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Small ; : e2105696, 2021 Nov 27.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837326

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a key role in many electrochemical energy conversion systems, but it is a kinetically sluggish reaction and requires a large overpotential to deliver appreciable current, especially for the non-noble metal electrocatalysts. In this study, the authors report a surface phase engineering strategy to improve the OER performance of transition metal nitrides (TMNs). The iron-nickel nitrides/alloy nanospheres (FeNi3 -N) wrapped in carbon are synthesized, and the optimized FeNi3 -N catalyst displays dual-phase nitrides on the surface induced by atom migration phenomenon, resulting from the different migration rates of metal atoms during the nitridation process. It shows excellent OER performance in alkaline media with an overpotential of 222 mV at 10 mA cm-2 , a small Tafel slope of 41.53 mV dec-1 , and long-term durability under high current density (>0.5 A cm-2 ) for at least 36 h. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations further reveal that the dual-phase nitrides are favorable to decrease the energy barrier, modulate the d-band center to balance the absorption and desorption of the intermediates, and thus promote the OER electrochemical performance. This strategy may shed light on designing OER and other catalysts based on surface phase engineering.

Nanoscale ; 13(43): 18247-18255, 2021 Nov 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713876

Three-dimensional thermally conductive graphene aerogels have become more and more significant in practical thermal management applications. However, the interface between the graphene aerogel and the polymer has a strong interface thermal resistance, and the compatibility between the interfaces is also poor. In this study, a simple and versatile method for grafting graphene aerogels with titanate coupling agents on the surface was developed so that the modified graphene aerogels exhibit excellent thermal conductivity and mechanical properties and reduce the interface thermal resistance and increase the interface compatibility between graphene aerogels and epoxy resin. A high thermal conductivity of 2.53 W m-1 K-1 was obtained under a low graphene load of 2.5 wt%, corresponding to a thermal conductivity enhancement of approximately 1388% compared with pure epoxy resin. It provides a facile new idea for the preparation of high-quality three-dimensional graphene epoxy composites.

Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 9088-9095, 2021 Aug.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488394

BACKGROUND: The 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) is a simple, economic and easy tool to evaluate the medication compliance of chronic disease. The reliability and validity of the MMAS-8 in patients with chronic pain were unclear. Therefore, we aimed to validate the MMAS-8 for detecting nonadherent patients with chronic pain. METHODS: A modified MMAS-8 was used to assess the medication compliance of patients with chronic pain who were treated at our hospital from July 2018 to October 2018. Cronbach's α was used to evaluate the internal consistency, and a factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing the MMAS-8 and a medication adherence visual analog score (MA-VAS) through Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients were evaluated. The (t-test) results revealed that there was a significant difference in average scores between the low-score group (who scored less than 5 points) and the high-score group (who scored 8 points or above), indicating that the scale displayed a good degree of discrimination. Except for Items 4 and 5, all the other items exhibited a good correlation with the total score (correlation coefficient >0.5; P<0.05). The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.625, indicating that the scale's internal consistency was relatively satisfactory. Two common factors, which explained 62.978% of the total variance, were extracted by factor analysis to examine the construct validity of the MMAS-8, and the load of the 6 items was greater than 0.4. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.845 (P<0.001); thus, convergent validity was high. CONCLUSIONS: The modified MMAS-8 exhibited acceptable reliability and validity in evaluating medication compliance in patients with chronic pain; thus, it can be applied to detect nonadherent patients with chronic pain.

Chronic Pain , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Humans , Medication Adherence , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
Basic Res Cardiol ; 116(1): 48, 2021 08 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379189

Metabolic modulation is a promising therapeutic approach to prevent adverse remodeling of the ischemic heart. Because little is known about the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating cardiac metabolism, we used unbiased transcriptome profiling in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). We identified a novel cardiomyocyte-enriched lncRNA, called LncHrt, which regulates metabolism and the pathophysiological processes that lead to heart failure. AAV-based LncHrt overexpression protects the heart from MI as demonstrated by improved contractile function, preserved metabolic homeostasis, and attenuated maladaptive remodeling responses. RNA-pull down followed by mass spectrometry and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) identified SIRT2 as a LncHrt-interacting protein involved in cardiac metabolic regulation. Mechanistically, we established that LncHrt interacts with SIRT2 to preserve SIRT2 deacetylase activity by interfering with the CDK5 and SIRT2 interaction. This increases downstream LKB1-AMPK kinase signaling, which ameliorates functional and metabolic deficits. Importantly, we found the expression of the human homolog of mouse LncHrt was decreased in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Together, these studies identify LncHrt as a cardiac metabolic regulator that plays an essential role in preserving heart function by regulating downstream metabolic signaling pathways. Consequently, LncHrt is a potentially novel RNA-based therapeutic target for ischemic heart disease.

