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Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467020

Peer mentorship is an effective approach for delivering health promotion programs that may be particularly useful among underrepresented populations. Advancing the peer-led approach, the Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program (IYMP) is a communal-led program rooted in Indigenous values aimed at the promotion of healthy lifestyles in children and youth. The program includes layers of multi-age mentoring (i.e., elementary students, high school student mentors, and young adult health leaders [YAHLs]) and incorporates three core components: physical activity, healthy eating, and cultural teachings. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore elementary student, mentor, and YAHL experiences in an urban IYMP offering. Eleven sharing circles were conducted; six with elementary students (n = 23; grade 4 and 5 students), two with mentors (n = 3; students enrolled in a grade 10 wellness girls class), and three with YAHLs (n = 6; undergraduate university students). Focus groups were also held with respective school teachers and principals. An inductive content analysis generated three themes that represent the perceived impacts of this urban IYMP offering: (1) Fostering Wellness, (2) Strengthening Meaningful Connections, and (3) Exploring Leadership. Findings are positioned within a communal mentorship framework that is circular and multi-directional. By bringing together Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples, this program offering supports Indigenous cultural relevance in an urban-based wellness program.

Interpersonal Relations , Mentoring/methods , Mentors/psychology , Peer Group , Adolescent , Canada , Child , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Implementation Science , Qualitative Research , Young Adult
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800716

OBJECTIVES: To assess the functional results of oromandibular reconstruction by free bone flap, in terms of swallowing, speech and esthetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A transverse multicenter study included 134 patients reconstructed by free bone flap between 1998 and 2016, with more than 6 months' follow-up, in 9 centers. A standardized questionnaire collected data on patients and treatment. Study endpoints comprised: weight loss, mouth opening, gastrostomy dependence, type of feeding, and DHI score. The impact of patient baseline characteristics on these functional criteria was explored by uni/multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Ninety of the 134 patients had cancer. Fibula flap was mainly used (80%). 94% of reconstructions were primary successes. 71% of patients had pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. 88% had less than 50% lingual resection. 97% recovered oral feeding. 89% had intelligible speech. 86% judged their esthetic appearance as good/average. 9% had dental prosthetic rehabilitation. Radiation therapy and extensive lingual resection significantly impacted swallowing function (P=0.04 and P=0.03, respectively). Radiation therapy and oropharyngeal extension significantly increased gastrostomy dependence (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: Oromandibular reconstruction by free bone flap enabled return to oral feeding in most cases. More than 80% of patients were satisfied with their result in terms of speech and esthetics. However, the rate of dental rehabilitation was low and the rate of complications was high.

BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 523, 2020 Apr 19.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306943

BACKGROUND: Since young children spend approximately 30 h per week in early childcare centres (ECC), this setting is ideal to foster healthy behaviours. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé (HSDS) randomized controlled trial in increasing physical activity (PA) levels and improving healthy eating and fundamental movement skills in preschoolers attending ECC. METHODS: Sixty-one ECC were randomly selected and allocated to either the usual practice (n = 30; n = 433 children) or intervention group (n = 31; n = 464 children). The HSDS intervention group was provided a 3-h on-site training for childcare educators which aimed to increase their knowledge and self-efficacy in promoting healthy eating, PA and development of fundamental movement skills in preschoolers. PA was measured during childcare hours for five consecutive days using the Actical accelerometer. Preschoolers' fundamental movement skills were assessed using the standard TGMD-II protocol and POMP scores. Food intake was evaluated using digital photography-assisted weighted plate waste at lunch, over two consecutive days. All data were collected prior to the HSDS intervention and again 9 months later. Mixed-effect models were used to analyse the effectiveness of the HSDS intervention on all outcome measures. RESULTS: Total number of children who provided valid data at baseline and endpoint for PA, food intake and fundamental movement skills were 259, 670 and 492, respectively. Children in the HSDS intervention group had, on average, a 3.33 greater point increase in their locomotor motor skills scores than children in the control group (ß = 3.33, p = 0.009). No significant differences in effects were observed for object control, PA and food intake. However, results demonstrated a marginal increase in portions of fruits and vegetables served in the intervention group compared to control group (ß = 0.06, p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Of the 12 outcome variables investigated in this study, 10 were not different between the study groups and two of them (locomotor skills and vegetables and fruits servings) showed a significant improvement. This suggests that HSDS is an effective intervention for the promotion of some healthy behaviours among preschoolers attending ECC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT02375490. Registered on February 24, 2015; 77 retrospectively registered.

Child Day Care Centers , Diet, Healthy/methods , Exercise , Health Promotion/methods , Motor Skills , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Program Evaluation
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 137(5): 371-375, 2020 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291205

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility in routine practice of postoperative chemoradiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) at high risk of recurrence. METHOD: A single-center retrospective study recruited all patients receiving postoperative cisplatin chemoradiotherapy for HNSCC at high risk of recurrence. The main endpoints were the rate of complete postoperative chemoradiotherapy and the impact of various clinical factors. Secondary endpoints comprised the impact of completion of therapy on survival and on acute and late toxicity. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients were included. 24.5% showed severe comorbidity. Chemoradiotherapy was complete in 61 patients (57.5%). Radiation therapy was interrupted for >3 days in 16 patients (15.1%). The 3rd concomitant cisplatin course could not be implemented in 34 patients (32.1%). Low pre-treatment glomerular filtration rate was significantly associated (p=0.003) with treatment interruption; >5% weight-loss during treatment showed suggestive association (p=0.026). Completion of treatment was not associated with any significant difference in overall survival (p=0.441) or progression-free survival (p=0.81). 14.9% of patients showed post-treatment kidney failure; there were 10 cases of osteoradionecrosis (9.4%). CONCLUSION: The rate of complete postoperative chemoradiotherapy was comparable to that reported in clinical trials, despite frequent comorbidity and poor nutritional status. Early nutritional support is a key factor for treatment under optimal conditions.

Rev Mal Respir ; 37(2): 171-179, 2020 Feb.
Article Fr | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061440

Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a common cause of admission to the intensive care unit and its presence is a major prognostic factor in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH). RVF results from an incapacity of the RV to adapt to an increase in afterload so it can become critical in acute PE and chronic PH. The presence of RVF in cases of acute PE with haemodynamic instability is an indication for thrombolytic therapy. RVF represents the most common cause of death in chronic PH. Factors triggering RV failure in PH, such as infection, PE, arrhythmias, or unplanned withdrawal of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapy, have to be considered and treated if identified. However, RVF may also represent progression to end-stage disease. The management of RVF in patients with PH requires expertise and consists of optimization of fluid balance (with diuretics), cardiac output (with inotropic support such as dobutamine), perfusion pressure (with norepinephrine), and reduction of RV afterload with PAH-targeted therapies. Extracorporeal life support, lung transplantation or heart-lung transplantation should be considered in cases of refractory RVF in eligible patients.

Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Vascular Diseases/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy , Acute Disease , Critical Care/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Lung Transplantation , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Lung Transplantation , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Vascular Diseases/complications , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
Ann Hum Biol ; 47(4): 316-323, 2020 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960720

BACKGROUND: During adolescence, deselection from sport occurs during team try-outs when month of birth, stage of growth and maturation may influence selection. AIM: The purpose of this study was to identify differences in growth and maturity related factors between those selected and deselected in youth sports teams and identify short-term associations with continued participation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eight hundred and seventy participants, aged 11-17 years, were recruited from six sports try-outs in Saskatchewan, Canada: baseball, basketball, football, hockey, soccer and volleyball. Two hundred and forty-four of the initial 870 (28%) returned for follow-up at 36 months. Chronological (years from birth), biological (years from age at peak height velocity (APHV)) and relative (month of birth as it relates to the selection band) ages were calculated from measures of date of birth, date of test, height, sitting height and weight. Parental heights were measured or recalled and participant's adult height predicted. Reference standards were used to calculate z-scores. Sports participation was self-reported at try-outs and at 36-month follow-up. RESULTS: There was an over-representation of players across all sports born in the first and second quartiles of the selection bands (p < 0.05), whether they were selected or deselected. z-scores for predicted adult height ranged from 0.1 (1.1) to 1.8 (1.2) and were significantly different between sports (p < 0.05). Height and APHV differences (p < 0.05) were found between selected and deselected male participants. In females only weight differed between selected and deselected female hockey players (p < 0.05); no further differences were found between selected and deselected female participants. Four per cent of deselected athletes exited sports participation and 68% of deselected athletes remained in the same sport at 36 months, compared with 84% of selected athletes who remained in the same sport. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that youth who attended sports team's try-outs were more likely to be born early in the selection year, be tall for their age, and in some sports early maturers. The majority of both the selected and deselected participants continued to participate in sport 36 months after try-outs, with the majority continuing to participate in their try-out sport.

