults. Data were analyzed between age groups according to the presence (+) or absence (-) of PTPN11 mutation. Prepubertal patients with NS/NRD were also compared with a control group. Despite the lean phenotype of children with NS/NRD, they presented an increased frequency of low HDL-cholesterol (63% in PTPN11+, 59% in PTPN11- and 16% in control, p < .001) and high TG levels (29% in PTPN11+, 18% in PTPN11- and 2.3% in control). PTPN11+ patients had a higher median HOMA-IR (1.0, ranged from 0.3 to 3.2) in comparison with PTPN11- (0.6; 0.2 to 4.4) and controls (0.6; 0.4 to 1.4, p = .027). Impaired glucose tolerance was observed in 19% (10:54) of lean adults with NS/NRD assessed by OGTT. Moreover, women with PTPN11 mutations had lower HDL-cholesterol levels than those without. Our results suggest that children and young adult patients with NS/NRD have an unfavorable metabolic profile characterized by low HDL, a tendency of elevated TGs, and glucose metabolism impairment despite a lean phenotype.


Metabolome , Noonan Syndrome/pathology , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Noonan Syndrome/genetics , Noonan Syndrome/metabolism , Phenotype , Prognosis , Young Adult
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 115-133, 2021 01 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308444

Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 3 (SCUBE3) is a member of a small family of multifunctional cell surface-anchored glycoproteins functioning as co-receptors for a variety of growth factors. Here we report that bi-allelic inactivating variants in SCUBE3 have pleiotropic consequences on development and cause a previously unrecognized syndromic disorder. Eighteen affected individuals from nine unrelated families showed a consistent phenotype characterized by reduced growth, skeletal features, distinctive craniofacial appearance, and dental anomalies. In vitro functional validation studies demonstrated a variable impact of disease-causing variants on transcript processing, protein secretion and function, and their dysregulating effect on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We show that SCUBE3 acts as a BMP2/BMP4 co-receptor, recruits the BMP receptor complexes into raft microdomains, and positively modulates signaling possibly by augmenting the specific interactions between BMPs and BMP type I receptors. Scube3-/- mice showed craniofacial and dental defects, reduced body size, and defective endochondral bone growth due to impaired BMP-mediated chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, recapitulating the human disorder. Our findings identify a human disease caused by defective function of a member of the SCUBE family, and link SCUBE3 to processes controlling growth, morphogenesis, and bone and teeth development through modulation of BMP signaling.


Bone and Bones/metabolism , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Developmental Disabilities/metabolism , Osteogenesis/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Animals , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/metabolism , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4/metabolism , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/physiology , HEK293 Cells , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL
13.
Hum Mutat ; 42(1): 50-65, 2021 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131168

Many algorithms to detect copy number variations (CNVs) using exome sequencing (ES) data have been reported and evaluated on their sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, and precision. However, operational optimization of such algorithms for a better performance has not been fully addressed. ES of 1199 samples including 763 patients with different disease profiles was performed. ES data were analyzed to detect CNVs by both the eXome Hidden Markov Model (XHMM) and modified Nord's method. To efficiently detect rare CNVs, we aimed to decrease sequencing biases by analyzing, at the same time, the data of all unrelated samples sequenced in the same flow cell as a batch, and to eliminate sex effects of X-linked CNVs by analyzing female and male sequences separately. We also applied several filtering steps for more efficient CNV selection. The average number of CNVs detected in one sample was <5. This optimization together with targeted CNV analysis by Nord's method identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs in 34 patients (4.5%, 34/763). In particular, among 142 patients with epilepsy, the current protocol detected clinically relevant CNVs in 19 (13.4%) patients, whereas the previous protocol identified them in only 14 (9.9%) patients. Thus, this batch-based XHMM analysis efficiently selected rare pathogenic CNVs in genetic diseases.

14.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 184(4): 896-911, 2020 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128510

We report the clinical and molecular data of a large cohort comprising 242 individuals with RASopathies, from a single Tertiary Center in Brazil, the largest study from Latin America. Noonan syndrome represented 76% of the subjects, with heterozygous variants in nine different genes, mainly PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, LZTR1, and RIT1, detected by Sanger and next-generation sequencing. The latter was applied to 126 individuals, with a positive yield of 63% in genes of the RAS/MAPK cascade. We present evidence that there are some allelic differences in PTPN11 across distinct populations. We highlight the clinical aspects that pose more medical concerns, such as the cardiac anomalies, bleeding diathesis and proliferative lesions. The genotype-phenotype analysis between the RASopathies showed statistically significant differences in some cardinal features, such as craniofacial and cardiac anomalies, the latter also statistically significant for different genes in Noonan syndrome. We present two individuals with a Noonan syndrome phenotype, one with an atypical, structural cardiac defect, harboring variants in genes mainly associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and discuss the role of these variants in their phenotype.


