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1.
J Med Genet ; 59(2): 165-169, 2022 02.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436522

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic heterozygous SIX1 variants (predominantly missense) occur in branchio-otic syndrome (BOS), but an association with craniosynostosis has not been reported. METHODS: We investigated probands with craniosynostosis of unknown cause using whole exome/genome (n=628) or RNA (n=386) sequencing, and performed targeted resequencing of SIX1 in 615 additional patients. Expression of SIX1 protein in embryonic cranial sutures was examined in the Six1 nLacZ/+ reporter mouse. RESULTS: From 1629 unrelated cases with craniosynostosis we identified seven different SIX1 variants (three missense, including two de novo mutations, and four nonsense, one of which was also present in an affected twin). Compared with population data, enrichment of SIX1 loss-of-function variants was highly significant (p=0.00003). All individuals with craniosynostosis had sagittal suture fusion; additionally four had bilambdoid synostosis. Associated BOS features were often attenuated; some carrier relatives appeared non-penetrant. SIX1 is expressed in a layer basal to the calvaria, likely corresponding to the dura mater, and in the mid-sagittal mesenchyme. CONCLUSION: Craniosynostosis is associated with heterozygous SIX1 variants, with possible enrichment of loss-of-function variants compared with classical BOS. We recommend screening of SIX1 in craniosynostosis, particularly when sagittal±lambdoid synostosis and/or any BOS phenotypes are present. These findings highlight the role of SIX1 in cranial suture homeostasis.


Craniosynostoses/genetics , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Animals , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cranial Sutures/embryology , Cranial Sutures/pathology , Craniosynostoses/complications , Craniosynostoses/embryology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Genetic Association Studies , Homeodomain Proteins/physiology , Humans , Infant , Mice , Pedigree , Phenotype , RNA-Seq , Whole Genome Sequencing
2.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Nov 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750192

BACKGROUND: Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND) is a rare genetic disease that affects structures derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches, mainly resulting in micrognathia and auricular malformations. To date, pathogenic variants have been identified in three genes involved in the EDN1-DLX5/6 pathway (PLCB4, GNAI3 and EDN1) and some cases remain unsolved. Here we studied a large unsolved four-generation family. METHODS: We performed linkage analysis, resequencing and Capture-C to investigate the causative variant of this family. To test the pathogenicity of the CNV found, we modelled the disease in patient craniofacial progenitor cells, including induced pluripotent cell (iPSC)-derived neural crest and mesenchymal cells. RESULTS: This study highlights a fourth locus causative of ARCND, represented by a tandem duplication of 430 kb in a candidate region on chromosome 7 defined by linkage analysis. This duplication segregates with the disease in the family (LOD score=2.88) and includes HDAC9, which is located over 200 kb telomeric to the top candidate gene TWIST1. Notably, Capture-C analysis revealed multiple cis interactions between the TWIST1 promoter and possible regulatory elements within the duplicated region. Modelling of the disease revealed an increased expression of HDAC9 and its neighbouring gene, TWIST1, in neural crest cells. We also identified decreased migration of iPSC-derived neural crest cells together with dysregulation of osteogenic differentiation in iPSC-affected mesenchymal stem cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis that the 430 kb duplication is causative of the ARCND phenotype in this family and that deregulation of TWIST1 expression during craniofacial development can contribute to the phenotype.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4797, 2021 08 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376651

Sutures separate the flat bones of the skull and enable coordinated growth of the brain and overlying cranium. The coronal suture is most commonly fused in monogenic craniosynostosis, yet the unique aspects of its development remain incompletely understood. To uncover the cellular diversity within the murine embryonic coronal suture, we generated single-cell transcriptomes and performed extensive expression validation. We find distinct pre-osteoblast signatures between the bone fronts and periosteum, a ligament-like population above the suture that persists into adulthood, and a chondrogenic-like population in the dura mater underlying the suture. Lineage tracing reveals an embryonic Six2+ osteoprogenitor population that contributes to the postnatal suture mesenchyme, with these progenitors being preferentially affected in a Twist1+/-; Tcf12+/- mouse model of Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome. This single-cell atlas provides a resource for understanding the development of the coronal suture and the mechanisms for its loss in craniosynostosis.


