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2.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(11): 1355-1366, 2021 11 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515766

Importance: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytologic testing and flow cytometry are insensitive for diagnosing neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS). Such clinical phenotypes can mimic infectious and autoimmune causes of meningoencephalitis. Objective: To ascertain whether CSF metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) can identify aneuploidy, a hallmark of malignant neoplasms, in difficult-to-diagnose cases of CNS malignant neoplasm. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two case-control studies were performed at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). The first study used CSF specimens collected at the UCSF Clinical Laboratories between July 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019, and evaluated test performance in specimens from patients with a CNS malignant neoplasm (positive controls) or without (negative controls). The results were compared with those from CSF cytologic testing and/or flow cytometry. The second study evaluated patients who were enrolled in an ongoing prospective study between April 1, 2014, and July 31, 2019, with presentations that were suggestive of neuroinflammatory disease but who were ultimately diagnosed with a CNS malignant neoplasm. Cases of individuals whose tumors could have been detected earlier without additional invasive testing are discussed. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measures were the sensitivity and specificity of aneuploidy detection by CSF mNGS. Secondary subset analyses included a comparison of CSF and tumor tissue chromosomal abnormalities and the identification of neuroimaging characteristics that were associated with test performance. Results: Across both studies, 130 participants were included (median [interquartile range] age, 57.5 [43.3-68.0] years; 72 men [55.4%]). The test performance study used 125 residual laboratory CSF specimens from 47 patients with a CNS malignant neoplasm and 56 patients with other neurological diseases. The neuroinflammatory disease study enrolled 12 patients and 17 matched control participants. The sensitivity of the CSF mNGS assay was 75% (95% CI, 63%-85%), and the specificity was 100% (95% CI, 96%-100%). Aneuploidy was detected in 64% (95% CI, 41%-83%) of the patients in the test performance study with nondiagnostic cytologic testing and/or flow cytometry, and in 55% (95% CI, 23%-83%) of patients in the neuroinflammatory disease study who were ultimately diagnosed with a CNS malignant neoplasm. Of the patients in whom aneuploidy was detected, 38 (90.5%) had multiple copy number variations with tumor fractions ranging from 31% to 49%. Conclusions and Relevance: This case-control study showed that CSF mNGS, which has low specimen volume requirements, does not require the preservation of cell integrity, and was orginally developed to diagnose neurologic infections, can also detect genetic evidence of a CNS malignant neoplasm in patients in whom CSF cytologic testing and/or flow cytometry yielded negative results with a low risk of false-positive results.


Biomarkers, Tumor/cerebrospinal fluid , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/cerebrospinal fluid , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenomics , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
3.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 98, 2021 06 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074327

BACKGROUND: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of body fluids is an emerging approach to identify occult pathogens in undiagnosed patients. We hypothesized that metagenomic testing can be simultaneously used to detect malignant neoplasms in addition to infectious pathogens. METHODS: From two independent studies (n = 205), we used human data generated from a metagenomic sequencing pipeline to simultaneously screen for malignancies by copy number variation (CNV) detection. In the first case-control study, we analyzed body fluid samples (n = 124) from patients with a clinical diagnosis of either malignancy (positive cases, n = 65) or infection (negative controls, n = 59). In a second verification cohort, we analyzed a series of consecutive cases (n = 81) sent to cytology for malignancy workup that included malignant positives (n = 32), negatives (n = 18), or cases with an unclear gold standard (n = 31). RESULTS: The overall CNV test sensitivity across all studies was 87% (55 of 63) in patients with malignancies confirmed by conventional cytology and/or flow cytometry testing and 68% (23 of 34) in patients who were ultimately diagnosed with cancer but negative by conventional testing. Specificity was 100% (95% CI 95-100%) with no false positives detected in 77 negative controls. In one example, a patient hospitalized with an unknown pulmonary illness had non-diagnostic lung biopsies, while CNVs implicating a malignancy were detectable from bronchoalveolar fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Metagenomic sequencing of body fluids can be used to identify undetected malignant neoplasms through copy number variation detection. This study illustrates the potential clinical utility of a single metagenomic test to uncover the cause of undiagnosed acute illnesses due to cancer or infection using the same specimen.