Front Plant Sci ; 12: 664060, 2021.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163504

Eutrophication, dredging, agricultural and urban runoffs, and epiphyte overgrowth could reduce light availability for seagrass. This may affect "blue carbon" stocks in seagrass beds. However, little research is available on the effect of light intensities on carbon sequestration capacity in seagrass beds, especially small-bodied seagrasses. The dominant seagrass Halophila beccarii, a vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List, was cultured in different light intensities to examine the response of vegetation and sediment carbon in seagrass beds. The results showed that low light significantly reduced leaf length and above-ground biomass, while carbon content in both above-ground and below-ground tissues were not affected. Low light reduced both the above-ground biomass carbon and the total biomass carbon. Interestingly, while under saturating light conditions, the subsurface and surface carbon content was similar, under low light conditions, subsurface sediment carbon was significantly lower than the surface content. The reduction of subsurface sediment carbon might be caused by less release flux of dissolved organic carbon from roots in low light. Taken together, these results indicate that reduced light intensities, to which these meadows are exposed to, will reduce carbon sequestration capacity in seagrass beds. Measures should be taken to eliminate the input of nutrients on seagrass meadows and dredging activities to maintain the "blue carbon" storage service by enhancing light penetration into seagrass.

Food Chem ; 358: 129894, 2021 Oct 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933968

Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen, which imposes great burdens on public health. The current methods for detecting L. monocytogene are limited in several ways such as time consuming and lab equipment dependent. In this study, we developed a new electrochemical assay to improve the efficacy. This assay allows us to generate numerous G-quadruplex sequences while loop-mediated isothermal amplification happens. Then, these G-quadruplex sequences form DNAzyme to produce a color change and an electrochemical signal by oxidizing tetramethylbenzidine. This assay could be finished in 2 h, which significantly reduced the detection time. Also, we confirmed the limit of detection of this assay at 6.8 CFU/mL according to 3σ criterion. Our assay shows good sensitivity to detect bacteria range from 52.5 to 5.25 × 104 CFU/mL. This assay's reliability was also confirmed by detecting artificially contaminated pork samples. Thus, we propose this electrochemical assay for rapid and sensitive detection of L. monocytogenes in food.

Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Listeria monocytogenes/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pork Meat/microbiology , Animals , Benzidines/chemistry , DNA, Catalytic/chemistry , DNA, Catalytic/metabolism , G-Quadruplexes , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
Nanotechnology ; 32(32)2021 May 17.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902011

This study looked at the process of designing and synthesized expanded graphite (EG) and modifying it with bio-inspired dopamine (DOPA). This is a process used to improve the thermal conductivity and dielectric properties of methyl vinyl silicone rubber (VMQ). The results demonstrated that the EG-DOPA-VMQ composites acquired an exceptional thermal conductivity of 1.015 W mK-1at the loading of 10 wt%, approximately 480% higher than that of pure silicone rubber (0.175 W mK-1). This enhancement is mainly attributed to the improved dispersion capability of EG-DOPA and the robust interfacial interaction between EG-DOPA-VMQ interfaces; specifically, this is the result when compared with pristine EG. Moreover, throughout this process, the composites maintained an excellent insulating property with a resistance of ≈1012Ω · cm; this particular result was due to the DOPA deposited on EG surfaces because they acted as an insulating layer, inhibiting the electron transfer in composites. Overall, this work demonstrated that it could present a promising strategy for synchronized manufacturing of polymer composites with high thermal conductivity and insulating capability.