Cranial Sutures/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Osteogenesis/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Transcriptome/genetics , Acrocephalosyndactylia/embryology , Acrocephalosyndactylia/genetics , Acrocephalosyndactylia/pathology , Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , Cranial Sutures/cytology , Cranial Sutures/embryology , Dura Mater/cytology , Dura Mater/embryology , Dura Mater/metabolism , Mesoderm/cytology , Mesoderm/embryology , Mesoderm/metabolism , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , RNA-Seq/methods , Skull/cytology , Skull/embryology , Skull/metabolism , Twist-Related Protein 1/genetics , Twist-Related Protein 1/metabolism
4.
Genet Med ; 23(12): 2360-2368, 2021 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429528

PURPOSE: Genome sequencing (GS) for diagnosis of rare genetic disease is being introduced into the clinic, but the complexity of the data poses challenges for developing pipelines with high diagnostic sensitivity. We evaluated the performance of the Genomics England 100,000 Genomes Project (100kGP) panel-based pipelines, using craniosynostosis as a test disease. METHODS: GS data from 114 probands with craniosynostosis and their relatives (314 samples), negative on routine genetic testing, were scrutinized by a specialized research team, and diagnoses compared with those made by 100kGP. RESULTS: Sixteen likely pathogenic/pathogenic variants were identified by 100kGP. Eighteen additional likely pathogenic/pathogenic variants were identified by the research team, indicating that for craniosynostosis, 100kGP panels had a diagnostic sensitivity of only 47%. Measures that could have augmented diagnoses were improved calling of existing panel genes (+18% sensitivity), review of updated panels (+12%), comprehensive analysis of de novo small variants (+29%), and copy-number/structural variants (+9%). Recent NHS England recommendations that partially incorporate these measures should achieve 85% overall sensitivity (+38%). CONCLUSION: GS identified likely pathogenic/pathogenic variants in 29.8% of previously undiagnosed patients with craniosynostosis. This demonstrates the value of research analysis and the importance of continually improving algorithms to maximize the potential of clinical GS.


Craniosynostoses , Genetic Testing , Base Sequence , Chromosome Mapping , Craniosynostoses/diagnosis , Craniosynostoses/genetics , Humans , Rare Diseases/genetics
5.
Mol Cell Biol ; 41(8): e0014921, 2021 07 23.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972395

ETS2 repressor factor (ERF) haploinsufficiency causes late-onset craniosynostosis (CRS) (OMIM entry 600775; CRS4) in humans, while in mice Erf insufficiency also leads to a similar multisuture synostosis phenotype preceded by mildly reduced calvarium ossification. However, neither the cell types affected nor the effects per se have been identified so far. Here, we establish an ex vivo system for the expansion of suture-derived mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (sdMSCs) and analyze the role of Erf levels in their differentiation. Cellular data suggest that Erf insufficiency specifically decreases osteogenic differentiation of sdMSCs, resulting in the initially delayed mineralization of the calvarium. Transcriptome analysis indicates that Erf is required for efficient osteogenic lineage commitment of sdMSCs. Elevated retinoic acid catabolism due to increased levels of the cytochrome P450 superfamily member Cyp26b1 as a result of decreased Erf levels appears to be the underlying mechanism leading to defective differentiation. Exogenous addition of retinoic acid can rescue the osteogenic differentiation defect, suggesting that Erf affects cranial bone mineralization during skull development through retinoic acid gradient regulation.


