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Exp Ther Med ; 23(1): 8, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815760

The present study investigated changes in corneal epithelial thickness after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in patients with long-term preoperative soft contact lens (SCL) wear, the impact of SCL wear on the efficacy of surgical outcomes and the effects of long-term SCL wear on postoperative corneal aberrations. Patients were assigned to three groups according to the duration of SCL wear: Group A, the non-SCL-wearing group; group B, those with SCL wear ≤1 year; and group C, those with SCL wear >1 year. Epithelial thickness was recorded in nine zones by anterior segment optical coherence tomography across a 5-mm diameter before surgery and at 1 week, and 1, 3 and 6 months post-surgery. Corneal epithelial thickness and corneal aberrations among the three groups were compared, as well as the effects of changes in corneal epithelial thickness on postoperative visual acuity and manifest refraction. No significant differences were noted with regard to age or preoperative spherical equivalent among groups A (22 eyes), B (17 eyes) and C (18 eyes). Preoperative corneal epithelial thickness in the inferonasal, inferior and inferotemporal zones was thinner in group B compared with that in group A, and corneal epithelial thickness was thinner in all nine zones in group C compared with that in group A (P<0.05). At all follow-up time points, in the central, nasal, inferonasal, inferior, inferotemporal and temporal areas, the epithelial thickness was thinner in group C compared with that in group A (P<0.05). At 3 months postoperatively, the epithelial thickness was thinner in the inferonasal and inferior sectors in group C compared with that in group B (P<0.05), and at 6 months postoperatively, the epithelial thickness in the inferior region was thinner in group C compared with that in group B (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in visual acuity or manifest refraction among the three groups at all postoperative time points. The total higher-order aberrations were greater in group C compared with those in group A for all time points (P<0.05) and were greater in group C at 1 and 3 months postoperatively compared with those in group B (P<0.05). The spherical aberrations at 3 and 6 months postoperatively were greater in group C compared with those in group A (P<0.05). The coma aberrations were greater in group C compared with those in groups A and B for all time points (P<0.05). In conclusion, long-term SCL wear will result in corneal epithelial thinning, which does not impact visual acuity or manifest refraction after SMILE.

BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 604, 2021 11 23.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814921

BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have not given clear results of concentrated growth factor (CGF) on gingival thickness (GT) in periodontal accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO). This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of CGF on GT in patients with thin gingival phenotype undergoing PAOO. METHODS: Forty four patients presenting 264 anterior mandibular teeth were recruited and randomly allocated to one of the groups: test-positioning of autologous CGF after PAOO or control-positioning of a collagen membrane after PAOO. GT, gingival height (GH), buccal alveolar bone thickness (BT), and buccal alveolar bone height (BH) were evaluated depending on cross-sectional CBCT images at t0 (before surgery) and t1(6 months after surgery). RESULTS: GT were increased in both groups at t1 compared to t0. Yet, higher values were observed in the test group (from 0.94 ± 0.23 to 1.31 ± 0.33 mm) compared to the control group (from 0.94 ± 0.19 to 1.02 ± 0.16 mm) (p < 0.05). Moreover, in the intergroup comparison, GT at t1 in the test group was significantly higher compared to the control group (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the GT of central incisors, lateral incisors and canine teeth all showed significantly changes compared with baseline and the test group showed higher increase (p < 0.01). No statistically significant difference were found in GH, BT, BH and all clinical parameters between two groups at t1 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitation of this study, gingival thickness could be increased by using CGF in PAOO for the patients with thin gingival phenotype. Trial registration The study was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ) under the number ChiCTRINR17013346, Registered 11 November 2017.

Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(5): 1101-1110, 2021 Nov 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705785

BACKGROUND: The maxilla position is essential for the aesthetic and functional outcomes of orthognathic surgery. Previous studies demonstrated the advantages of patient-specific implants in orthognathic surgery. However, more data are needed to confirm the superiority of patient-specific implants over surgical splints created with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the accuracy of patient-specific implants and CAD/CAM splints for maxilla repositioning in orthognathic surgery. METHODS: Patients (n = 64) who required orthognathic surgery were randomly assigned to use either patient-specific implants (patient-specific implant group) or CAD/CAM surgical splints (splint group) to reposition the maxilla. The outcome evaluation was completed by comparing virtual plans with actual results. The primary outcome was the discrepancies of the centroid position of the maxilla. Other translation and orientation discrepancies of the maxilla were also assessed. RESULTS: The authors analyzed 27 patients in the patient-specific implant group and 31 in the splint group. The maxilla position discrepancy was 1.41 ± 0.58 mm in the patient-specific implant group and 2.20 ± 0.94 mm in the splint group; the between-group difference was significant (p < 0.001). For the patient-specific implant group, the largest translation discrepancy was 1.02 ± 0.66 mm in the anteroposterior direction, and the largest orientation discrepancy was 1.85 ± 1.42 degrees in pitch. For the splint group, the largest translation discrepancy was 1.23 ± 0.93 mm in the mediolateral direction, and the largest orientation discrepancy was 1.72 ± 1.56 degrees in pitch. CONCLUSION: The result showed that using patient-specific implants in orthognathic surgery resulted in a more accurate maxilla position than CAD/CAM surgical splints. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, I.

Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 1419-1425, 2020.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904647

Purpose: There has been growing interest in the association between periodontitis and systemic disease. In recent years, however, inconsistent results have also been found by case-control studies for the role of periodontitis in the development of oral cancer. This study aimed to examine whether periodontitis was an independent risk factor for oral cancer with a ≥75-year age group cohort. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2014, 1385 patients aged ≥75 years who underwent radiographic examination were included in this retrospective cohort study. We collected demographic information and comorbid health conditions from local health authorities. Participants were followed up until either the occurrence of mortality, or the end of the study on December 31, 2018. Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk hazard models were used to examine the association between periodontitis and oral cancer mortality. Results: Periodontitis and loss of teeth were significantly associated with oral cancer mortality. Compared to oral cancer mortality in healthy subjects, the HR and 95% CI in patients with mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis were 4.46 (0.94-21.06), 5.16 (1.14-23.39), and 6.65 (1.51-29.36), respectively. The HR (95% CI) was 1.05 (1.01-1.09) for tooth loss after controlling for potential confounding factors. All the increases in risk persisted in patients aged ≥80 years. Conclusion: The present study provides substantial evidence that poor periodontal health is associated with oral cancer mortality. It is necessary to underline the importance of considering periodontitis in the prevention of oral cancer, particularly in the older patients.

Alveolar Bone Loss/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/mortality , Periodontitis , Tooth Loss/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Periodontitis/diagnosis , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiography/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(11): 916-921, 2020 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769785

OBJECTIVES: Evidence of the association between fine particulate (PM2.5, particles ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) air pollution and fatal hemorrhagic stroke incidence is limited. This study aims to document the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and fatal hemorrhagic stroke incidence. METHODS: The time-stratified case-crossover approach was applied for the analysis. RESULTS: The mean concentration of PM2.5 is 75.33 µg/m. Fatal hemorrhagic stroke incidence was significantly associated with PM2.5 exposure. Exposure to PM2.5 led to a 5% (2%-9%) and 5% (1%-10%) increase in fatal hemorrhagic stroke incidence in lag2 and lag03 respectively. An increased risk was observed especially in men and subjects with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for the association between PM2.5 exposure and fatal hemorrhagic stroke incidence. Men and subjects with hypertension have increased risks, overweight may further increase their susceptibility to PM2.5 exposure related hemorrhagic stroke.

Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Hemorrhagic Stroke , Particulate Matter , Stroke , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Cross-Over Studies , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Hemorrhagic Stroke/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis
Exp Gerontol ; 133: 110878, 2020 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061644

Evidence for an association between periodontitis and respiratory disease in the older patients is limited. Additionally, little information exists regarding the role of potential effect modifiers. The aim of this study is to examine whether periodontitis increases the risk of respiratory disease mortality in older patients. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 1385 patients aged 75 years and above who underwent radiographic examination in the largest dental hospital in Shanghai, China were included in this retrospective cohort study. The dental examination was made with the panoramic radiographs. Demographic information and comorbid health conditions were collected from local health authorities. Participant follow up was continued until either the occurrence of mortality, or the end of the study on December 31, 2018. Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk hazard models were performed to examine the association between periodontitis and respiratory disease mortality. We found that periodontitis was associated with total respiratory disease mortality. Compared with healthy participants, the hazards ratio and 95% confidence interval for total respiratory disease mortality in patients with severe periodontitis was 2.72(1.04,7.11) after adjusting for relevant confounding variables. With increasing severity of periodontitis, risks for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality also increased significantly (P = .038). Smokers and participants with body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2 were at increased risk. Loss of teeth was not associated with either total respiratory disease or COPD mortality. Although the present study cannot ascertain causal association, it provides substantial evidence that poor periodontal health is associated with respiratory disease in the older patients, particularly in smokers and patients with BMI < 25 kg/m2.

