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Bone ; 153: 116152, 2021 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400385

Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis type 1 (AFFND1) is an extremely rare disorder characterized by several dysmorphic features, skeletal abnormalities and intellectual disability, and described only in seven patients in the literature. A biallelic variant in the Neuroblastoma Amplified Sequence (NBAS) gene was recently identified in two Indian patients with AFFND1. Here we report genetic investigation of AFFND1 in the originally described Brazilian families and the identification of an extremely rare, recessively-inherited, intronic variant in the Phosphatidylinositol Glycan class B (PIGB) gene NC_000015.10 (NM_004855.4): c.795-19T > G) in the affected individuals. The PIGB gene encodes an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, which is required for the post-translational modification of a large variety of proteins, enabling their correct cellular localization and function. Recessive variants in PIGB have previously been reported in individuals with a neurodevelopmental syndrome having partial overlap with AFFND1. In vitro assays demonstrated that the intronic variant leads to exon skipping, suggesting the Brazilian AFFND1 patients may be null for PIGB, in agreement with their severe clinical phenotype. These data increase the number of pathogenic variants in the PIGB gene, place AFFND1 among GPI deficiencies and extend the spectrum of phenotypes associated with GPI biosynthesis defects.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositols , Mandibulofacial Dysostosis , Humans , Mannosyltransferases/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Phenotype , Seizures
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 24(4): 575-584, 2021 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713375

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to characterize the craniofacial and airway morphology of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) individuals using computed tomography (CT) examination. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: This sample included individuals in the age range from 5 to 14 years, consisted of a group of 18 OAVS individuals (12 females and 6 males), Pruzansky-Kaban1 IIB and III and by a paired control group matched by age and sex for comparison of morphometric and airway variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through the CT examination, airway analysis was performed using Dolphin Imaging® Software, and seven morphometric measurements were performed to evaluate craniofacial morphology by Materialize Mimics® Software. To compare airway and morphometric variables, the control group was used. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to compare differences between the groups. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were showed between the control and OAVS groups for the variables: total airway (TA) area, volume and MAA, RP area, RP volume, RP MAA, RG volume, RG MAA, total posterior height diff, Md incl and y-axis asymmetry. Pearson and Spearman's correlation showed mostly moderate correlations between Mand Occlusal canting AS with TA area and RP volume, Ax-Gn with TA area and Hy-C3 with TA volume. CONCLUSIONS: The OAVS's airway was altered and worse than the control group. Our results suggest that the contralateral side of OAVS individuals is unaffected; however, longitudinal assessments are needed to confirm it. Hyoid bone and postural measures play an important role in interpreting airway features of individuals with and without OAVS.

Goldenhar Syndrome , Female , Goldenhar Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Hyoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
J Pediatr Genet ; 9(4): 258-262, 2020 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765930

The authors describe the clinical findings observed in a Brazilian girl that are suggestive of microphthalmia and linear skin defects (MLS) also known as MIDAS syndrome (OMIM #309801). She also presented with short stature, agenesis of corpus callosum, cleft palate, enamel defects, and genitourinary anomalies, which are rarely reported within the clinical spectrum of MLS. The 11,5 Mb deletion in Xp22.3p22.2 observed in the patient includes the entire HCCS gene (responsible for the MLS phenotype) and also encompasses several other genes involved with behavioral phenotypes, craniofacial and central nervous system development such as MID1, NLGN4X, AMELX , ARHGAP6, and TBL1X. The whole clinical features of our proband possibly represents an unusual MLS syndromic phenotype caused by an Xp22.3p22.2 continuous gene deletion.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 05 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034419

CONTEXT: The reproductive axis is controlled by a network of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons born in the primitive nose that migrate to the hypothalamus alongside axons of the olfactory system. The observation that congenital anosmia (inability to smell) is often associated with GnRH deficiency in humans led to the prevailing view that GnRH neurons depend on olfactory structures to reach the brain, but this hypothesis has not been confirmed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to determine the potential for normal reproductive function in the setting of completely absent internal and external olfactory structures. METHODS: We conducted comprehensive phenotyping studies in 11 patients with congenital arhinia. These studies were augmented by review of medical records and study questionnaires in another 40 international patients. RESULTS: All male patients demonstrated clinical and/or biochemical signs of GnRH deficiency, and the 5 men studied in person had no luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses, suggesting absent GnRH activity. The 6 women studied in person also had apulsatile LH profiles, yet 3 had spontaneous breast development and 2 women (studied from afar) had normal breast development and menstrual cycles, suggesting a fully intact reproductive axis. Administration of pulsatile GnRH to 2 GnRH-deficient patients revealed normal pituitary responsiveness but gonadal failure in the male patient. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with arhinia teach us that the GnRH neuron, a key gatekeeper of the reproductive axis, is associated with but may not depend on olfactory structures for normal migration and function, and more broadly, illustrate the power of extreme human phenotypes in answering fundamental questions about human embryology.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Neurons/physiology , Nose/abnormalities , Olfaction Disorders/congenital , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Abnormalities, Multiple/metabolism , Abnormalities, Multiple/pathology , Abnormalities, Multiple/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/deficiency , Gonads/abnormalities , Gonads/pathology , Humans , Hypogonadism/genetics , Hypogonadism/metabolism , Hypogonadism/pathology , Hypogonadism/physiopathology , Infant , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neurogenesis/physiology , Neurons/metabolism , Olfaction Disorders/genetics , Olfaction Disorders/metabolism , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfactory Pathways/metabolism , Olfactory Pathways/pathology , Organ Size , Young Adult
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2170-2177, 2019 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353810