Cranial Sutures/metabolism , Craniosynostoses/metabolism , Osteogenesis/physiology , Tretinoin/metabolism , Animals , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Craniosynostoses/genetics , Mice , Osteogenesis/genetics , Phenotype , Stem Cells/metabolism
6.
Hum Mutat ; 42(7): 811-817, 2021 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993607

Heterozygous intragenic loss-of-function mutations of ERF, encoding an ETS transcription factor, were previously reported to cause a novel craniosynostosis syndrome, suggesting that ERF is haploinsufficient. We describe six families harboring heterozygous deletions including, or near to, ERF, of which four were characterized by whole-genome sequencing and two by chromosomal microarray. Based on the severity of associated intellectual disability (ID), we identify three categories of ERF-associated deletions. The smallest (32 kb) and only inherited deletion included two additional centromeric genes and was not associated with ID. Three larger deletions (264-314 kb) that included at least five further centromeric genes were associated with moderate ID, suggesting that deletion of one or more of these five genes causes ID. The individual with the most severe ID had a more telomerically extending deletion, including CIC, a known ID gene. Children found to harbor ERF deletions should be referred for craniofacial assessment, to exclude occult raised intracranial pressure.


Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 , Intellectual Disability , Child , Chromosome Deletion , Haploinsufficiency , Heterozygote , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation , Repressor Proteins/genetics
8.
Bone Res ; 8: 24, 2020.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566365

The GP130 cytokine receptor subunit encoded by IL6ST is the shared receptor for ten cytokines of the IL-6 family. We describe a homozygous non-synonymous variant in IL6ST (p.R281Q) in a patient with craniosynostosis and retained deciduous teeth. We characterize the impact of the variant on cytokine signaling in vitro using transfected cell lines as well as primary patient-derived cells and support these findings using a mouse model with the corresponding genome-edited variant Il6st p.R279Q. We show that human GP130 p.R281Q is associated with selective loss of IL-11 signaling without affecting IL-6, IL-27, OSM, LIF, CT1, CLC, and CNTF signaling. In mice Il6st p.R279Q lowers litter size and causes facial synostosis and teeth abnormalities. The effect on IL-11 signaling caused by the GP130 variant shows incomplete penetrance but phenocopies aspects of IL11RA deficiency in humans and mice. Our data show that a genetic variant in a pleiotropic cytokine receptor can have remarkably selective defects.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1498-1506, 2020 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499606

PURPOSE: Enrichment of heterozygous missense and truncating SMAD6 variants was previously reported in nonsyndromic sagittal and metopic synostosis, and interaction of SMAD6 variants with a common polymorphism nearBMP2 (rs1884302) was proposed to contribute to inconsistent penetrance. We determined the occurrence of SMAD6 variants in all types of craniosynostosis, evaluated the impact of different missense variants on SMAD6 function, and tested independently whether rs1884302 genotype significantly modifies the phenotype. METHODS: We performed resequencing of SMAD6 in 795 unsolved patients with any type of craniosynostosis and genotyped rs1884302 in SMAD6-positive individuals and relatives. We examined the inhibitory activity and stability of SMAD6 missense variants. RESULTS: We found 18 (2.3%) different rare damaging SMAD6 variants, with the highest prevalence in metopic synostosis (5.8%) and an 18.3-fold enrichment of loss-of-function variants comparedwith gnomAD data (P < 10-7). Combined with eight additional variants, ≥20/26 were transmitted from an unaffected parent but rs1884302 genotype did not predict phenotype. CONCLUSION: Pathogenic SMAD6 variants substantially increase the risk of both nonsyndromic and syndromic presentations of craniosynostosis, especially metopic synostosis. Functional analysis is important to evaluate missense variants. Genotyping of rs1884302 is not clinically useful. Mechanisms to explain the remarkable diversity of phenotypes associated with SMAD6 variants remain obscure.


Craniosynostoses , Craniosynostoses/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Mutation, Missense/genetics , Penetrance , Phenotype , Smad6 Protein/genetics
10.
Bone Res ; 8(1): 24, 2020 Jun 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112760

The GP130 cytokine receptor subunit encoded by IL6ST is the shared receptor for ten cytokines of the IL-6 family. We describe a homozygous non-synonymous variant in IL6ST (p.R281Q) in a patient with craniosynostosis and retained deciduous teeth. We characterize the impact of the variant on cytokine signaling in vitro using transfected cell lines as well as primary patient-derived cells and support these findings using a mouse model with the corresponding genome-edited variant Il6st p.R279Q. We show that human GP130 p.R281Q is associated with selective loss of IL-11 signaling without affecting IL-6, IL-27, OSM, LIF, CT1, CLC, and CNTF signaling. In mice Il6st p.R279Q lowers litter size and causes facial synostosis and teeth abnormalities. The effect on IL-11 signaling caused by the GP130 variant shows incomplete penetrance but phenocopies aspects of IL11RA deficiency in humans and mice. Our data show that a genetic variant in a pleiotropic cytokine receptor can have remarkably selective defects.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(15): 2501-2513, 2019 08 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067316

Craniosynostosis, the premature ossification of cranial sutures, is a developmental disorder of the skull vault, occurring in approximately 1 in 2250 births. The causes are heterogeneous, with a monogenic basis identified in ~25% of patients. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identified a novel, de novo variant in BCL11B, c.7C>A, encoding an R3S substitution (p.R3S), in a male patient with coronal suture synostosis. BCL11B is a transcription factor that interacts directly with the nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation complex (NuRD) and polycomb-related complex 2 (PRC2) through the invariant proteins RBBP4 and RBBP7. The p.R3S substitution occurs within a conserved amino-terminal motif (RRKQxxP) of BCL11B and reduces interaction with both transcriptional complexes. Equilibrium binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations show that the p.R3S substitution disrupts ionic coordination between BCL11B and the RBBP4-MTA1 complex, a subassembly of the NuRD complex, and increases the conformational flexibility of Arg-4, Lys-5 and Gln-6 of BCL11B. These alterations collectively reduce the affinity of BCL11B p.R3S for the RBBP4-MTA1 complex by nearly an order of magnitude. We generated a mouse model of the BCL11B p.R3S substitution using a CRISPR-Cas9-based approach, and we report herein that these mice exhibit craniosynostosis of the coronal suture, as well as other cranial sutures. This finding provides strong evidence that the BCL11B p.R3S substitution is causally associated with craniosynostosis and confirms an important role for BCL11B in the maintenance of cranial suture patency.


Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Cranial Sutures/growth & development , Craniosynostoses/metabolism , Mutation, Missense , Nucleosomes/metabolism , Osteogenesis , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , Animals , Cranial Sutures/metabolism , Craniosynostoses/genetics , Craniosynostoses/physiopathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Infant , Male , Mice , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/physiology , Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 4/metabolism , Trans-Activators/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/physiology , Whole Genome Sequencing
12.
Mol Syndromol ; 10(1-2): 40-47, 2019 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976278

Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS) is an X-linked disorder caused by EFNB1 mutations in which females are more severely affected than males. Severe male phenotypes are associated with mosaicism, supporting cellular interference for sex bias in this disease. Although many variants have been found in the coding region of EFNB1, only 2 pathogenic variants have been identified in the same nucleotide in 5'UTR, disrupting the stop codon of an upstream open reading frame (uORF). uORFs are known to be part of a wide range of post-transcriptional regulation processes, and just recently, their association with human diseases has come to light. In the present study, we analyzed EFNB1 in a female patient with typical features of CFNS. We identified a variant, located at c.-411, creating a new upstream ATG (uATG) in the 5'UTR of EFNB1, which is predicted to alter an existing uORF. Dual-luciferase reporter assays showed significant reduction in protein translation, but no difference in the mRNA levels. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, the regulatory impact of uATG formation on EFNB1 levels and suggests that this should be the target region in molecular diagnosis of CFNS cases without pathogenic variants in the coding and splice sites regions of EFNB1.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 709-720, 2019 04 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905399