Periodontitis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , China/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(11): 2375-2382, 2020 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020486

BACKGROUND: Poor oral health is a risk indicator of poor quality of life and mortality. However, whether these associations remain potent in elderly subjects after adequately considering the confounding factors is not yet clearly elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between periodontal disease and tooth loss and total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in the elderly > 75 years old. METHODS: A total of 1385 individuals, receiving periodontal treatment in Shanghai, participated in this retrospective study. Data on oral status were obtained from radiographs to calculate the proportion of residual bone. The information about mortality was collected from the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC). Univariate Cox proportional hazards model, multivariable-adjusted model, and competing risk hazard model were used to analyze the association between periodontal disease or tooth loss and mortality. RESULTS: Those with severe periodontitis were associated with higher risk of total mortality than healthy individuals [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.11-1.98]. Further, missing teeth increased the risk of total mortality (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03). However, no significant difference was detected in the association between periodontitis or tooth loss and CVD mortality. In competing risk hazard model, an increased risk was observed for other-cause mortality, not CVD mortality, in those with severe periodontitis and missing teeth. CONCLUSION: Periodontal diseases and tooth loss were the potential predictors of total mortality even after adjustment for confounding factors. However, these were not independent indicators for CVD mortality.

Periodontal Diseases , Tooth Loss , Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China/epidemiology , Humans , Periodontal Diseases/complications , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tooth Loss/complications , Tooth Loss/epidemiology
J Hum Genet ; 64(9): 875-883, 2019 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273320

Micrognathia is a common craniofacial deformity which represents hypoplastic development of the mandible, accompanied by retrognathia and consequent airway problems. Usually, micrognathia is accompanied by multiple systematic defects, known as syndromic micrognathia, and is in close association with genetic factors. Now, large quantities of pathogenic genes of syndromic micrognathia have been revealed. However, how these different pathogenic genes could lead to similar phenotypes, and whether there are some common characteristics among these pathogenic genes are still unknown. In this study, we proposed a genetic-phenotypic classification of syndromic micrognathia based on pathogenic genes information obtained from Phenolyzer, DAVID, OMIM, and PubMed database. Pathogenic genes of syndromic micrognathia could be divided into four groups based on gene function, including cellular processes and structures, cell metabolism, cartilage and bone development, and neuromuscular function. In addition, these four groups exhibited various clinical characteristics, and the affected systems, such as central nervous system, skeletal system, cardiovascular system, oral and dental system, respiratory system and muscle, were different in these four groups. This classification could provide meaningful insights into the pathogenesis of syndromic micrognathia, and offer some clues for understanding the molecular mechanism, as well as guiding precise clinical diagnosis and treatment for syndromic micrognathia.

Mandible/pathology , Micrognathism/classification , Micrognathism/genetics , Micrognathism/pathology , Phenotype , Humans , Syndrome
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8146, 2019 05 31.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148581

This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of different voxel sizes in the detection of alveolar bone defects, and to select the optimal voxel size for clinical use. 46 in-vitro teeth were placed in bovine ribs in which alveolar bone defects were randomly simulated. In total, 32 alveolar bone defects and 14 teeth without periodontal defects were used. CBCT images were acquired with the use of three different voxel sizes: 0.125-mm, 0.2-mm and 0.4-mm. The scan data were 3D-reconstructed in Mimics software and evaluated by two observers with more than 5 years of experience in CBCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and diagnostic values were obtained. Pairwise comparison of ROC curves was made for evaluation of the diagnostic values of different voxel sizes. Kappa statistics assessed the observer reliability. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05. It showed no statistically significant difference between 0.125-mm group and 0.2-mm group, but 0.4-mm group had lower Az values that differed significantly from 0.125-mm and 0.2-mm groups (P < 0.05). Based on diagnostic value and radiation protection, 0.2-mm voxel size may be a good choice for the detection of bone defects with CBCT.