Body Fluids , Liquid Biopsy/methods , Metagenome , Metagenomics/methods , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/etiology , Body Fluids/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Computational Biology/methods , Cytogenetic Analysis , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Histocytochemistry , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Liquid Biopsy/standards , Metagenomics/standards , Neoplasms/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Med (N Y) ; 2(4): 411-422.e5, 2021 04 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521749

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily affects the lungs, but evidence of systemic disease with multi-organ involvement is emerging. Here, we developed a blood test to broadly quantify cell-, tissue-, and organ-specific injury due to COVID-19. METHODS: Our test leverages genome-wide methylation profiling of circulating cell-free DNA in plasma. We assessed the utility of this test to identify subjects with severe disease in two independent, longitudinal cohorts of hospitalized patients. Cell-free DNA profiling was performed on 104 plasma samples from 33 COVID-19 patients and compared to samples from patients with other viral infections and healthy controls. FINDINGS: We found evidence of injury to the lung and liver and involvement of red blood cell progenitors associated with severe COVID-19. The concentration of cell-free DNA correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale for disease progression and was significantly increased in patients requiring intubation. CONCLUSIONS: This study points to the utility of cell-free DNA as an analyte to monitor and study COVID-19. FUNDING: This work was supported by NIH grants 1DP2AI138242 (to I.D.V.), R01AI146165 (to I.D.V., M.P.C., F.M.M., and J.R.), 1R01AI151059 (to I.D.V.), K08-CA230156 (to W.G.), and R33-AI129455 to C.Y.C., a Synergy award from the Rainin Foundation (to I.D.V.), a SARS-CoV-2 seed grant at Cornell (to I.D.V.), a National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada fellowship PGS-D3 (to A.P.C.), and a Burroughs-Wellcome CAMS Award (to W.G.). D.C.V. is supported by a Fonds de la Recherche en Sante du Quebec Clinical Research Scholar Junior 2 award. C.Y.C. is supported by the California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation.


COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Virus Diseases , Humans , Methylation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Nat Med ; 27(1): 115-124, 2021 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169017

We developed a metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) test using cell-free DNA from body fluids to identify pathogens. The performance of mNGS testing of 182 body fluids from 160 patients with acute illness was evaluated using two sequencing platforms in comparison to microbiological testing using culture, 16S bacterial PCR and/or 28S-internal transcribed ribosomal gene spacer (28S-ITS) fungal PCR. Test sensitivity and specificity of detection were 79 and 91% for bacteria and 91 and 89% for fungi, respectively, by Illumina sequencing; and 75 and 81% for bacteria and 91 and 100% for fungi, respectively, by nanopore sequencing. In a case series of 12 patients with culture/PCR-negative body fluids but for whom an infectious diagnosis was ultimately established, seven (58%) were mNGS positive. Real-time computational analysis enabled pathogen identification by nanopore sequencing in a median 50-min sequencing and 6-h sample-to-answer time. Rapid mNGS testing is a promising tool for diagnosis of unknown infections from body fluids.


Bacteria/isolation & purification , Body Fluids/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Metagenomics , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/analysis , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , Female , Fungi/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072158

Longer time to diagnosis for patients with eosinophilic esophagitis can lead to adverse patient outcomes, but the length of diagnostic delay has not been quantified for patients with eosinophilic esophagitis in Canada. Our study defines the time to diagnosis (TTD) for pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis in British Columbia and identifies factors that predict increased time to diagnosis. The median TTD was 21 months (1.75 years; IQR = 7, 45) with a median age at EoE diagnosis of 105 months (8.75 years; IQR = 44, 156). Caucasians experienced significantly longer TTD compared to other ethnicities (24 months (IQR = 7, 52) and 12 months (IQR = 4.5, 23) respectively, p = 0.008). Caucasian ethnicity (p = 0.037) and older age at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.006) predicted increased TTD. Our model explained 7.9% (Adjusted R2 = 0.079) of the total variance for our cohort.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4698, 2020 09 17.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943630

Given the limited availability of serological testing to date, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in different populations has remained unclear. Here, we report very low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in two San Francisco Bay Area populations. Seroreactivity was 0.26% in 387 hospitalized patients admitted for non-respiratory indications and 0.1% in 1,000 blood donors in early April 2020. We additionally describe the longitudinal dynamics of immunoglobulin-G (IgG), immunoglobulin-M (IgM), and in vitro neutralizing antibody titers in COVID-19 patients. The median time to seroconversion ranged from 10.3-11.0 days for these 3 assays. Neutralizing antibodies rose in tandem with immunoglobulin titers following symptom onset, and positive percent agreement between detection of IgG and neutralizing titers was >93%. These findings emphasize the importance of using highly accurate tests for surveillance studies in low-prevalence populations, and provide evidence that seroreactivity using SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid protein IgG and anti-spike IgM assays are generally predictive of in vitro neutralizing capacity.


Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods
8.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766608

COVID-19 primarily affects the lungs, but evidence of systemic disease with multi-organ involvement is emerging. Here, we developed a blood test to broadly quantify cell, tissue, and organ specific injury due to COVID-19, using genome-wide methylation profiling of circulating cell-free DNA in plasma. We assessed the utility of this test to identify subjects with severe disease in two independent, longitudinal cohorts of hospitalized patients. Cell-free DNA profiling was performed on 104 plasma samples from 33 COVID-19 patients and compared to samples from patients with other viral infections and healthy controls. We found evidence of injury to the lung and liver and involvement of red blood cell progenitors associated with severe COVID-19. The concentration of cfDNA correlated with the WHO ordinal scale for disease progression and was significantly increased in patients requiring intubation. This study points to the utility of cell-free DNA as an analyte to monitor and study COVID-19.