Respir Med Res ; 76: 48-53, 2019 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557688

Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a congenital disorder characterized by cutaneous capillary malformations, soft tissue and bone hypertrophy, and multiple capillary, venous or lymphatic malformations. KTS is associated with recurrent thromboembolic events. We reported herein five cases of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) associated with KTS (age minimum-maximum 26-50 years old, 3 males/2 females). Hemodynamics showed severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) with pulmonary vascular resistance ranging from 5.6 to 18.3 Wood units (WU), associated with marked clinical impairment (NYHA functional class III or IV in 4 patients). Computed tomography (CT) of the chest and pulmonary angiography confirmed proximal CTEPH accessible to surgical intervention in one patient and distal forms of CTEPH in 4 patients. Evolution after pulmonary endarterectomy showed hemodynamic normalization, while the patients with distal CTEPH had severe outcomes with 2 early deaths after PH diagnosis (44 and 35 months respectively). One patient with distal CTEPH was still alive 16 years after diagnosis on specific PH therapy and one was transplanted after 15 years because of right heart failure (death after 12 months). Histological analysis of the lung explants showed typical chronic thromboembolic material specific for CTEPH. In conclusion, KTS may be complicated by severe CTEPH requiring careful anticoagulation and multidisciplinary follow-up in expert centers to screen for disease potentially accessible to endarterectomy. In the modern management era of CTEPH, balloon pulmonary angioplasty will certainly be an interesting option in patients with inoperable disease.

Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Adult , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology
Pulmonology ; 25(4): 248-251, 2019.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080042

BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has gained importance in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and studies have demonstrated its use as a surrogate marker and in following treatment of these patients. The pathophysiology of PH differs between pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, group 1) and chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH, group 4). OBJECTIVES: The present study tested the hypothesis that PAH and CTEPH display different characteristics on CMR imaging. METHODS: 46 patients were evaluated for pulmonary vascular disease in the French National Reference Center for PH (23 PAH and 23 CTEPH matched for age and gender). All patients had the right heart catheterization (RHC) and CMR imaging performed within 48h. CMR imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. RESULTS: PAH and CTEPH had similar body surface area and similar invasive hemodynamics, including mean pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac index, pulmonary vascular resistance and right atrial pressure. PAH and CTEPH had similar CMR data. Right ventricular (RV) morphology and function and pulmonary artery (PA) data were also similar. CONCLUSION: Age- and sex-matched PAH and CTEPH patients displayed similar values of the CMR indices of RV and PA morphology and function, suggesting that the RV-PA responses are similar in both groups, mostly related to the overall increase in after load.

Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Chronic Disease , Female , France/epidemiology , Heart Atria/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/physiopathology , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Pulmonary Wedge Pressure/physiology , Vascular Diseases/physiopathology , Vascular Resistance , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology
Rev Mal Respir ; 36(4): 433-437, 2019 Apr.
Article Fr | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010759

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and incurable cardiopulmonary disorder. Research from the past 10 years illustrates the complex and multifactorial aspects of PAH pathophysiology. Furthermore, latest advances in the field have led to a better understanding of the key components underlying this inadequate accumulation of pulmonary vascular cells within the pulmonary arterial walls, leading to pulmonary vascular remodelling. Among the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, pulmonary endothelial dysfunction, alterations of the inter-cell communications within the pulmonary arterial walls as well as defects of the inflammatory component and the loss of BMPRII activity play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease.

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/etiology , Adaptive Immunity/physiology , Autoimmunity/physiology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/genetics , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/genetics , Hypertension, Pulmonary/immunology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/physiology , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/genetics , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/immunology , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/physiopathology , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Vascular Remodeling/physiology
Rev Med Interne ; 39(12): 925-934, 2018 Dec.
Article Fr | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174113

About 70% patients waiting for liver transplantation have a dyspnea. Two pulmonary vascular disorders can be associated with portal hypertension or chronic liver diseases: portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) related to pulmonary small arteries remodeling and obstruction and hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) characterized by pulmonary capillaries dilatations and proliferations. PoPH is defined by the combination of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (mean pulmonary artery pressure [PAP]≥25mmHg, with normal pulmonary artery wedge pressure≤15mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance [PVR]>3 Wood units [WU]) and portal hypertension. HPS is a triad of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations, hypoxemia (increased alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient) and liver disease or isolated portal hypertension. The pathophysiology of both syndromes is complex and poorly understood. PoPH and HPS have a negative impact on functional and vital prognosis in patients with portal hypertension. Liver transplantation is the established treatment standard in HPS. PoPH treatment is improved over the years with the use of specific PAH treatment despite the lack of randomized assay in this indication. Liver transplantation could be considered in PoPH leading to stabilization, improvement or recovery in selected patients (mean PAP<35mmHg without severe right ventricular dysfunction and PVR<4 WU).

Liver Diseases , Lung Diseases , Vascular Diseases , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/diagnosis , Hypertension, Portal/epidemiology , Hypertension, Portal/therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Vascular Diseases/complications , Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/therapy , Vascular Resistance/physiology
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 135(6): 443-447, 2018 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934262

The endoscope and microscope can be used conjointly in certain sites, such as middle ear cholesteatoma or for resection of cerebellopontine angle tumours. Petrous apex tumours are classically accessed via a lateral otological approach, or, for the most anterior tumours, via an endonasal endoscopic approach. Surgical access via a lateral incision is limited inferiorly by the superior bulb of the internal jugular vein, medially by the labyrinth, facial nerve and internal auditory canal, superiorly by the dura mater, and laterally by the internal carotid artery. Via an anterior endonasal approach, the corridor formed by the internal carotid artery and the paraclival dura limits access to the posterior part of the petrous apex, restricting this approach to certain cholesterol granulomas or small cholesteatomas. None of these approaches, on its own, is sufficient in the case of an extensive petrous apex lesion. The objective of this technical note is to describe the combined microscopic/endoscopic approach comprising sequential use of the microscope and the endoscope via a lateral approach for the management of large petrous apex lesions.

Endoscopy/methods , Microsurgery/methods , Petrous Bone/surgery , Humans
Eval Program Plann ; 68: 90-98, 2018 06.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505965

BACKGROUND: The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention was developed to promote physical activity, gross motor skills and healthy eating among preschoolers attending childcare centers. This process evaluation aimed to report the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention. METHODS: The RE-AIM framework was used to guide this process evaluation. Data were collected across 140 childcare centers who received the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in the provinces of Saskatchewan and New Brunswick, Canada. Quantitative data were collected through director questionnaires at 10 months and 2 years after the initial training and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected throughout the intervention. RESULTS: The intervention was successful in reaching a large number of childcare centres and engaging both rural and urban communities across Saskatchewan and New Brunswick. Centres reported increasing opportunities for physical activity and healthy eating, which were generally low-cost, easy and quick to implement. However, these changes were rarely transformed into formal written policies. A total of 87% of centers reported using the physical activity resource and 68% using the nutrition resource on a weekly basis. Implementation fidelity of the initial training was high. Of those centers who received the initial training, 75% participated in the mid-point booster session training. Two year post-implementation questionnaires indicated that 47% of centers were still using the Active Play Equipment kit, while 42% were still using the physical activity resource and 37% were still using the nutrition resource. Key challenges to implementation and sustainability identified during the evaluation were consistent among all of the REAIM elements. These challenges included lack of time, lack of support from childcare staff and low parental engagement. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggest the implementation of Healthy Start-Départ Santé may be improved further by addressing resistance to change and varied levels of engagement among childcare staff. In addition, further work is needed to provide parents with opportunities to engage in HSDS with their children.

Child Day Care Centers/organization & administration , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Motor Skills , Canada , Child, Preschool , Humans , Program Evaluation , Rural Population
Rev Mal Respir ; 35(2): 160-170, 2018 Feb.
Article Fr | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501213

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by preferential remodelling of pulmonary venules and angioproliferation. PVOD term includes idiopathic, heritable (biallelic mutations of EIF2AK4 gene), drugs and toxins induced (alkylating agents, organic solvents) and connectivite-associated forms (especially systemic-sclerosis associated form). PVOD and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) share a similar clinical presentation. Lung biopsy is contraindicated in PVOD due to high risk of life-threatening bleeding. A noninvasive diagnostic approach, including oxygen parameters, low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and characteristic signs on high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, is used to support a diagnosis of PVOD. PVOD prognosis is worse than other forms of PAH. There is no evidence-based medical therapy for PVOD and life-threatening pulmonary edema may occur following PAH targeted therapy in PVOD. Lung transplantation remains the preferred definitive therapy for eligible patients.

Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease , Animals , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/diagnosis , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/epidemiology , Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease/therapy , Rare Diseases/diagnosis , Rare Diseases/epidemiology , Rare Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Risk Factors
BMJ Open ; 7(5): e013657, 2017 05 30.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28559455

INTRODUCTION: Childcare educators may be role models for healthy eating and physical activity (PA) behaviours among young children. This study aimed to identify which childcare educators' practices are associated with preschoolers' dietary intake and PA levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 723 preschoolers from 50 randomly selected childcare centres in two Canadian provinces. All data were collected in the fall of 2013 and 2014 and analysed in the fall of 2015. PA was assessed using Actical accelerometers during childcare hours for 5 consecutive days. Children's dietary intake was measured at lunch on 2 consecutive days using weighed plate waste and digital photography. Childcare educators' nutrition practices (modelling, nutrition education, satiety recognition, verbal encouragement and not using food as rewards) and PA practices (informal and formal PA promotion) were assessed by direct observation over the course of 2 days, using the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care tool. Associations between educators' practices and preschoolers' PA and dietary intake were examined using multilevel linear regressions. RESULTS: Overall, modelling of healthy eating was positively associated with children's intake of sugar (ß=0.141, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.27), while calorie (ß=-0.456, 95% CI -1.46 to -0.02) and fibre intake (ß=-0.066, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.01) were negatively associated with providing nutrition education. Not using food as rewards was also negatively associated with fat intake (ß=-0.144, 95% CI -0.52 to -0.002). None of the educators' PA practices were associated with children's participation in PA. CONCLUSIONS: Modelling healthy eating, providing nutrition education and not using food as rewards are associated with children's dietary intake at lunch in childcare centres, highlighting the role that educators play in shaping preschoolers' eating behaviours. Although PA practices were not associated with children's PA levels, there is a need to reduce sedentary time in childcare centres.

Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Faculty , Health Behavior , Health Education , Health Promotion , Accelerometry , Canada , Child Day Care Centers , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Fiber , Dietary Sugars , Energy Intake , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Sedentary Behavior
Prev Med ; 97: 33-39, 2017 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087466

Preschoolers observe and imitate the behaviors of those who are similar to them. Therefore, peers may be role models for preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers. This study examined whether peers' behaviors predict change in preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity in childcare centers over 9months. A total of 238 preschoolers (3 to 5years old) from 23 childcare centers in two Canadian provinces provided data at the beginning (October 2013 and 2014) and the end (June 2014 and 2015) of a 9-month period for this longitudinal study. Dietary intake was collected at lunch using weighed plate waste and digital photography on two consecutive weekdays. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers over five days. Multilevel linear regressions were used to estimate the influence of peers' behaviors on preschoolers' change in dietary intake and physical activity over 9months. Results showed that preschoolers whose dietary intake or physical activity level deviated the most from those of their peers at the beginning of the year demonstrated greater change in their intakes and activity levels over 9months, which enabled them to become more similar to their peers (all ß 95% CI ranged from -0.835 to -0.074). This study suggests that preschoolers' dietary intake and physical activity may be influenced by the behaviors of their peers in childcare centers. Since peers could play an important role in promoting healthy eating behaviors and physical activity in childcare centers, future studies should test interventions based on positive role modeling by children.

Child Behavior/psychology , Child Day Care Centers , Diet , Exercise/physiology , Peer Group , Accelerometry/methods , Canada , Child Care , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male
Clin Exp Allergy ; 47(2): 161-175, 2017 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28036144

Asthma is a complex respiratory disorder characterized by marked heterogeneity in individual patient disease triggers and response to therapy. Several asthma phenotypes have now been identified, each defined by a unique interaction between genetic and environmental factors, including inflammatory, clinical and trigger-related phenotypes. Endotypes further describe the functional or pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the patient's disease. type 2-driven asthma is an emerging nomenclature for a common subtype of asthma and is characterized by the release of signature cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 from cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. A number of well-recognized biomarkers have been linked to mechanisms involved in type 2 airway inflammation, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide, serum IgE, periostin, and blood and sputum eosinophils. These type 2 cytokines are targets for pharmaceutical intervention, and a number of therapeutic options are under clinical investigation for the management of patients with uncontrolled severe asthma. Anticipating and understanding the heterogeneity of asthma and subsequent improved characterization of different phenotypes and endotypes must guide the selection of treatment to meet individual patients' needs.

Asthma/etiology , Asthma/metabolism , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/metabolism , Animals , Asthma/pathology , Asthma/therapy , Biomarkers , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/therapy , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
Presse Med ; 45(11): 1005-1018, 2016 Nov.
Article Fr | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27039335

The role of seasons should be taken into account in the management of asthma. The environment varies between seasons and it is well documented that asthma is modulated by environment. Viruses cause asthma exacerbations peak, in winter, in adults while the peak is present in September in children. Allergens are probably a less powerful source of asthma exacerbation than viruses but pollen involvement in spring and summer and dust mites in autumn are indisputable. Air pollutants, present in summer during the hottest periods, are also highly involved in asthma exacerbations. Indoor air pollution, in winter, is also implicated in asthma disease. All these environmental factors are synergistic and increase the risk of asthma exacerbation. Therapies should be adapted to each season depending on environmental factors potentially involved in the asthma disease.

Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Seasons , Adult , Animals , Asthma/etiology , Child , Common Cold/complications , Common Cold/drug therapy , Common Cold/epidemiology , Humans , Mites , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/complications , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus , Risk Factors
Rev Mal Respir ; 33(6): 460-73, 2016 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26868668

INTRODUCTION: Type 1 neurofibromatosis is one of the most common genetic diseases, with an incidence of 1/3500 live births. Its diagnosis primarily relies on the clinical features of the condition. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE: The life expectancy of these patients is reduced by 10 years, on average, compared to the general population. Type 1 neurofibromatosis has been shown to increase the risk of various types of neoplasia, primarily those affecting the neural crest. In addition, interstitial lung disease, lung cancer, and pulmonary hypertension have been observed during the third or the fourth decade of an adult's life. PERSPECTIVES: There are only few case reports available that address the pulmonary complications of neurofibromatosis type 1. It is thus crucial to fully understand this rare disease and its potential complications in order to allow for early diagnosis so we are able to improve the quality of life and survival of those suffering from the condition. CONCLUSIONS: The pulmonary complications of type 1 neurofibromatosis can be severe and life-threatening. Patients with this condition should thus undergo regular clinical visits and examinations to allow pulmonary complications to be detected and treatment to be initiated as early as possible.

Lung Diseases/etiology , Neurofibromatosis 1/complications , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Neurofibromatosis 1/diagnosis , Neurofibromatosis 1/genetics , Rare Diseases