Here we report on a Brazilian child who presented semilobar holoprosencephaly, frontonasal encephaloceles and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Malformations also included agenesis of the corpus callosum, abnormal cortical gyres, dilation of the aqueduct, bilateral endolymphatic sac, bilateral cystic cocci-vestibular malformation, and a cribriform defect. The 3D TC craniofacial images showed abnormal frontonasal transition region, with a bone bifurcation, and partial agenesis of nasal bone. The trunk and upper and lower limbs were normal. To our knowledge, this rare association of holoprocensephaly with frontonaso-orbital encephaloceles without limb anomalies has never been reported before. Karyotype was normal. SNP-array showed no copy-number alterations but revealed 25% of regions of homozygosity (ROH) with normal copy number, indicating a high coefficient of inbreeding, which significantly increases the risk for an autosomal recessive disorder. Whole exome sequencing analysis did not reveal any pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. We discuss the possible influence of two variants of uncertain significance found within the patient's ROHs. First, a missense p.(Gly394Ser) in PCSK9, a gene involved in the regulation of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Second, an inframe duplication p.(Ala75_Ala81dup) in SP8, a zinc-finger transcription factor that regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development. Further studies and/or the identification of other patients with a similar phenotype will help elucidate the genetic etiology of this complex case.

Cleft Lip/diagnosis , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/diagnosis , Cleft Palate/genetics , Encephalocele/diagnosis , Encephalocele/genetics , Holoprosencephaly/diagnosis , Holoprosencephaly/genetics , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Brain/abnormalities , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Chromosome Mapping , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Homozygote , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Syndrome , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Whole Exome Sequencing
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 210-219, 2018 02.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348693

Blepharocheilodontic syndrome (BCDS) consists of lagophthalmia, ectropion of the lower eyelids, distichiasis, euryblepharon, cleft lip/palate and dental anomalies and has autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expression. We identified heterozygous variants in two genes of the cadherin-catenin complex, CDH1, encoding E-cadherin, and CTNND1, encoding p120 catenin delta1 in 15 of 17 BCDS index patients, as was recently described in a different publication. CDH1 plays an essential role in epithelial cell adherence; CTNND1 binds to CDH1 and controls the stability of the complex. Functional experiments in zebrafish and human cells showed that the CDH1 variants impair the cell adhesion function of the cadherin-catenin complex in a dominant-negative manner. Variants in CDH1 have been linked to familial hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and invasive lobular breast cancer; however, no cases of gastric or breast cancer have been reported in our BCDS cases. Functional experiments reported here indicated the BCDS variants comprise a distinct class of CDH1 variants. Altogether, we identified the genetic cause of BCDS enabling DNA diagnostics and counseling, in addition we describe a novel class of dominant negative CDH1 variants.

Antigens, CD/genetics , Cadherins/genetics , Catenins/genetics , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Ectropion/genetics , Mutation , Tooth Abnormalities/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Cadherins/metabolism , Catenins/metabolism , Cell Adhesion , Child , Child, Preschool , Cleft Lip/pathology , Cleft Palate/pathology , Ectropion/pathology , Female , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Male , Protein Binding , Tooth Abnormalities/pathology , Zebrafish
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(7): 1747-1753, 2017 Jul.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558149

Mandibulofacial dysostosis (MFD) Bauru type (OMIM 604830) is a rare genetic condition characterized mainly by malar hypoplasia, orofacial cleft, and micrognathia. Here, we describe the clinical and radiographic sings of 13 individuals (12 female and 1 male) from eight unrelated kindreds with MFD Bauru type, including four previously reported cases, treated at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies. The clinical phenotype was characterized by severe underdevelopment of mandible, midface hypoplasia, orofacial cleft, bitemporal narrowing, mild upper eyelid down slanting, high nasal bridge, thick and everted lower lip, minor ears abnormalities, and hearing loss. Radiographic aspects included downslanting of zygomatic arch, maxillary hypoplasia, microretrognathia, hypoplastic mandibular condyles, and ectopic external auditory canal. Recurrence was observed in two of eight families and the affected distribution pattern was compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance in one and autosomal recessive in another, indicating possible genetic heterogeneity for this condition. Clinical and radiographic findings in this report contribute to the delineation of this rare MFD.