Noonan Syndrome , Brazil , Genotype , Humans , Mutation , Noonan Syndrome/genetics , Phenotype
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 559-566, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article En | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131124

ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim is to establish genetic diagnosis of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) using targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS), also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS). Subjects and methods: Nine unrelated individuals with a clinical diagnosis of CGL were recruited. We used a customized panel to capture genes related to genetic lipodystrophies. DNA libraries were generated, sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq, and bioinformatics analysis was performed. Results: An accurate genetic diagnosis was stated for all nine patients. Four had pathogenic variants in AGPAT2 and three in BSCL2. Three large homozygous deletions in AGPAT2 were identified by copy-number variant analysis. Conclusions: Although we have found allelic variants in only 2 genes related to CGL, the panel was able to identify different variants including deletions that would have been missed by Sanger sequencing. We believe that MPS is a valuable tool for the genetic diagnosis of multi-genes related diseases, including CGL.

17.
Front Oncol ; 10: 556, 2020.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432034

Hepatoblastoma is a very rare embryonal liver cancer supposed to arise from the impairment of hepatocyte differentiation during embryogenesis. In this study, we investigated by exome sequencing the burden of somatic mutations in a cohort of 10 hepatoblastomas, including a congenital case. Our data disclosed a low mutational background and pointed out to a novel set of candidate genes for hepatoblastoma biology, which were shown to impact gene expression levels. Only three recurrently mutated genes were detected: CTNNB1 and two novel candidates, CX3CL1 and CEP164. A relevant finding was the identification of a recurrent mutation (A235G) in two hepatoblastomas at the CX3CL1 gene; evaluation of RNA and protein expression revealed upregulation of CX3CL1 in tumors. The analysis was replicated in two independents cohorts, substantiating that an activation of the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 pathway occurs in hepatoblastomas. In inflammatory regions of hepatoblastomas, CX3CL1/CX3CR1 were not detected in the infiltrated lymphocytes, in which they should be expressed in normal conditions, whereas necrotic regions exhibited negative labeling in tumor cells, but strongly positive infiltrated lymphocytes. Altogether, these data suggested that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 upregulation may be a common feature of hepatoblastomas, potentially related to chemotherapy response and progression. In addition, three mutational signatures were identified in hepatoblastomas, two of them with predominance of either the COSMIC signatures 1 and 6, found in all cancer types, or the COSMIC signature 29, mostly related to tobacco chewing habit; a third novel mutational signature presented an unspecific pattern with an increase of C>A mutations. Overall, we present here novel candidate genes for hepatoblastoma, with evidence that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 chemokine signaling pathway is likely involved with progression, besides reporting specific mutational signatures.

18.
Int J Mol Cell Med ; 9(4): 296-306, 2020.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688487

17p13.3 microduplications are rare copy number variations (CNVs) associated with variable phenotypes, including facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autism. Typically, when a recognized pathogenic CNV is identified, other genetic factors are not considered. We investigated via whole-exome sequencing the presence of additional variants in four carriers of class I 17p13.3 microduplications. A 730 kb 17p13.3 microduplication was identified in two half-brothers with intellectual disability, but not in a third affected half-brother or blood cells from their normal mother (Family A), thus leading to the hypothesis of maternal germline mosaicism. No additional pathogenic variants were detected in Family A. Two affected siblings carried maternally inherited 450 kb 17p13.3 microduplication (Family B); the three carriers of the microduplication exhibited microcephaly and learning disability/speech impairment of variable degrees. Exome analysis revealed a variant of uncertain significance in RORA, a gene already linked to autism, in the autistic boy; his sister was heterozygous for a CYP1B1 pathogenic variant that could be related to her congenital glaucoma. Besides, both siblings carried a loss-of-function variant in DIP2B, a candidate gene for intellectual disability, which was inherited from their father, who also exhibited learning disability in childhood. In conclusion, additional pathogenic variants were revealed in two affected carriers of class I 17p13.3 microduplication (Family B), probably adding to their phenotypes. These results provided new evidence regarding the contribution of RORA and DIP2B to neurocognitive deficits, and highlighted the importance of full genetic investigation in carriers of CNV syndromes with variable expressivity. Finally, we suggest that microcephaly may be a rare clinical feature also related to the presence of the class I 17p13.3 microduplication.

