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Immunobiology ; 226(5): 152130, 2021 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425415

In this review, we highlight the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 virus and host genomes, reporting the current studies on the sequence analysis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates and host genomes from diverse world populations. The main genetic variants that are present in both the virus and host genomes were particularly focused on the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes, and their impact on the patients' susceptibility to the virus infection and severity of the disease. Finally, the interaction of the virus and host non-coding RNAs is described in relation to their regulatory roles in target genes and/or signaling pathways critically associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altogether, these studies provide a significant contribution to the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of infection and COVID-19 pathogenesis. The described genetic variants and molecular factors involved in host/virus genome interactions have significantly contributed to defining patient risk groups, beyond those based on patients' age and comorbidities, and they are promising candidates to be potentially targeted in treatment strategies for COVID-19 and other viral infectious diseases.

COVID-19/genetics , Genome , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , RNA, Untranslated , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Genes, Viral , Humans , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
Genet Mol Biol ; 44(1 Suppl 1): e20200452, 2021.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421211

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the largest pandemic in modern history with very high infection rates and considerable mortality. The disease, which emerged in China's Wuhan province, had its first reported case on December 29, 2019, and spread rapidly worldwide. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic and global health emergency. Since the outbreak, efforts to develop COVID-19 vaccines, engineer new drugs, and evaluate existing ones for drug repurposing have been intensively undertaken to find ways to control this pandemic. COVID-19 therapeutic strategies aim to impair molecular pathways involved in the virus entrance and replication or interfere in the patients' overreaction and immunopathology. Moreover, nanotechnology could be an approach to boost the activity of new drugs. Several COVID-19 vaccine candidates have received emergency-use or full authorization in one or more countries, and others are being developed and tested. This review assesses the different strategies currently proposed to control COVID-19 and the issues or limitations imposed on some approaches by the human and viral genetic variability.

Database (Oxford) ; 20202020 01 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181825

Citrus canker type A is a serious disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri), which is responsible for severe losses to growers and to the citrus industry worldwide. To date, no canker-resistant citrus genotypes are available, and there is limited information regarding the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the early stages of the citrus canker development. Here, we present the CitrusKB knowledge base. This is the first in vivo interactome database for different citrus cultivars, and it was produced to provide a valuable resource of information on citrus and their interaction with the citrus canker bacterium X. citri. CitrusKB provides tools for a user-friendly web interface to let users search and analyse a large amount of information regarding eight citrus cultivars with distinct levels of susceptibility to the disease, with controls and infected plants at different stages of infection by the citrus canker bacterium X. citri. Currently, CitrusKB comprises a reference citrus genome and its transcriptome, expressed transcripts, pseudogenes and predicted genomic variations (SNPs and SSRs). The updating process will continue over time by the incorporation of novel annotations and analysis tools. We expect that CitrusKB may substantially contribute to the field of citrus genomics. CitrusKB is accessible at Users can download all the generated raw sequences and generated datasets by this study from the CitrusKB website.

Citrus , Citrus/genetics , Knowledge Bases , Plant Diseases/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Xanthomonas
Arch Oral Biol ; 108: 104522, 2019 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476523

OBJECTIVE: To present a genetic and protein interaction analysis associated with dental caries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The first step was to conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) through an electronic database search. Case-controls that reported associations between genes and dental caries were the main type of study design used as inclusion criteria, retrieved from the PubMed and the Virtual Health Library databases, comprising the chronological range from 1982 to 2017. The SLR was guided by PRISMA protocol and the methodological quality of the studies was established through Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). In the second step, the String Protein Interaction (SPI) approach was used to analyze protein interaction (by esyN software) and also the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to check biological pathways associated with dental caries genes. RESULTS: A total of 51 articles were included to perform this SLR, describing a number of 27 genes associated with dental caries development. At the genetic level, 23 genes have at least one other gene with which they interact. The genes TUFT1, VDR, TFIP11, LTF, HLA-DRB1, MMP2, MMP3 and MUC5B were shown to be connected in interactive networks by at least 10 other genes. CONCLUSION: It is essential to apprehend the multifactorial pattern of inheritance in human disease. This study presents pathways which may be directly correlated with several dental caries phenotype and this contributes to a better understanding of this disease, opening up a wider range of biotechnology options for its effective control in the future.