Alveolar Process/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Alveolar Process/physiopathology , Animals , Cattle , Computer Simulation , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , In Vitro Techniques , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Ribs/diagnostic imaging , Ribs/physiopathology , Software
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 38, 2019 Jun 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153356

OBJECTIVE: Few studies investigating associations between fine particulate air pollution and hemorrhagic stroke have considered subtypes. Additionally, less is known about the modification of such association by factors measured at the individual level. We aimed to investigate the risk of fatal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) incidence in case of PM2.5 (particles ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) exposure. METHODS: Data on incidence of fatal ICH from 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2014 were extracted from the acute stroke mortality database in Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC). We used the time-stratified case-crossover approach to assess the association between daily concentrations of PM2.5 and fatal ICH incidence in Shanghai, China. RESULTS: A total of 5286 fatal ICH cases occurred during our study period. The averaged concentration of PM2.5 was 77.45 µg/m3. The incidence of fatal ICH was significantly associated with PM2.5 concentration. Substantial differences were observed among subjects with diabetes compared with those without; following the increase of PM2.5 in lag2, the OR (95% CI) for subjects with diabetes was 1.26 (1.09-1.46) versus 1.05 (0.98-1.12) for those without. We did not find evidence of effect modification by hypertension and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Fatal ICH incidence was associated with PM2.5 exposure. Our results also suggested that diabetes may increase the risk for ICH incidence in relation to PM2.5.

Air Pollutants/analysis , Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis , Stroke/mortality , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Particle Size
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097392

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomic course of the mandibular canal in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HM). STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, 77 patients were included and stratified according to the Pruzansky-Kaban classification. The mandibular canal and the mandible were reconstructed on the basis of computed tomography data. The entrance, route, and exit of the mandibular canal (representing the entrance, route, and exit of the inferior alveolar nerve [IAN], respectively), and the antilingula were analyzed in different types of mandibular deformities in patients with HM. RESULTS: No significant difference in the course of the mandibular canal was detected between the affected and unaffected sides in patients with type I and type IIa HM. Abnormalities were observed in some patients with type IIb and type III HM. Significant differences were found between patients with type IIb and type III HM in the entrance (P = .015) and route (P = .001) of the canals. The antilingula was identified only in patients with type IIb and type III HM and was more common in patients with type III HM than in those with type IIb HM. CONCLUSIONS: Variation of the anatomic course of mandibular canal exists in patients with Pruzansky-Kaban type IIb and type III HM. Evaluation of the course of the canal in patients with HM is recommended before surgical intervention to avoid IAN damage.

Goldenhar Syndrome , Goldenhar Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Mandibular Nerve , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Lab Chip ; 19(7): 1267-1276, 2019 03 27.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821304

To elucidate the secretary function of immune cells, we develop a nanoplasmonic circular interferometric biosensor based on intensity interrogation for label-free and dynamic sensing of molecular secretion. Exceptional sensitivity has been demonstrated through coupling free light and surface plasmon polariton (SPPs) waves, which generates a constructive and deconstructive interference pattern with high contrast and narrow linewidth when illuminated by white light. Alternatively, by adopting a narrow-band LED source and a CCD camera in this work, the transmission intensity of multiple sensing units is monitored simultaneously with a simple collinear optical setup. This intensity-modulated sensing platform yields a resolution of 4.1 × 10-5 refractive index unit (RIU) with a high temporal resolution of 1 s and a miniaturized footprint as small as 9.8 × 9.8 µm2 for a single sensing unit. By integrating the signals from multiple sensor units, the resolution of a 12 × 12 sensor array was found to reach 7.3 × 10-6 RIU. We apply this sensor array to detect matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion from human monocytic cells, THP-1, at different time points after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) simulation and the results are in good agreement with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests, but without the need for labeling. The spatial, temporal and mass resolutions of the sensor array are found to exceed other label-free technologies. These biomolecular arrays, incorporated in a microfluidic sensor platform, hold great potential for the study the dynamics and interplay of cell secretion signals and achieving a better understanding of single cell functions.

Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Interferometry/instrumentation , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Cell Line , Humans
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3137, 2019 02 28.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816322

Early detection of diabetic microvascular complications is of great significance for disease prognosis. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the correlation among diabetic microvascular complications which may indicate the importance of screening for other complications in the presence of one disorder. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched and a total of 26 cross-sectional studies met our inclusion criteria. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) had a proven risk association with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) [odds ratio (OR): 4.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.47-8.75, p < 0.01], while DKD also related to DR (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.79-3.15, p < 0.01). In addition, DR was associated with diabetic neuropathy (DN) (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.70-2.90, p < 0.01), and DN was related to DR (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.19-2.51, p < 0.01). However, the risk correlation between DKD and DN was not definite. Therefore, regular screening for the other two microvascular complications in the case of one complication makes sense, especially for patients with DR. The secondary results presented some physical conditions and comorbidities which were correlated with these three complications and thus should be paid more attention.

Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Neuropathies/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Odds Ratio
Acta Ophthalmol ; 93(1): e67-73, 2015 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25043677

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact and postoperative clinical recovery of long-term soft contact lens wear on the epithelial flap made during laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). METHODS: In a prospective study, 371 patients (589 eyes) who underwent LASEK were divided into four groups (G1, G2, G3, G4) according to their length of soft contact lens wear. After the contact lens (CL) was removed 1 week after surgery, various symptoms - uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), oedema of the corneal epithelium, spherical equivalent (SE) and haze degree - were recorded on day 1, and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in corneal flap production among the first three groups that wore CLs, but various symptoms and UCVA were all different from the fourth group that did not wear CLs. There were statistically significant differences in oedema of corneal epithelium among the first three groups, and the degree of oedema was positively correlated with the CL wearing time. There were no significant differences in postoperative SE and haze in all four groups. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term soft CL wear can affect production of the epithelial flap and postoperative recovery, including various symptoms, oedema of the central corneal epithelium and visual acuity. In contrast, there was no effect of long-term CL wear on postoperative mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE) and haze.

Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic/statistics & numerical data , Cornea/physiopathology , Corneal Edema/physiopathology , Epithelium, Corneal , Keratectomy, Subepithelial, Laser-Assisted , Surgical Flaps , Visual Acuity/physiology , Adult , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lasers, Excimer , Male , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Time Factors , Young Adult
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 42(8): 769-77, 2014 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24617953

A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of methylprednisolone pulse therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy. Eight studies involving 376 patients were included. A higher effective rate was found for patients treated with intravenous glucocorticoids (IVGC) over oral glucocorticoids (OGC) (risk ratio [RR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-1.86). The combined IVGC and orbital radiotherapy (OR) was markedly more effective than OGC+OR (RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.11-1.77). IVGC resulted in an obvious reduction of clinical activity score (CAS) compared with OGC, with a weighted mean difference (WMD) of 0.86 (95% CI = 0.53-1.18). The WMD for the reduction of the CAS between IVGC+OR and OGC+OR was 0.66 (95% CI = 0.30-1.02). IVGC is an effective treatment and cause fewer adverse events. Limiting the total cumulative dose of methylprednisolone, careful patient selection and monitoring the condition of patients during treatment are necessary.

Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Graves Ophthalmopathy/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Radiotherapy
J Vis ; 13(11)2013 Sep 26.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24071588

Relative to the broadband white light (BL), postnatal guinea pigs develop myopia in a monochromic middle-wavelength light (ML, 530 nm) environment and develop hyperopia in a monochromic short-wavelength light (SL, 430 nm) environment. We investigated whether transfer from SL or ML to BL leads to recuperation of ocular refraction and anatomy of developing guinea pigs. Two-week-old guinea pigs were given (a) SL for 20 weeks, (b) SL recuperation (SLR, SL for 10 weeks then BL for 10 weeks), (c) ML for 20 weeks, (d) ML recuperation (MLR, ML for 10 weeks then BL for 10 weeks), or (e) BL for 20 weeks. Two weeks after transfer from ML to BL (MLR group), ocular refraction increased from 1.95 ± 0.35 D to 2.58 ± 0.24 D, and vitreous length decreased from 3.48 ± 0.06 mm to 3.41 ± 0.06 mm. Two weeks after transfer from SL to BL (SLR group), ocular refraction decreased from 5.65 ± 0.61 D to 4.33 ± 0.49 D, and vitreous length increased from 3.18 ± 0.07 mm to 3.26 ± 0.11 mm. The MLR and SLR groups had final ocular refractions that were significantly different from those of the ML and SL groups at 20 weeks (ML vs. MLR: p < 0.0001; SL vs. SLR: p < 0.0001) but were still significantly different from the BL group (BL vs. MLR: p = 0.0120; BL vs. SLR: p = 0.0010). These results suggest that recuperation was not complete after return to BL for 10 weeks.