19.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 92(2): 115-123, 2019.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715605

BACKGROUND: Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare condition characterized by dysmorphic facial features, short stature, and expressive language delay. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of patients with FHS and review the literature about the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. METHODS: Anthropometric and laboratory data from 7 patients with FHS were described. The molecular diagnosis was established by multigene analysis. Moreover, we reviewed the literature concerning patients with FHS treated with rhGH. RESULTS: All 7 patients were born small for gestational age. At first evaluation, 6 patients had a height standard deviation score (SDS) ≤-2 and 1 had short stature in relation to their target height. Bone age was usually delayed, which rapidly advanced during puberty. Nonspecific skeletal abnormalities were frequently noticed, and normal to elevated plasma IGF-I levels were observed in all except 1 patient with growth hormone deficiency. Information about 20 patients with FHS treated with rhGH was analyzed (4 from our cohort and 16 from the literature). The median height changes during the treatment period (approx. 2.9 years) were 1.1 SDS (range from -0.4 to 3.1). Nontreated patients had an adult height SDS of -4.1 ± 1.2 (n = 10) versus -2.6 ± 0.8 SDS (n = 7, p 0.012) for treated patients. CONCLUSION: We observed a laboratory profile compatible with IGF-1 insensitivity in some patients with FHS. Nevertheless, our study suggests that children with FHS may be considered as candidates for rhGH therapy. Further studies are necessary to establish the real benefit and safety of rhGH therapy in these patients.


Abnormalities, Multiple , Adolescent Development/drug effects , Child Development/drug effects , Craniofacial Abnormalities , Dwarfism, Pituitary , Growth Disorders , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Puberty/drug effects , Abnormalities, Multiple/drug therapy , Abnormalities, Multiple/metabolism , Abnormalities, Multiple/pathology , Abnormalities, Multiple/physiopathology , Adolescent , Body Height/drug effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Craniofacial Abnormalities/drug therapy , Craniofacial Abnormalities/metabolism , Craniofacial Abnormalities/pathology , Craniofacial Abnormalities/physiopathology , Dwarfism, Pituitary/drug therapy , Dwarfism, Pituitary/metabolism , Dwarfism, Pituitary/pathology , Dwarfism, Pituitary/physiopathology , Female , Growth Disorders/drug therapy , Growth Disorders/metabolism , Growth Disorders/pathology , Growth Disorders/physiopathology , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/drug therapy , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/metabolism , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/pathology , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/physiopathology , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Male
20.
J Pediatr ; 215: 192-198, 2019 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630891

OBJECTIVE: To perform a prospective genetic investigation using whole exome sequencing of a group of patients with syndromic short stature born small for gestational age of unknown cause. STUDY DESIGN: For whole exome sequencing analysis, we selected 44 children born small for gestational age with persistent short stature, and additional features, such as dysmorphic face, major malformation, developmental delay, and/or intellectual disability. Seven patients had negative candidate gene testing based on clinical suspicion and 37 patients had syndromic conditions of unknown etiology. RESULTS: Of the 44 patients, 15 (34%) had pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in genes already associated with growth disturbance: COL2A1 (n = 2), SRCAP (n = 2), AFF4, ACTG1, ANKRD11, BCL11B, BRCA1, CDKN1C, GINS1, INPP5K, KIF11, KMT2A, and POC1A (n = 1 each). Most of the genes found to be deleterious participate in fundamental cellular processes, such as cell replication and DNA repair. CONCLUSIONS: The rarity and heterogeneity of syndromic short stature make the clinical diagnosis difficult. Whole exome sequencing allows the diagnosis of previously undiagnosed patients with syndromic short stature.


Dwarfism/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Actins/genetics , Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Child , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57/genetics , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics , Humans , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Male , Mutation , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Trisphosphate 5-Phosphatases/genetics , Prospective Studies , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Transcriptional Elongation Factors/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
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