Small ; 17(13): e2007858, 2021 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690975

Transition metal phosphides (TMPs), especially the dual-metal TMPs, are highly active non-precious metal oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts. Herein, an interesting atom migration phenomenon induced by Kirkendall effect is reported for the preparation of cobalt-iron (Co-Fe) phosphides by the direct phosphorization of Co-Fe alloys. The compositions and distributions of the Co and Fe phosphides phases on the surfaces of the electrocatalysts can be readily controlled by Cox Fey alloys precursors and the phosphorization process with interesting atom migration phenomenon. The optimized Co7 Fe3 phosphides exhibit a low overpotential of 225 mV at 10 mA cm-2 in 1 m KOH alkaline media, with a small Tafel slope of 37.88 mV dec-1 and excellent durability. It only requires a voltage of 1.56 V to drive the current density of 10 mA cm-2 when used as both anode and cathode for overall water splitting. This work opens a new strategy to controllable preparation of dual-metal TMPs with designed phosphides active sites for enhanced OER and overall water splitting.

BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 86, 2021 Feb 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563216

BACKGROUND: The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play important roles in many processes in plant growth, metabolism and responses to abiotic stresses. Although, the sequence of Chinese white pear genome (cv. 'Dangshansuli') has already been reported, there is still a lack of clarity regarding the bHLH family genes and their evolutionary history. RESULTS: In this work, a genome-wide identification of the bHLH genes in Chinese white pear was performed, and we characterized the functional roles of these PbrbHLH genes in response to abiotic stresses. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and structural characteristics, 197 identified bHLH genes could be well classified into 21 groups. Expansion of PbrbHLH gene family was mainly driven by WGD and dispersed duplication with the purifying selection from the recent WGD. The functional annotation enrichment showed that the majority of PbrbHLHs were enriched in the GO terms and KEGG pathways involved in responds to stress conditions as TFs. Transcriptomic profiles and qRT-PCR revealed that PbrbHLH7, PbrbHLH8, PbrbHLH128, PbrbHLH160, PbrbHLH161 and PbrbHLH195 were significantly up-regulated under cold and drought treatments. In addition, PbrbHLH195-silenced pear seedlings display significant reduced cold tolerance, exhibiting reduced chlorophyll content, as well as increased electrolyte leakage and concentrations of malondialdehyde and H2O2. CONCLUSION: For the first time, a comprehensive analysis identified the bHLH genes in Chinese white pear and demonstrated that PbrbHLH195 is involved in the production of ROS in response to cold stress, suggesting that members of the PbrbHLH family play an essential role in the stress tolerance of pear.

Cold-Shock Response/genetics , Cold-Shock Response/physiology , Droughts , Genes, Plant , Pyrus/genetics , Pyrus/physiology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genome-Wide Association Study , Multigene Family
Planta ; 253(2): 32, 2021 Jan 13.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439355

MAIN CONCLUSION: Genome-wide identification, tissue-specific and stress expression analyses and functional characterization of PbrATG8s genes were conducted and the role of PbrATG8c in Botryosphaeria dothidea resistance was further investigated. Autophagy plays an important role in plant growth, development and stress tolerance. ATG8 has been reported to be an autophagy marker in many species. However, there is little information regarding ATG8 family members in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd). We performed a genome-wide analysis and identified nine PbrATG8 gene family members in pear. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PbrATG8 genes clustered into four major groups (Groups I-IV). Eight PbrATG8 genes were successfully mapped to 6 of the 17 chromosomes of the pear genome. The synteny results showed that two pairs are collinear. Gene expression data showed that all genes were differentially expressed in a range of pear tissues. Transcript analysis of PbrATG8 genes under dehydration, salt and pathogen infection stresses revealed that PbrATG8c responded to all test stresses. The PbrATG8c protein was localized in the nucleus and membrane. The silencing of PbrATG8c decreased the resistance to Botryosphaeria dothidea in pear. This study provides insights and rich resources for subsequent investigations of autophagy in pear.

Autophagy-Related Protein 8 Family , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins , Pyrus , Ascomycota , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy-Related Protein 8 Family/genetics , Autophagy-Related Protein 8 Family/metabolism , Disease Resistance/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression Profiling , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Pyrus/genetics , Pyrus/microbiology
J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520953643, 2020 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962503

OBJECTIVES: Normokalemic periodic paralysis (NormoKPP) of skeletal muscle is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding voltage-gated sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha (SCN4A), which leads to ion channel dysfunction. Little is known about the relationship between genotype and the clinical symptoms of NormoKPP. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic variation in a large Chinese family with NormoKPP. The patients in this pedigree did not respond to saline treatment, but calcium gluconate treatment was effective. METHODS: We performed a series of clinical examinations and genetic analyses, using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, to examine the mutation status of SCN4A in a Chinese family segregating for NormoKPP. RESULTS: Whole-exome sequencing revealed a c.2111C>T substitution in SCN4A in most of the affected family members. This mutation results in the amino acid substitution p.T704M. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a causative role of this mutation in SCN4A in NormoKPP, and provide information about the relationship between genotype and atypical clinical symptoms.

