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Rev Mal Respir ; 35(2): 160-170, 2018 Feb.
Article Fr | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501213

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by preferential remodelling of pulmonary venules and angioproliferation. PVOD term includes idiopathic, heritable (biallelic mutations of EIF2AK4 gene), drugs and toxins induced (alkylating agents, organic solvents) and connectivite-associated forms (especially systemic-sclerosis associated form). PVOD and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) share a similar clinical presentation. Lung biopsy is contraindicated in PVOD due to high risk of life-threatening bleeding. A noninvasive diagnostic approach, including oxygen parameters, low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and characteristic signs on high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, is used to support a diagnosis of PVOD. PVOD prognosis is worse than other forms of PAH. There is no evidence-based medical therapy for PVOD and life-threatening pulmonary edema may occur following PAH targeted therapy in PVOD. Lung transplantation remains the preferred definitive therapy for eligible patients.

Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease , Animals , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/diagnosis , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/epidemiology , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/therapy , Rare Diseases/diagnosis , Rare Diseases/epidemiology , Rare Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Risk Factors
Endocr Pathol ; 27(4): 332-337, 2016 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895210

Though most paragangliomas arise as sporadic tumors, the recent advantages in the genetic screening revealed that about 30 % of paragangliomas are linked to hereditary mutations, such as those involving SDH genes. A 22-year-old woman carrying a left main bronchus tumor underwent surgery in our institution. Her past medical history included a GIST without KIT or PDGFRA mutation. The histological examination revealed a nested proliferation of medium-sized cells expressing neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A and synaptophysin). The neoplastic cells failed to express SDHB gene product. These findings led us to the final diagnosis of bronchial paraganglioma in the setting of Carney-Stratakis syndrome. Bronchial paragangliomas are exceedingly rare tumors with polymorphous clinical presentation, and usually benign clinical course. Though most paragangliomas are sporadic, some tumors are associated with specific hereditary disease, especially those occurring in young patients or in combination with other neoplasms.

Bronchial Neoplasms/genetics , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/complications , Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal/genetics , Paraganglioma/complications , Succinate Dehydrogenase/deficiency , Female , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/genetics , Humans , Paraganglioma/genetics , Succinate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Young Adult
Arthritis Rheum ; 64(9): 2995-3005, 2012 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22549387

OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary venoocclusive disease (PVOD) is an uncommon form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by obstruction of small pulmonary veins. Pulmonary venous involvement has been reported in pathologic assessment of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) presenting with precapillary PH. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest is a noninvasive diagnostic tool used to screen for PVOD. No HRCT data are available on SSc patients with precapillary PH. We undertook this study to evaluate the frequency and effect on prognosis of HRCT signs of PVOD in SSc patients with precapillary PH. METHODS: We reviewed chest HRCT data from 26 SSc patients with precapillary PH and 28 SSc patients without pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or interstitial lung disease (ILD). RESULTS: The radiographic triad of HRCT signs of PVOD (lymph node enlargement [57.7% versus 3.6%], centrilobular ground-glass opacities [46.2% versus 10.7%], and septal lines [88.5% versus 7.1%]) was significantly more frequent in SSc patients with precapillary PH than in SSc patients without PAH or ILD (all P < 0.005). Indeed, 61.5% of SSc patients with precapillary PH had ≥ 2 of these signs. Cardiomegaly (P < 0.0001), pulmonary artery enlargement (P < 0.0001), and pericardial effusion (P < 0.0005) were also significantly more frequent in SSc patients with precapillary PH. Pulmonary venous involvement was histologically confirmed in 2 patients with radiographic signs of PVOD. The presence of ≥ 2 radiographic signs of PVOD was associated with the occurrence of pulmonary edema after initiation of PAH-specific therapy (in 8 of 16 patients) and with more rapid progression from diagnosis of PH to death. CONCLUSION: HRCT signs of PVOD are frequently observed in SSc patients with precapillary PH, correlated with histologic assessment, and were associated with a high risk of pulmonary edema.

Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/diagnostic imaging , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/complications , Radiography , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications
Eur Respir J ; 37(4): 813-22, 2011 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20693255

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with dysregulated bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR)-II signaling and pulmonary vascular inflammation. We evaluated the effects of dexamethasone on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats for potential reversal of PAH at late time-points. Saline-treated control, MCT-exposed, MCT-exposed and dexamethasone-treated rats (5 mg·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹, 1.25 mg·kg⁻¹ and 2.5 mg·kg⁻¹·48 h⁻¹) were evaluated at day 28 and day 35 following MCT for haemodynamic parameters, right ventricular hypertrophy, morphometry, immunohistochemistry, and IL6 and BMPR2 expression. Dexamethasone improved haemodynamics and pulmonary vascular remodelling, preventing PAH development at early (day 1-14 and 1-28) and reversing PAH at late (day 14-28 and 21-35) time-points following MCT, as well as improving survival in MCT-exposed rats compared with controls. Both MCT-induced pulmonary IL6 overexpression and interleukin (IL)-6-expressing adventitial inflammatory cell infiltration were reduced with dexamethasone. This was associated with pulmonary BMPR2 downregulation following MCT, which was increased with dexamethasone, in whole lung and control pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone also reduced proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in vitro. Experimental PAH can be prevented and reversed by dexamethasone, and survival is improved. In this model, mechanisms may involve reduction of IL-6-expressing inflammatory cells, restoration of pulmonary BMPR2 expression and reduced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Monocrotaline/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension , Hemodynamics , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Treatment Outcome
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2010: 685926, 2010 Dec 28.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21253468

Morbidity from calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is increasing. Recent studies suggest early reversible changes involving inflammation and neoangiogenesis. We hypothesized that microcalcifications, chemokines, and growth factors are present in unaffected regions of calcific aortic valves. We studied aortic valves from 4 patients with CAVD and from 1 control, using immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectrography. We revealed clusters of capillary neovessels in calcified (ECC), to a lesser extent in noncalcified (ECN) areas. Endothelial cells proved constant expression of SDF-1 in ECC, ECN, and endothelial cells from valvular surface (ECS). Its receptor CXCR4 was expressed in ECC. IL-6 expression correlated with CXCR4 staining and presence of lymphocytes. VEGF was expressed by ECS, its receptor by ECC and ECN. Crystalline ultrastructures were found on the surface of histologically noncalcified areas (HNCAs), spectrography revealed calcium hydroxylapatite. Our results demonstrate that crystalline ultrastructures are present in HNCAs, undergoing neoangiogenesis in an inflammatory context. These alterations could be an early witness of disease and an opening to therapy.

Eur Respir J ; 34(3): 731-9, 2009 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19324959

Common bile duct ligation (CBDL) induces biliary cirrhosis and pulmonary vasodilatation. We tested whether CBDL ameliorates monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats. Five groups of rats were studied: controls; rats dosed with MCT (60 subcutaneously); CBDL; rats dosed with MCT followed by CBDL on day 7; and rats dosed with MCT followed by CBDL (day 7) and L-NAME therapy between days 24 and 28. 28-day survival was 26% in the MCT group and 72% in the MCT+CBDL group. Pulmonary vascular resistance measured on days 21 and 28 increased in the MCT and MCT+CBDL+L-NAME groups, but returned to normal in the MCT+CBDL group on day 28. Pulmonary artery (PA) medial hypertrophy persisted in MCT+CBDL rats. PA inflammation increased in MCT+CBDL rats, with accumulation of both intra- and perivascular macrophages. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels decreased in the MCT group and increased in the MCT+CBDL group, which showed upregulation of inducible NO synthase and normal endothelial NO synthase. Blood endothelin (ET)-1 increased in CBDL, MCT, and MCT+CBDL rats. Levels of ET(B) receptors increased and ET(A) receptors decreased in the MCT+CBDL group, whereas the opposite changes occurred in the MCT group. Biliary cirrhosis induces pulmonary vasodilation that ameliorates MCT-induced PH and improves survival. Upregulation of inducible NO synthase and ET(B) receptor and downregulation of ET(A) receptor may be involved.

Hypertension, Pulmonary/chemically induced , Hypertension, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/physiopathology , Monocrotaline , Animals , Common Bile Duct , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelins/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/metabolism , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/metabolism , Male , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/therapeutic use , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasodilation/physiology
Eur Respir J ; 33(1): 189-200, 2009 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19118230