Axial Length, Eye/pathology , Eye/growth & development , Light , Refraction, Ocular/radiation effects , Vitreous Body/pathology , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Biometry , Emmetropia , Guinea Pigs , Hyperopia/physiopathology , Myopia/physiopathology
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 251(11): 2633-8, 2013 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23907482

BACKGROUND: To observe the efficacy and safety of modified Snyder-Thompson posterior scleral reinforcement in extensive high myopia of Chinese children. We had a retrospective design, and included a control group of children with natural progression of high myopia. METHODS: This study included 64 eyes in 41 Chinese children with extensive high myopia who underwent modified Snyder-Thompson posterior scleral reinforcement surgery (PSR group), and 17 eyes in 11 age- and myopia-matched children who wore spectacles (control group). The mean follow-up was 4.99 ± 1.3 years in the PSR group and 4.48 ± 1.3 years in the control group. Axial length, spherical equivalent (SE), uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and fundus examinations were recorded before and after treatment, and complications were noted. RESULTS: The mean change in SE at the end of the follow-up period was 1.5 ± 1.44 diopters (D) and 3.02 ± 1.57D in the PSR and control groups respectively. These changes were equivalent to an increase in axial length of 1.27 ± 0.54 mm and 2.05 ± 0.91 mm respectively. The PSR group showed less myopic progression and less eye elongation (p < 0.001). A notable increase in UCVA was only found in the PSR group (p = 0.0001). The improvement in BCVA was significantly greater in the PSR group (p = 0.0354). There were no serious complications of PSR surgery. CONCLUSION: The modified Snyder-Thompson PSR surgery was effective and safe in controlling extensive high myopia of Chinese children.

Dura Mater/transplantation , Myopia, Degenerative/surgery , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Sclera/surgery , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Axial Length, Eye/pathology , Child , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Myopia, Degenerative/ethnology , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity/physiology
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 67(8): 635-40, 2013 Aug.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23661720

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent results have been found on the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Additionally, evidence on people who are potentially sensitive to air pollution-associated stroke mortality is limited. METHODS: Daily stroke mortality of adults aged over 65 between 2003 and 2008 in Shanghai, China were collected. The time-stratified case-crossover approach was used to assess the association between daily concentrations of air pollutants including particles with size <10 µm, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and stroke mortality. RESULTS: Both total-stroke and ischaemic-stroke mortalities were found to be significantly associated with all three air pollutants. Haemorrhagic stroke was significantly associated with SO2 and NO2 only. Substantial differences were observed for effect estimates of ischaemic-stroke mortality in relation to NO2 among people with cardiac diseases compared with those without; for an increase of 10 µg/m(3) in NO2, the increase in ischaemic-stroke mortality was 7.05% (95% CI 1.92% to 12.17%) for people with comorbid cardiac diseases versus 0.60% (95% CI -0.49% to 1.68%) for those without. We did not find evidence of effect modification by hypertension and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence for the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and stroke mortality. Our results also suggest that underlying cardiac disorder may increase the risk for ischaemic-stroke mortality in relation to air pollution exposure, especially NO2. .

Air Pollution , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Stroke/mortality , Sulfur Dioxide/adverse effects , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Ozone/adverse effects , Seasons , Sex Distribution , Time Factors
PLoS One ; 8(5): e63229, 2013.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23658814

To investigate refractive and axial responses to the shift of focal plane resulting from the interchange of two monochromatic lights separately corresponding to the peak wavelengths of the cones absorption spectrum in retina, fifty 2-week-old pigmented guinea pigs were randomly assigned to five groups based on the mode of illumination: short-wavelength light (SL), middle-wavelength light (ML) and broad-band white light (BL) for 20 weeks, SL for 10 weeks followed by ML for 10 weeks (STM), as well as ML for 10 weeks followed by SL for 10 weeks (MTS). Biometric and refractive measurements were then performed every 2 weeks. After 10 weeks, SL and STM groups became more hyperopic and had less vitreous elongation than BL group. However, ML and MTS groups became more myopic and had more vitreous elongation. After interchange of the monochromatic light, the refractive error decreased rapidly by about 1.93D and the vitreous length increased by 0.14 mm in STM group from 10 to 12 weeks. After that, there were no significant intergroup differences between STM and BL groups. The interchange from ML to SL quickly increased the refractive error by about 1.53D and decreased the vitreous length by about 0.13 mm in MTS group after two weeks. At this time, there were also no significant intergroup differences between MTS and BL groups. The guinea pig eye can accurately detect the shift in focal plane caused by interchange of two monochromatic lights and rapidly generate refractive and axial responses. However, an excessive compensation was induced. Some properties of photoreceptors or retina may be changed by the monochromatic light to influence the following refractive development.

Fixation, Ocular/radiation effects , Light , Refraction, Ocular/radiation effects , Animals , Color , Guinea Pigs , Refractive Errors/physiopathology , Vitreous Body/physiology , Vitreous Body/physiopathology , Vitreous Body/radiation effects