The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-subunit complex that regulates multiple steps of transcription. Mediator activity is regulated by the reversible association of a four-subunit module comprising CDK8 or CDK19 kinases, together with cyclin C, MED12 or MED12L, and MED13 or MED13L. Mutations in MED12, MED13, and MED13L were previously identified in syndromic developmental disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Here, we report CDK8 mutations (located at 13q12.13) that cause a phenotypically related disorder. Using whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, and by international collaboration, we identified eight different heterozygous missense CDK8 substitutions, including 10 shown to have arisen de novo, in 12 unrelated subjects; a recurrent mutation, c.185C>T (p.Ser62Leu), was present in five individuals. All predicted substitutions localize to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. Affected individuals have overlapping phenotypes characterized by hypotonia, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, and variable facial dysmorphism. Congenital heart disease occurred in six subjects; additional features present in multiple individuals included agenesis of the corpus callosum, ano-rectal malformations, seizures, and hearing or visual impairments. To evaluate the functional impact of the mutations, we measured phosphorylation at STAT1-Ser727, a known CDK8 substrate, in a CDK8 and CDK19 CRISPR double-knockout cell line transfected with wild-type (WT) or mutant CDK8 constructs. These experiments demonstrated a reduction in STAT1 phosphorylation by all mutants, in most cases to a similar extent as in a kinase-dead control. We conclude that missense mutations in CDK8 cause a developmental disorder that has phenotypic similarity to syndromes associated with mutations in other subunits of the Mediator kinase module, indicating probable overlap in pathogenic mechanisms.


Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8/genetics , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Mediator Complex/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Brain/abnormalities , Child , Child, Preschool , Cyclin C/genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/genetics , Exome , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Mutation , Phenotype , Phosphorylation , Syndrome
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 615-627, 2019 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758909

Mutations in the ERF gene, coding for ETS2 repressor factor, a member of the ETS family of transcription factors cause a recently recognized syndromic form of craniosynostosis (CRS4) with facial dysmorphism, Chiari-1 malformation, speech and language delay, and learning difficulties and/or behavioral problems. The overall prevalence of ERF mutations in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis is around 2%, and 0.7% in clinically nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. Here, we present findings from 16 unrelated probands with ERF-related craniosynostosis, with additional data from 20 family members sharing the mutations. Most of the probands exhibited multisutural (including pan-) synostosis but a pattern involving the sagittal and lambdoid sutures (Mercedes-Benz pattern) predominated. Importantly the craniosynostosis was often postnatal in onset, insidious and progressive with subtle effects on head morphology resulting in a median age at presentation of 42 months among the probands and, in some instances, permanent visual impairment due to unsuspected raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Facial dysmorphism (exhibited by all of the probands and many of the affected relatives) took the form of orbital hypertelorism, mild exorbitism and malar hypoplasia resembling Crouzon syndrome but, importantly, a Class I occlusal relationship. Speech delay, poor gross and/or fine motor control, hyperactivity and poor concentration were common. Cranial vault surgery for raised ICP and/or Chiari-1 malformation was expected when multisutural synostosis was observed. Variable expressivity and nonpenetrance among genetically affected relatives was encountered. These observations form the most complete phenotypic and developmental profile of this recently identified craniosynostosis syndrome yet described and have important implications for surgical intervention and follow-up.


Craniosynostoses/genetics , Craniosynostoses/pathology , Mutation , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Phenotype , Syndrome , Young Adult
15.
Haematologica ; 104(3): 609-621, 2019 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309848

Hyper-IgE syndromes comprise a group of inborn errors of immunity. STAT3-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome is characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent infections and eczema, and characteristic skeletal anomalies. A loss-of-function biallelic mutation in IL6ST encoding the GP130 receptor subunit (p.N404Y) has very recently been identified in a singleton patient (herein referred to as PN404Y) as a novel etiology of hyper-IgE syndrome. Here, we studied a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome caused by a novel homozygous mutation in IL6ST (p.P498L; patient herein referred to as PP498L) leading to abrogated GP130 signaling after stimulation with IL-6 and IL-27 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as IL-6 and IL-11 in fibroblasts. Extending the initial identification of selective GP130 deficiency, we aimed to dissect the effects of aberrant cytokine signaling on T-helper cell differentiation in both patients. Our results reveal the importance of IL-6 signaling for the development of CCR6-expressing memory CD4+ T cells (including T-helper 17-enriched subsets) and non-conventional CD8+T cells which were reduced in both patients. Downstream functional analysis of the GP130 mutants (p.N404Y and p.P498L) have shown differences in response to IL-27, with the p.P498L mutation having a more severe effect that is reflected by reduced T-helper 1 cells in this patient (PP498L) only. Collectively, our data suggest that characteristic features of GP130-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome phenotype are IL-6 and IL-11 dominated, and indicate selective roles of aberrant IL-6 and IL-27 signaling on the differentiation of T-cell subsets.


Cytokine Receptor gp130/genetics , Job Syndrome/diagnosis , Job Syndrome/etiology , Loss of Function Mutation , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Biomarkers , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokine Receptor gp130/chemistry , DNA Mutational Analysis , Disease Susceptibility , Genetic Association Studies , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Job Syndrome/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Models, Molecular , Pedigree , Phenotype , Protein Conformation , Radiography
16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1360-1365, 2018 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040876

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), one of the most common forms of syndromic craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the cranial sutures), results from haploinsufficiency of TWIST1, caused by deletions of the entire gene or loss-of-function variants within the coding region. To determine whether non-coding variants also contribute to SCS, we screened 14 genetically undiagnosed SCS patients using targeted capture sequencing, and identified novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of TWIST1 in two unrelated SCS cases. We show experimentally that these variants, which create translation start sites in the TWIST1 leader sequence, reduce translation from the main open reading frame (mORF). This is the first demonstration that non-coding SNVs of TWIST1 can cause SCS, and highlights the importance of screening the 5' UTR in clinically diagnosed SCS patients without a coding mutation. Similar 5' UTR variants, particularly of haploinsufficient genes, may represent an under-ascertained cause of monogenic disease.


5' Untranslated Regions , Acrocephalosyndactylia/genetics , Genetic Variation , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , Twist-Related Protein 1/genetics , Acrocephalosyndactylia/diagnosis , Alleles , Base Sequence , DNA Mutational Analysis , Databases, Genetic , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Haploinsufficiency , Humans , Male , Mutation , Nucleotide Motifs , Pedigree , Phenotype
17.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 28-38, 2018 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021403

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence has emerged linking mutations in CDK13 to syndromic congenital heart disease. We present here genetic and phenotypic data pertaining to 16 individuals with CDK13 mutations. METHODS: Patients were investigated by exome sequencing, having presented with developmental delay and additional features suggestive of a syndromic cause. RESULTS: Our cohort comprised 16 individuals aged 4-16 years. All had developmental delay, including six with autism spectrum disorder. Common findings included feeding difficulties (15/16), structural cardiac anomalies (9/16), seizures (4/16) and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (4/11 patients who had undergone MRI). All had craniofacial dysmorphism, with common features including short, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism or telecanthus, medial epicanthic folds, low-set, posteriorly rotated ears and a small mouth with thin upper lip vermilion. Fifteen patients had predicted missense mutations, including five identical p.(Asn842Ser) substitutions and two p.(Gly717Arg) substitutions. One patient had a canonical splice acceptor site variant (c.2898-1G>A). All mutations were located within the protein kinase domain of CDK13. The affected amino acids are highly conserved, and in silico analyses including comparative protein modelling predict that they will interfere with protein function. The location of the missense mutations in a key catalytic domain suggests that they are likely to cause loss of catalytic activity but retention of cyclin K binding, resulting in a dominant negative mode of action. Although the splice-site mutation was predicted to produce a stable internally deleted protein, this was not supported by expression studies in lymphoblastoid cells. A loss of function contribution to the underlying pathological mechanism therefore cannot be excluded, and the clinical significance of this variant remains uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: These patients demonstrate that heterozygous, likely dominant negative mutations affecting the protein kinase domain of the CDK13 gene result in a recognisable, syndromic form of intellectual disability, with or without congenital heart disease.