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is currently classified as a subgroup of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and accounts for 5-10% of cases initially considered to be idiopathic PAH. PVOD has been described as idiopathic or complicating other conditions, including connective tissue diseases, HIV infection, bone marrow transplantation, sarcoidosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis. PVOD shares broadly similar clinical presentation, genetic background and haemodynamic characteristics with PAH. Compared to PAH, PVOD is characterised by a higher male/female ratio, higher tobacco exposure, lower arterial oxygen tension at rest, lower diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and lower oxygen saturation nadir during the 6-min walk test. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest can be suggestive of PVOD in the presence of centrilobular ground-glass opacities, septal lines and lymph node enlargement. Similarly, occult alveolar haemorrhage is associated with PVOD. A noninvasive diagnostic approach using HRCT of the chest, arterial blood gases, pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage could be helpful for the detection of PVOD patients and in avoiding high-risk surgical lung biopsy for histological confirmation. PVOD is characterised by a poor prognosis and the possibility of developing severe pulmonary oedema with specific PAH therapy. Lung transplantation is the treatment of choice. Cautious use of specific PAH therapy can, however, be helpful in some patients.

Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lung Transplantation , Prognosis , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/diagnosis , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/etiology , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/therapy , Pulmonary Wedge Pressure , Respiratory Function Tests , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Rev Mal Respir ; 24(3 Pt 1): 359-66, 2007 Mar.
Article Fr | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17417176

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is rare in the presence of malignancy and tumour embolisation is one of several possible pathological mechanisms. CASE REPORTS: We report our experience of 5 clinical cases and undertake a literature revue of the pathophysiological mechanisms and of the possible diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Neoplastic PAH due to tumour micro-emboli is rare and the diagnosis difficult to establish. Cytological examination of pulmonary arterial blood could allow early institution of appropriate chemotherapy and lead to an improvement in the grave prognosis of this condition.

Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating , Adult , Female , Humans , Linitis Plastica/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis
Eur Respir J ; 29(5): 937-43, 2007 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17182651

Pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a progressive increase in pulmonary arterial resistance due to endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation resulting in chronic obstruction of small pulmonary arteries. There is evidence that inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of human and experimental pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the study was to address the role of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in the inflammatory responses and pulmonary vascular remodelling of a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension model. The expression of CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 was studied in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension by means of immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR on laser-captured microdissected pulmonary arteries. It was demonstrated that CX3CL1 was expressed by inflammatory cells surrounding pulmonary arterial lesions and that smooth muscle cells from these vessels had increased CX3CR1 expression. It was then shown that cultured rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells expressed CX3CR1 and that CX3CL1 induced proliferation but not migration of these cells. In conclusion, the current authors proposed that fractalkine may act as a growth factor for pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Chemokines may thus play a role in pulmonary artery remodelling.

Chemokines, CX3C/metabolism , Hypertension, Pulmonary/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Division/drug effects , Chemokine CX3CL1 , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Eur Respir J ; 29(3): 462-8, 2007 Mar.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17107989

In the present study, the hypothesis that dendritic cells (DCs), key players in immunity and tolerance, might be involved in the immunopathology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) was tested. The phenotype and localisation of DCs were characterised by immunohistochemistry and double-labelling immunofluorescence in lung samples from controls, human IPAH patients and an experimental pulmonary hypertension model (monocrotaline-exposed rats). As compared with controls, morphometric analysis demonstrated increased numbers of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)-positive cells in muscular pulmonary arteries in IPAH and OX-62-positive DCs in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. In human samples, the mean+/-SEM number of DC-SIGN-positive cells.artery(-1) of 100-300 microm diameter was 1.4+/-0.4 in controls versus 26.4+/-2.7 in IPAH. In rats, the number of OX-62-positive cells.artery(-1) of 50-150 microm diameter was 0.5+/-0.2 in controls, and 0.7+/-0.5, 3.1+/-0.5 and 8.4+/-0.6 at day 7, 14 and 28 after monocrotaline exposure, respectively. Human complex lesions of muscular pulmonary arteries showed transmural DC infiltration. Phenotyping revealed an immature DC profile in human and experimental pulmonary hypertension. The results support the concept that immature dendritic cells accumulate in remodelled pulmonary vessels and hence could be involved in the immunopathology of pulmonary hypertension.