Paralyses, Familial Periodic , China , Humans , Mutation , NAV1.4 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel/genetics , Paralyses, Familial Periodic/genetics , Pedigree , Whole Exome Sequencing
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 612, 2020 Sep 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894061

BACKGROUND: Lysin motif-containing proteins (LYP), which act as pattern-recognition receptors, play central roles in growth, node formation, and responses to biotic stresses. The sequence of Chinese white pear genome (cv. 'Dangshansuli') along with the seven other species of Rosaceae has already been reported. Although, in these fruit crops, there is still a lack of clarity regarding the LYP family genes and their evolutionary history. RESULTS: In the existing study, eight Rosaceae species i.e., Pyrus communis, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus avium, Prunus mume, Rubus occidentalis, and Malus × domestica were evaluated. Here, we determined a total of 124 LYP genes from the underlined Rosaceae species. While eighteen of the genes were from Chinese white pear, named as PbrLYPs. According to the LYPs structural characteristics and their phylogenetic analysis, those genes were classified into eight groups (group LYK1, LYK2, LYK3, LYK4/5, LYM1/3, LYM2, NFP, and WAKL). Dispersed duplication and whole-genome duplication (WGD) were found to be the most contributing factors of LYP family expansion in the Rosaceae species. More than half of the duplicated PbrLYP gene pairs were dated back to the ancient WGD (~ 140 million years ago (MYA)), and PbrLYP genes have experienced long-term purifying selection. The transcriptomic results indicated that the PbrLYP genes expression was tissue-specific. Most PbrLYP genes showed differential expression in leaves under fungal pathogen infection with two of them located in the plasmalemma. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive analysis identified 124 LYP genes in eight Rosaceae species. Our findings have provided insights into the functions and characteristics of the Rosaceae LYP genes and a guide for the identification of other candidate LYPs for further genetic improvements for pathogen-resistance in higher plants.

Disease Resistance , Plant Proteins/genetics , Protein Kinases/genetics , Pyrus/genetics , Amino Acid Motifs , Ascomycota/pathogenicity , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Lysine/chemistry , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Protein Kinases/chemistry , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Pyrus/classification , Pyrus/microbiology
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922497, 2020 May 18.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467560

BACKGROUND Disc degeneration is characterized partly by the degradation in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and excess apoptosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. NLRX1 (nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat containing X1) is different from the other nucleotide-binding-domain and leucine-rich-repeat proteins and mainly located to the mitochondrial. It negatively regulates NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) and apoptosis inhibition. However, how NLRX1 is regulated and exerts effects in disc degeneration is unclear. Thus, the study aimed to analyze the effects of NLRX1 on NP cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS NLRX1 expression was detected in interleukin (IL)-1ß-induced NP cells by western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Then, NLRX1 was overexpressed in IL-1ß-induced NP cells to detect apoptosis-related proteins and the extracellular matrix (ECM) by western blot, along with the detection of apoptosis levels using flow cytometry. StarBase predicted miR-423-5p target 3'UTR of NLRX1. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-423-5p could bind to the 3'UTR of NLRX1. Besides, miR-423-5p significantly affected NLRX1 levels detected by qRT-qPCR. RESULTS The miR-423-5p overexpression markedly, and negatively regulated the protective effects of NLRX1 on IL-1ß induced NP cells. Thus, our results suggested that miR-423-5p mediated the regulation of NLRX1 to affect apoptosis and ECM levels in IL-1ß induced NP cells. CONCLUSIONS miR-423-5p and NLRX1 could be potential therapeutic targets for patients with disc degeneration.

Extracellular Matrix/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Nucleus Pulposus/metabolism , Apoptosis/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/genetics , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Leucine/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nucleus Pulposus/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 146, 2020 Apr 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268888

BACKGROUND: Lysin motif (LysM)-containing proteins are involved in the recognition of fungal and bacterial pathogens. However, few studies have reported on their roles in the defense responses of woody plants against pathogens. A previous study reported that the apple MdCERK1 gene was induced by chitin and Rhizoctonia solani, and its protein can bind to chitin. However, its effect on defense responses has not been investigated. RESULTS: In this study, a new apple CERK gene, designated as MdCERK1-2, was identified. It encodes a protein that shares high sequence identity with the previously reported MdCERK1 and AtCERK1. Its chitin binding ability and subcellular location are similar to MdCERK1 and AtCERK1, suggesting that MdCERK1-2 may play a role in apple immune defense responses as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR). MdCERK1-2 expression in apple was induced by 2 fungal pathogens, Botryosphaeria dothidea and Glomerella cingulate, but not by the bacterial pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, indicating that MdCERK1-2 is involved in apple anti-fungal defense responses. Further functional analysis by heterologous overexpression (OE) in Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) demonstrated that MdCERK1-2 OE improved Nb resistance to the pathogenic fungus, Alternaria alternata. H2O2 accumulation and callose deposition increased after A. alternata infection in MdCERK1-2 OE plants compared to wild type (WT) and empty vector (EV)-transformed plants. The induced expression of NbPAL4 by A. alternata significantly (p < 0.01, n = 4) increased in MdCERK1-2 OE plants. Other tested genes, including NbNPR1, NbPR1a, NbERF1, and NbLOX1, did not exhibit significant changes after A. alternata infection in OE plants compared to EV or WT plants. OE plants also accumulated more polyphenols after A. alternata infection. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous MdCERK1-2 OE affects multiple defense responses in Nb plants and increased their resistance to fungal pathogens. This result also suggests that MdCERK1-2 is involved in apple defense responses against pathogenic fungi.

Alternaria/physiology , Disease Resistance , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Tobacco/metabolism , Arabidopsis Proteins , Malus/genetics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases , Tobacco/immunology
Nanoscale ; 12(6): 3657-3662, 2020 Feb 14.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016276

The well-known Stöber method has been widely used to synthesize nonporous silica nanospheres (NPs), however, in the absence of surfactant templates, the synthesis of mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) has not been achieved. Herein, in the absence of organic surfactant templates, by a simple premixing of three components tetraethoxysilane-water-ethanol (TEOS-H2O-EtOH) with a precise molar ratio, the parent silica nanoparticles with a low condensation degree and controlled particle size can be readily obtained. Subsequently, via a simple two-step post-treatment, the obtained MSNs exhibited a high surface area (ca. 500 m2 g-1), accessible mesopores (3.0 nm), and a large pore volume (0.87 mL g-1), similar to those of MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas. The unique self-templating role of the 'pre-Ouzo' effect of ternary surfactant-free TEOS-H2O-EtOH systems was proposed to understand the formation of mesoporosity.

Int J Biol Macromol ; 149: 1034-1041, 2020 Apr 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027900

Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are hydrolytic products of chitosan that are essential in functional food, medicine, and other fields due to their biological activities. Commercial COS are often prepared by the hydrolysis of chitosan by chitosanase. In this study, a glycoside hydrolase family 46 cluster B chitosanase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BaCsn46B) was efficiently expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme was secreted into the culture medium that reached a total extracellular protein concentration of 4.5 g/L with an activity of 8907.2 U/mL in a high cell density fermenter (5 L). The molecular mass of deglycosylated BaCsn46B was 29.0 kDa. Purified BaCsn46B exhibited excellent enzymatic properties, which had high specific activity (2380.5 U/mg) under optimal reaction conditions (55 °C and pH 6.5). BaCsn46B hydrolyzed chitosan yielded a series of COS with different degrees of polymerization by endo-type cleavage. The end hydrolytic products of BaCsn46B were chitobiose and chitotriose, while no monosaccharide yield was evident in the hydrolytic reaction. The excellent secreted expression level and hydrolytic performance make the enzyme a desirable biocatalyst for the industrial preparation of COS.

Bacillus/enzymology , Chitin/analogs & derivatives , Glycoside Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Pichia/genetics , Chitin/metabolism , Fermentation , Glycoside Hydrolases/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Hydrolysis , Phylogeny , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 250-255, 2020 Feb 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778774

The effect of thalidomide on mandibular development is unclear. In this study, thalidomide was delivered to pregnant rabbits from the 8th to 14th day of gestation. Then, embryos were harvested for examination on the 16th day (GD16), 20th day (GD20) and 24th day (GD24) of gestation. The results showed obvious hemorrhage and hematoma on one side of the craniofacial region in 50 % of the thalidomide-treated embryos and obvious hemorrhage and hematoma on both sides of the craniofacial region in 50 % of the thalidomide-treated embryos at GD16. Histological examination showed soft tissues and mandible defects on the affected side of the maxillofacial region. The expression of Vegf-α, Ki67 and Sox9 on the affected side was significantly down-regulated in comparison to their expression on the unaffected side at GD20. There was also an obvious defect in the affected mandible, and the density of the skull and mandible was decreased compared to the unaffected side or the control group at GD24. These findings demonstrated that thalidomide may lead to hemorrhage and hematoma in the craniofacial region by inhibiting angiogenesis, resulting in the abnormal development of cranial neural crest cells that are involved in the normal development of the mandible in rabbits.

Craniofacial Abnormalities/chemically induced , Craniofacial Abnormalities/pathology , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/pathology , Mandible/pathology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Teratogens/toxicity , Thalidomide/toxicity , Animals , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Female , Mandible/abnormalities , Maxillofacial Abnormalities/chemically induced , Maxillofacial Abnormalities/pathology , Neural Crest/pathology , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Skull/abnormalities
Food Chem ; 299: 125037, 2019 Nov 30.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279128

Immobilization of enzymes is an essential strategy with outstanding prospects in biocatalytic processes. Nontoxic, inexpensive immobilized enzyme approach is especially important for food enzymes. We here demonstrate that a carbohydrate-binding module family 56 domain (CBM56-Tag) mediates the immobilization of fusion enzymes with the curdlan (ß-1,3-glucan) particle support, thereby enabling the one-step immobilization-purification of target enzymes. CBM56-Tag exhibits an immunoglobulin-like ß-sandwich fold, which can be adsorbed by curdlan via hydrogen bond-mediated binding. The maximum adsorption capacity of a fusion chitosanase (CBM56-GsCsn46A) on curdlan is 50.72 mg/g. The immobilized enzyme could be directly used in the packed-bed reactor. This immobilization strategy utilizes a natural polysaccharide without any treatment, avoiding the negative environmental effects. Moreover, the one step immobilization-purification simplifies the purification step, which reduces the use of chemicals. Our study provides a nontoxic and inexpensive immobilization strategy for the biocatalytic reaction in food industry.

Enzymes, Immobilized/chemistry , Enzymes, Immobilized/isolation & purification , Glycoside Hydrolases/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Hydrogen Bonding , beta-Glucans/chemistry
J Food Biochem ; 43(5): e12831, 2019 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353518

This study investigated the intervention effects of chitooligosaccharides (COS) on retinol metabolism and included comparisons of the retinol level, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) content, key genes, and protein expression between mice on a COS-enriched diet and a normal diet. The results showed that COS markedly decreased the retinol and RBP4 concentrations in the serum and liver. Furthermore, COS suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of RBP4, cellular retinol binding protein 1 (CRBP1), lecithin: retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and cytochrome P45026A1 (CYP26A1). In addition, COS inhibited the mRNA expression of stimulated by retinoic acid 6 (STRA6). However, the protein expression of STRA6 was not significantly decreased. Thus, COS reduced the retinol concentration in the serum and disrupted the metabolism of retinol. The intervention mechanism of COS on retinol metabolism may be attributed to the modulation of RBP4, CRBP1, LRAT, STRA6, and CYP26A1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Chitooligosaccharides (COS), known to be the degradation products of chitosan, have been found to induce pinkeye in industrial workers who participate in the manufacturing of COS. Meanwhile, 5% population with COS dietary supplement also have similar phenomenon. The aim of this study is to explore the possible mechanism underlay of this potential risk. The results of this study showed that high exposure to COS during manufacture influences retinol metabolism and leads to a decrease in retinol content, ultimately causing pinkeye. These findings provide new evidence for understanding COS-induced retinol metabolism alteration and drawing attention toward the prevention of potential risk in high-exposure populations.

Chitin/analogs & derivatives , Eye Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma/metabolism , Vitamin A/metabolism , Acyltransferases/genetics , Acyltransferases/metabolism , Animals , Chitin/adverse effects , Chitin/pharmacology , Chitosan/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Retinoic Acid 4-Hydroxylase/genetics , Retinoic Acid 4-Hydroxylase/metabolism , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular/genetics , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular/metabolism , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma/genetics , Risk , Vitamin A/blood