CDC2 Protein Kinase/chemistry , CDC2 Protein Kinase/genetics , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Adolescent , Child , Conserved Sequence , Female , Heterozygote , Humans , Male , Models, Molecular , Mutation, Missense/genetics , Protein Domains , Syndrome , Thermodynamics
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 3869-3882, 2017 10 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016847

The discovery of genetic variants influencing sleep patterns can shed light on the physiological processes underlying sleep. As part of a large clinical sequencing project, WGS500, we sequenced a family in which the two male children had severe developmental delay and a dramatically disturbed sleep-wake cycle, with very long wake and sleep durations, reaching up to 106-h awake and 48-h asleep. The most likely causal variant identified was a novel missense variant in the X-linked GRIA3 gene, which has been implicated in intellectual disability. GRIA3 encodes GluA3, a subunit of AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs). The mutation (A653T) falls within the highly conserved transmembrane domain of the ion channel gate, immediately adjacent to the analogous residue in the Grid2 (glutamate receptor) gene, which is mutated in the mouse neurobehavioral mutant, Lurcher. In vitro, the GRIA3(A653T) mutation stabilizes the channel in a closed conformation, in contrast to Lurcher. We introduced the orthologous mutation into a mouse strain by CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis and found that hemizygous mutants displayed significant differences in the structure of their activity and sleep compared to wild-type littermates. Typically, mice are polyphasic, exhibiting multiple sleep bouts of sleep several minutes long within a 24-h period. The Gria3A653T mouse showed significantly fewer brief bouts of activity and sleep than the wild-types. Furthermore, Gria3A653T mice showed enhanced period lengthening under constant light compared to wild-type mice, suggesting an increased sensitivity to light. Our results suggest a role for GluA3 channel activity in the regulation of sleep behavior in both mice and humans.


Intellectual Disability/genetics , Point Mutation , Receptors, AMPA/genetics , Receptors, AMPA/metabolism , Sleep Wake Disorders/genetics , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(10): 1126-1133, 2017 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905882

Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS) is a rare syndrome characterized by choanal atresia, prominent ears, abnormalities of the outer third of the lower eyelid, structural cardiac abnormalities, conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, and cleft lip. Recently, causative compound heterozygous variants were identified in TXNL4A. We analyzed an individual with clinical features of BMKS and her parents by whole-genome sequencing and identified compound heterozygous variants in TXNL4A (a novel splice site variant (c.258-2A>G, (p.?)) and a 34 bp promoter deletion (hg19 chr18:g.77748581_77748614del (type 1Δ) in the proband). Subsequently, we tested a cohort of 19 individuals with (mild) features of BMKS and 17 individuals with isolated choanal atresia for causative variants in TXNL4A by dideoxy-sequence analysis. In one individual with BMKS unrelated to the first family, we identified the identical compound heterozygous variants. In an individual with isolated choanal atresia, we found homozygosity for the same type 1Δ promoter deletion, whilst in two cousins from a family with choanal atresia and other minor anomalies we found homozygosity for a different deletion within the promoter (hg19 chr18: g.77748604_77748637del (type 2Δ)). Hence, we identified causative recessive variants in TXNL4A in two individuals with BMKS as well as in three individuals (from two families) with isolated choanal atresia.


Choanal Atresia/genetics , Deafness/congenital , Gene Deletion , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Ribonucleoprotein, U5 Small Nuclear/genetics , Choanal Atresia/diagnosis , Deafness/diagnosis , Deafness/genetics , Facies , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Humans , Male , Pedigree , Promoter Regions, Genetic
20.
J Exp Med ; 214(9): 2547-2562, 2017 Sep 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28747427

Multiple cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-11, IL-27, oncostatin M (OSM), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), signal via the common GP130 cytokine receptor subunit. In this study, we describe a patient with a homozygous mutation of IL6ST (encoding GP130 p.N404Y) who presented with recurrent infections, eczema, bronchiectasis, high IgE, eosinophilia, defective B cell memory, and an impaired acute-phase response, as well as skeletal abnormalities including craniosynostosis. The p.N404Y missense substitution is associated with loss of IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, and OSM signaling but a largely intact LIF response. This study identifies a novel immunodeficiency with phenotypic similarities to STAT3 hyper-IgE syndrome caused by loss of function of GP130.


Craniosynostoses/genetics , Cytokine Receptor gp130/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Mutation, Missense/genetics , Child, Preschool , Cytokine Receptor gp130/physiology , Exome/genetics , Female , Humans , Interleukin-11/deficiency , Interleukin-6/deficiency , Interleukins/deficiency
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