Dendritic Cells/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Hypertension, Pulmonary/immunology , Animals , Antigens, Differentiation/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Male , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Monocrotaline , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/immunology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism
Pathologe ; 27(2): 140-6, 2006 Mar.
Article De | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16450085

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a term which has recently been redefined and includes idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, familial pulmonary arterial hypertension PAH related to specific pathological conditions (e.g. connective tissue diseases), as well as PAH caused by veno-occlusive disease or capillary hemangiomatosis. The clinical manifestation seems to be related to a peculiar pathological anatomy involving small, muscular pulmonary arteries, capillaries and veins. In addition to common hypertrophy of the tunica media, other vascular compartments may also be affected by intimal thickening or adventitial fibrosis. Moreover, complex lesions, such as so called plexiform lesions and arteritis can be present in certain forms of the disease. While the recent identification of responsible gene mutations in subgroups of patients have shed some light on disease evolution, therapeutic strategies must currently rely on vasodilative and antimitogenic drugs acting on the intimal and medial level of the affected pulmonary vessels. The clinical outcome of patients suffering from PAH remains poor, underlining our need for a better comprehension of disease pathophysiology, and thus for the characterization of specific histomorphological patterns.

Hemangioma, Capillary/pathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/pathology , Vasculitis/pathology , Humans , Prognosis , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Veins/pathology
Orthopade ; 34(3): 241-5, 247-9, 2005 Mar.
Article De | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15517155

BACKGROUND: To compare the in vitro effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors (L-745,337, NS-398 and DFU) and of COX-unspecific diclofenac on release of PGE(2 )and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) from inflamed bursa subacromialis tissue (IBST) obtained from a total of 35 patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bursal specimens were incubated in the presence of drugs (0.01-1000 microM) for 20 min and 16 h. RESULTS: After 20 min 10 microM diclofenac significantly inhibited formation of PGE(2) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), whereas L-745,337 and NS-398 (10-1000 microM) induced significant inhibition only at concentrations > or =100 microM. In contrast to equimolar diclofenac, DFU (0.01-10 microM) induced no inhibition of bursal PGE(2) release but a dose-dependent, although statistically not significant inhibition after 16 h. The inhibitory potency of diclofenac (0.01-10 microM) was even more increased during long-term incubation showing greater inhibition than DFU at all concentrations studied. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that in IBST in SIS in vitro the majority of PG is generated via the COX-1 pathway.

Acromion/metabolism , Bursitis/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Prostaglandins/biosynthesis , Shoulder Impingement Syndrome/metabolism , Acromion/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Bursitis/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Shoulder Impingement Syndrome/drug therapy
Pathologe ; 25(5): 349-55, 2004 Sep.
Article De | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15205913

Malignant mesotheliomas are rare tumors which can affect pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, or tunica vaginalis testis. Histomorphologically, predominant epitheloid, sarcomatoid and biphasic types can be distinguished. In some cases, leucocytic infiltrations can be observed adjacent to the tumor. Here, mesotheliomas presenting inflammatory reactions to tumor growth have to be differentiated from occasional cases with parasynchronic development of neoplastic lymphatic diseases. Moreover, so called lymphohistiocytoid mesotheliomas, a sporadically observed variant of malignant mesotheliomas, have been reported to imitate inflammatory patterns. These different forms of malignant mesotheliomas are difficult to distinguish and may lead to diagnostic misinterpretations and consequently therapeutic mismanagement. The purpose of this study was to differentiate morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the above mentioned diagnoses. We therefore studied two rare cases, a mesothelioma with parallel lymphoma and a lymphohistiocytoid mesothelioma, and compared them to a third more common case of mesothelioma with inflammatory tissue-reaction.

Leukocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Mesothelioma/pathology , Aged , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
Eur Respir J ; 22(2): 358-63, 2003 Aug.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12952274

Inflammatory mechanisms appear to play a significant role in some types of pulmonary hypertension (PH), including monocrotaline-induced PH in rats and pulmonary arterial hypertension of various origins in humans, such as connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective disease), human immunodeficiency virus infection, or plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal (M) protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome. Interestingly, some patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic lupus erythematosus have experienced significant improvements with immunosuppressive therapy, emphasising the relevance of inflammation in a subset of patients presenting with PH. Patients with primary PH (PPH) also have some immunological disturbances, suggesting a possible role for inflammation in the pathophysiology of this disease. A subset of PPH patients have been shown to have circulating autoantibodies, including antinuclear antibodies, as well as elevated circulating levels of the pro-infammatory cytokines, interleukins -1 and -6. Lung histology has also revealed inflammatory infiltrates in the range of plexiform lesions in patients displaying severe PPH, as well as an increased expression of the chemokines regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and fractalkine. Further analysis of the role of inflammatory mechanisms is necessary to understand whether this component of the disease is relevant to its pathophysiology.

Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Animals , Autoimmunity , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology