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Genet Mol Biol ; 41(3): 545-554, 2018.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043834

Our aim was to develop and apply a comprehensive noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) by using high-coverage targeted next-generation sequencing to estimate fetal fraction, determine fetal sex, and detect trisomy and monogenic disease without parental genotype information. We analyzed 45 pregnancies, 40 mock samples, and eight mother-child pairs to generate 35 simulated datasets. Fetal fraction (FF) was estimated based on analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele fraction distribution. A Z-score was calculated for trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21), and fetal sex detection. Monogenic disease detection was performed through variant analysis. Model validation was performed using the simulated datasets. The novel model to estimate FF was robust and accurate (r2= 0.994, p-value < 2.2e-16). For samples with FF > 0.04, T21 detection had 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 63.06 to 100%) and 98.53% specificity (95% CI: 92.08 to 99.96%). Fetal sex was determined with 100% accuracy. We later performed a proof of concept for monogenic disease diagnosis of 5/7 skeletal dysplasia cases. In conclusion, it is feasible to perform a comprehensive NIPT by using only data from high coverage targeted sequencing, which, in addition to detecting trisomies, also make it possible to identify pathogenic variants of the candidate genes for monogenic diseases.

Hum Mutat ; 36(11): 1029-33, 2015 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123647

Nonsyndromic orofacial cleft (NSOFC) is a complex disease of still unclear genetic etiology. To investigate the contribution of rare epithelial cadherin (CDH1) gene variants to NSOFC, we target sequenced 221 probands. Candidate variants were evaluated via in vitro, in silico, or segregation analyses. Three probably pathogenic variants (c.760G>A [p.Asp254Asn], c.1023T>G [p.Tyr341*], and c.2351G>A [p.Arg784His]) segregated according to autosomal dominant inheritance in four nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) families (Lod score: 5.8 at θ = 0; 47% penetrance). A fourth possibly pathogenic variant (c.387+5G>A) was also found, but further functional analyses are needed (overall prevalence of CDH1 candidate variants: 2%; 15.4% among familial cases). CDH1 mutational burden was higher among probands from familial cases when compared to that of controls (P = 0.002). We concluded that CDH1 contributes to NSCL/P with mainly rare, moderately penetrant variants, and CDH1 haploinsufficiency is the likely etiological mechanism.

Brain/abnormalities , Cadherins/genetics , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Genetic Variation , Alleles , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Antigens, CD , Cadherins/chemistry , Cell Line , Cleft Lip/diagnosis , Cleft Palate/diagnosis , DNA Mutational Analysis , Genotype , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Mutation , Open Reading Frames , Penetrance
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(9): 2170-5, 2012 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22887868

Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a complex disorder with a worldwide incidence estimated at 1:700. Among the putative susceptibility loci, the IRF6 gene and a region at 8q24.21 have been corroborated in different populations. To test the role of IRF6 in NSCL/P predisposition in the Brazilian population, we conducted a structured association study with the SNPs rs642961 and rs590223, respectively, located at 5' and 3' of the IRF6 gene and not in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), in patients from five different Brazilian locations. We also evaluated the effect of these SNPs in IRF6 expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). We observed association between rs642961 and cleft lip only (CLO) (P=0.009; odds ratio (OR) for AA genotype=1.83 [95% Confidence interval (CI), 0.64-5.31]; OR for AG genotype=1.72 [95% CI, 1.03-2.84]). This association seems to be driven by the affected patients from Barbalha, a location which presents the highest heritability estimate (H2=0.85), and the A allele at rs642961 is acting through a dominant model. No association was detected for the SNP rs590223. We did not find any correlation between expression levels and genotypes of the two loci, and it is possible that these SNPs have a functional role in some specific period of embryogenesis.

Cleft Lip/epidemiology , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 , Cleft Lip/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Linkage Disequilibrium , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 94(6): 464-8, 2012 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22511506

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate is a relatively common craniofacial defect with multifactorial inheritance. The association of the rs987525 single nucleotide variant, located in a gene desert at 8q24.21 region, has been consistently replicated in European populations. We performed a structured association approach combined with transcriptional analysis of the MYC gene to dissect the role of rs987525 in oral clefting susceptibility in the ethnically admixed Brazilian population. METHODS: We performed the association study conditioned on the individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 563 patients and 336 controls, and in an independent sample of 221 patients and 261 controls. The correlation between rs987525 genotypes and MYC transcriptional levels in orbicularis oris muscle mesenchymal stem cells was also investigated in 42 patients and 4 controls. RESULTS: We found a significant association in the larger sample (p = 0.0016; OR = 1.80 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.21-2.69], for heterozygous genotype, and 2.71 [95% CI, 1.47-4.96] for homozygous genotype). We did not find a significant correlation between rs987525 genotypes and MYC transcriptional levels (p = 0.14; r = -0.22, Spearman Correlation). CONCLUSIONS: We present a positive association of rs987525 in the Brazilian population for the first time, and it is likely that the European contribution to our population is driving this association. We also cannot discard a role of rs987515 in MYC regulation, because this locus behaves as an expression quantitative locus of MYC in another tissue.

Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Genetic Loci , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 , Cleft Lip/ethnology , Cleft Palate/ethnology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Humans , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transcription, Genetic