Dental Caries , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Proteins , Case-Control Studies , Dental Caries/genetics , Humans , Phenotype , Proteins/physiology
Mitochondrion ; 46: 345-360, 2019 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218715

Mitochondria are small cytosolic organelles and the main source of energy production for the cells, especially in the brain. This organelle has its own genome, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and genetic variants in this molecule can alter the normal energy metabolism in the brain, contributing to the development of a wide assortment of Neurological Disorders (ND), including neurodevelopmental syndromes, neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. These ND are comprised by a heterogeneous group of syndromes and diseases that encompass different cognitive phenotypes and behavioral disorders, such as autism, Asperger's syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Huntington disease, Leigh Syndrome and bipolar disorder. In this work we carried out a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to identify and describe the mitochondrial genetic variants associated with the occurrence of ND. Most of genetic variants found in mtDNA were associated with Single Nucleotide Polimorphisms (SNPs), ~79%, with ~15% corresponding to deletions, ~3% to Copy Number Variations (CNVs), ~2% to insertions and another 1% included mtDNA replication problems and genetic rearrangements. We also found that most of the variants were associated with coding regions of mitochondrial proteins but were also found in regulatory transcripts (tRNA and rRNA) and in the D-Loop replication region of the mtDNA. After analysis of mtDNA deletions and CNV, none of them occur in the D-Loop region. This SLR shows that all transcribed mtDNA molecules have mutations correlated with ND. Finally, we describe that all mtDNA variants found were associated with deterioration of cognitive (dementia) and intellectual functions, learning disabilities, developmental delays, and personality and behavior problems.

DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Variation , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Humans
Dev Neurobiol ; 78(5): 500-518, 2018 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484850

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the number of identified ASD-related genes have increased in recent years. The SETD5 gene encodes a SET-containing-domain 5 protein, a likely reader enzyme. Genetic evidences suggest that SETD5 malfunction contributes to ASD phenotype, such as on intellectual disability (ID) and facial dysmorphism. In this review, we mapped the clinical phenotypes of individuals carrying mutations on the SETD5 gene that are associated with ASD and other chromatinopathies (mutation in epigenetic modifiers that leads to the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD). After a detailed systematic literature review and analysis of public disease-related databank, we found so far 42 individuals carrying mutations on the SETD5 gene, with 23.8% presenting autistic-like features. Furthermore, most of mutations occurred between positions 9,480,000-9,500,000 bp on chromosome 3 (3p25.3) at the SETD5 gene locus. In all males, mutations in SETD5 presented high penetrance, while in females the clinical phenotype seems more variable with two reported cases showing normal female carriers and not presenting ASD or any ID-like symptoms. At the molecular level, SETD5 interacts with proteins of PAF1C and N-CoR complexes, leading to a possible involvement with chromatin modification pathway, which plays important roles for brain development. Together, we propose that mutations on the SETD5 gene could lead to a new syndromic condition in males, which is linked to 3p25 syndrome, and can leads to ASD-related intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 500-518, 2018.

Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Genetic Variation , Methyltransferases/genetics , Animals , Humans
Mol Neurobiol ; 55(7): 5962-5975, 2018 Jul.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128905

Several methods have been used to study the neuropathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS), such as mouse aneuploidies, post mortem human brains, and in vitro cell culture of neural progenitor cells. More recently, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has offered new approaches in investigation, providing a valuable tool for studying specific cell types affected by DS, especially neurons and astrocytes. Here, we investigated the role of astrocytes in DS developmental disease and the impact of the astrocyte secretome in neuron mTOR signaling and synapse formation using iPSC derived from DS and wild-type (WT) subjects. We demonstrated for the first time that DS neurons derived from hiPSC recapitulate the hyperactivation of the Akt/mTOR axis observed in DS brains and that DS astrocytes may play a key role in this dysfunction. Our results bear out that 21 trisomy in astrocytes contributes to neuronal abnormalities in addition to cell autonomous dysfunctions caused by 21 trisomy in neurons. Further research in this direction will likely yield additional insights, thereby improving our understanding of DS and potentially facilitating the development of new therapeutic approaches.

Astrocytes/pathology , Down Syndrome/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Neurogenesis , Neurons/pathology , Signal Transduction , Synapses/pathology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , Astrocytes/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Mice , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells/pathology , Neurons/metabolism , Spheroids, Cellular/pathology