9.
Science ; 369(6503): 582-587, 2020 07 31.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513865

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, with >365,000 cases in California as of 17 July 2020. We investigated the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Northern California from late January to mid-March 2020, using samples from 36 patients spanning nine counties and the Grand Princess cruise ship. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the cryptic introduction of at least seven different SARS-CoV-2 lineages into California, including epidemic WA1 strains associated with Washington state, with lack of a predominant lineage and limited transmission among communities. Lineages associated with outbreak clusters in two counties were defined by a single base substitution in the viral genome. These findings support contact tracing, social distancing, and travel restrictions to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in California and other states.


Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , California/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Ships , Travel , Washington
10.
medRxiv ; 2020 Mar 27.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511449

An outbreak of novel betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (formerly named 2019-nCoV), began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and the COVID-19 disease associated with infection has since spread rapidly to multiple countries. Here we report the development of SARS-CoV-2 DETECTR, a rapid (~30 min), low-cost, and accurate CRISPR-Cas12 based lateral flow assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory swab RNA extracts. We validated this method using contrived reference samples and clinical samples from infected US patients and demonstrated comparable performance to the US CDC SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR assay.

11.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 25.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511477

We report very low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in two San Francisco Bay Area populations. Seropositivity was 0.26% in 387 hospitalized patients admitted for non-respiratory indications and 0.1% in 1,000 blood donors. We additionally describe the longitudinal dynamics of immunoglobulin-G, immunoglobulin-M, and in vitro neutralizing antibody titers in COVID-19 patients. Neutralizing antibodies rise in tandem with immunoglobulin levels following symptom onset, exhibiting median time to seroconversion within one day of each other, and there is >93% positive percent agreement between detection of immunoglobulin-G and neutralizing titers.

12.
medRxiv ; 2020 Mar 30.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511579

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally, resulting in >300,000 reported cases worldwide as of March 21st, 2020. Here we investigate the genetic diversity and genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Northern California using samples from returning travelers, cruise ship passengers, and cases of community transmission with unclear infection sources. Virus genomes were sampled from 29 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection from Feb 3rd through Mar 15th. Phylogenetic analyses revealed at least 8 different SARS-CoV-2 lineages, suggesting multiple independent introductions of the virus into the state. Virus genomes from passengers on two consecutive excursions of the Grand Princess cruise ship clustered with those from an established epidemic in Washington State, including the WA1 genome representing the first reported case in the United States on January 19th. We also detected evidence for presumptive transmission of SARS-CoV-2 lineages from one community to another. These findings suggest that cryptic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Northern California to date is characterized by multiple transmission chains that originate via distinct introductions from international and interstate travel, rather than widespread community transmission of a single predominant lineage. Rapid testing and contact tracing, social distancing, and travel restrictions are measures that will help to slow SARS-CoV-2 spread in California and other regions of the USA.

13.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511617

Real-time dissemination of epidemiological survey data from positive COVID-19 cases is critical to support efforts to contain or reduce spread of viral infection in the community. Here we detected a significant association between domestic travel or travel to Europe and the identification of new cases in San Francisco, California, USA. These findings suggest that domestic and European travelers may need to be prioritized for evaluation of acute infection from COVID-19 in the setting of limited testing capacity.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(11): 2976-2980, 2020 12 31.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436571

In early-to-mid March 2020, 20 of 46 (43%) COVID-19 cases at a tertiary care hospital in San Francisco, California were travel related. Cases were significantly associated with travel to either Europe (odds ratio, 6.1) or New York (odds ratio, 32.9). Viral genomes recovered from 9 of 12 (75%) cases co-clustered with lineages circulating in Europe.


COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , New York , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
15.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(6): 674-679, 2020 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454095

BACKGROUND: Parents experience a wide range of emotions, specifically stress and anxiety, when their child receives a diagnosis of a food allergy. Managing this health condition and coping with emotions require professional and peer support. Currently, there is a lack of resources and a lack of awareness of the resources that are required to help assist parents in managing their child's food allergy. OBJECTIVE: To describe parental experiences when caring for a child with food allergy and to review the resources parents need to manage living with a child with food allergy and more specifically how they would want these resources delivered. METHODS: A total of 7 semistructured focus groups were conducted in British Columbia, Canada. Parents were asked to describe their experiences with managing their child's food allergy and identify helpful resources. RESULTS: A total of 40 parents (33 females) participated in the focus groups. Participant demographics were collected. The following 3 main themes emerged: (1) anxiety (an emotional roller coaster); (2) a transformational journey (the waiting game, loss of normalcy, strained relationships and mistrust, and financial challenges); and (3) the need for resources (day to day management, ages and stages, mental health supports, and "the dream"). CONCLUSION: An in-person allied health care team is needed to provide an integrated, patient-centered approach for how families can live and manage food allergies. Credible information and resources, such as medically reviewed websites, support groups, and counseling services, with a goal of reducing child and parental anxiety, should be provided by health care professionals.


Anxiety/epidemiology , Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Parents , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Anxiety/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Counseling , Female , Focus Groups , Food Hypersensitivity/psychology , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Health Services , Parent-Child Relations , Patient-Centered Care , Social Support
16.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(6): 678-685, 2020 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320501

BACKGROUND: In the context of food allergy, excessive parental anxiety can be maladaptive and lead to unnecessary restriction of social activities. No validated tool exists to measure food allergy-associated anxiety (FAAA). This study sought to explore factors associated with parental FAAA, determine sensitivity and specificity of using generic state anxiety measure-State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) versus FAAA, and determine whether validated tools for generalized anxiety or food allergy-specific quality of life (QoL) could be used as surrogates for FAAA. METHODS: Canadian parents of food-allergic children completed an online survey. Without a validated tool for FAAA, a visual analogue scale was used to assess parent-reported FAAA. Multivariable linear regression was performed with FAAA as the outcome. Sensitivity and specificity analysis of state anxiety vs. FAAA, and factor analysis of state anxiety and QOL, was performed to determine whether these could be used as surrogates for FAAA. RESULTS: A total of 548 of 1244 parents (44.1%) completed the survey. Factors positively associated with FAAA included parental burden, risk perception, state anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty and perceived severity of child's food allergy; personal/family history of mental health was negatively associated. Sensitivity and specificity of state anxiety were 68.6% and 70.0%. Factor analysis revealed that state anxiety and QOL were correlated (r = 0.54, P < .001) but distinct constructs. CONCLUSION: Our study identified factors associated with FAAA, and determined that generic anxiety and QOL tools do not accurately categorize parents with self-reported high FAAA. Future research will develop a validated screening tool to help allergists identify anxious parents and provide psychosocial resources.


Food Hypersensitivity , Quality of Life , Allergens , Anxiety/diagnosis , Canada , Child , Food Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Humans , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(7): 870-874, 2020 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300245

An outbreak of betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 began in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19, the disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, rapidly spread to produce a global pandemic. We report development of a rapid (<40 min), easy-to-implement and accurate CRISPR-Cas12-based lateral flow assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory swab RNA extracts. We validated our method using contrived reference samples and clinical samples from patients in the United States, including 36 patients with COVID-19 infection and 42 patients with other viral respiratory infections. Our CRISPR-based DETECTR assay provides a visual and faster alternative to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR assay, with 95% positive predictive agreement and 100% negative predictive agreement.


Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Guide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(1): 149-156.e1, 2020 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301377

BACKGROUND: Because of inaccuracies in commonly used tests for food allergy, oral food challenges (OFCs) are considered the criterion standard, but OFC implementation is suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To use a mixed-methods approach to describe OFC barriers at multiple levels and investigate solutions. METHODS: Surveys of Canadian allergists, pediatricians, and parents investigated barriers to offering or participating in OFCs, and possible solutions. Parent focus groups were held to understand these barriers and solutions. Allergist offices in British Columbia were contacted via telephone to confirm their OFC practices. RESULTS: Of 62 responding allergists, 80.6% reported performing OFCs, 72.6% reported lack of resources as an influential barrier, and 72.6% reported that creation of standard guidelines for hospital versus community OFCs would influence them to perform more OFCs. Of 101 responding pediatricians, 51.5% reported having moderate-to-extensive OFC knowledge; these pediatricians were more likely to refer to allergists who performed them (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.06-5.30). Of 27 pediatricians who stated they refer more to allergists who do not perform OFCs, 40.7% reported long wait times as a deterrent. The most common parent barriers from surveys (N = 110) and focus groups (N = 27) were fear and anxiety about the procedure and about experiencing reactions during OFCs, suggesting the need for better information and psychosocial resources. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple barriers prevent widespread use of OFCs. Efforts targeting OFC training for allergists, education for pediatricians, and standardized guidelines created with clinician and parent input (including consistent OFC information for families and guidance on which OFCs should be performed in-hospital versus the community) are likely to increase OFC acceptance.


Allergens , Food Hypersensitivity , Allergists , British Columbia , Food , Humans
20.
Genome Announc ; 3(3)2015 Jun 25.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26112791

We report the draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium elephantis strain Lipa from a sputum sample of a patient with pulmonary disease. This is the first draft genome sequence of M. elephantis, a rapidly growing mycobacterium.

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