J Pediatr Genet ; 6(2): 103-106, 2017 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28496998

In this article, we report on a Brazilian female patient born to consanguineous parents and presenting with alobar holoprosencephaly, severe eye involvement, and unusual skin hyperpigmented lesions. She was found to have a mutation (c.2240T > C; p.Val751Gly) in exon 15 of the PTCH1 gene. Mutations in this gene are associated with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, OMIM 109400) and, in other instances, with holoprosencephaly (holoprosencephaly-7, OMIM 610828). Severe eye involvement ranging from orbital coloboma to microphthalmia has been seldom reported in patients with NBCCS with PTCH1 mutations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an individual with central nervous system, skin, and eye manifestations due to a PTCH1 mutation. Mechanisms involved in these multisystem manifestations are discussed.

Am J Med Genet A ; 173(4): 938-945, 2017 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328130

Auriculocondylar syndrome, mainly characterized by micrognathia, small mandibular condyle, and question mark ears, is a rare disease segregating in an autosomal dominant pattern in the majority of the families reported in the literature. So far, pathogenic variants in PLCB4, GNAI3, and EDN1 have been associated with this syndrome. It is caused by a developmental abnormality of the first and second pharyngeal arches and it is associated with great inter- and intra-familial clinical variability, with some patients not presenting the typical phenotype of the syndrome. Moreover, only a few patients of each molecular subtype of Auriculocondylar syndrome have been reported and sequenced. Therefore, the spectrum of clinical and genetic variability is still not defined. In order to address these questions, we searched for alterations in PLCB4, GNAI3, and EDN1 in patients with typical Auriculocondylar syndrome (n = 3), Pierre Robin sequence-plus (n = 3), micrognathia with additional craniofacial malformations (n = 4), or non-specific auricular dysplasia (n = 1), which could represent subtypes of Auriculocondylar syndrome. We found novel pathogenic variants in PLCB4 only in two of three index patients with typical Auriculocondylar syndrome. We also performed a detailed comparative analysis of the patients presented in this study with those previously published, which showed that the pattern of auricular abnormality and full cheeks were associated with molecularly characterized individuals with Auriculocondylar syndrome. Finally, our data contribute to a better definition of a set of parameters for clinical classification that may be used as a guidance for geneticists ordering molecular testing for Auriculocondylar syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Ear/abnormalities , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Micrognathism/diagnosis , Mutation , Phospholipase C beta/genetics , Pierre Robin Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Child , Ear/pathology , Ear Diseases/classification , Ear Diseases/genetics , Ear Diseases/pathology , Endothelin-1/genetics , Female , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go/genetics , Gene Expression , Genes, Dominant , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Micrognathism/classification , Micrognathism/genetics , Micrognathism/pathology , Pedigree , Phenotype , Pierre Robin Syndrome/classification , Pierre Robin Syndrome/genetics , Pierre Robin Syndrome/pathology , Terminology as Topic
Mol Syndromol ; 7(6): 344-348, 2016 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27920638

We report on a Brazilian patient with a 1.7-Mb interstitial microdeletion in chromosome 1q21.1. The phenotypic characteristics include microcephaly, a peculiar facial gestalt, cleft lip/palate, and multiple skeletal anomalies represented by malformed phalanges, scoliosis, abnormal modeling of vertebral bodies, hip dislocation, abnormal acetabula, feet anomalies, and delayed neuropsychological development. Deletions reported in this region are clinically heterogeneous, ranging from subtle phenotypic manifestations to severe congenital heart defects and/or neurodevelopmental findings. A few genes within the deleted region are associated with congenital anomalies, mainly the RBM8A, DUF1220, and HYDIN2 paralogs. Our patient presents with a spectrum of unusual malformations of 1q21.1 deletion syndrome not reported up to date.

Clin Dysmorphol ; 24(4): 144-50, 2015 Oct.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25816358

Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS, OMIM 164210) is a complex condition characterized by defects in aural, oral, and mandibular development. Other craniofacial and extracranial anomalies can be present. With the exception of the Tessier number 7 cleft, atypical clefting has rarely been reported in association with OAVS. Here, we report on two unrelated cases with a typical phenotype of OAVS and a Tessier 30 associated cleft. One of them also had other atypical facial clefts. We discuss the association between atypical facial clefts and OAVS.

Goldenhar Syndrome/diagnosis , Cleft Lip/diagnosis , Cleft Lip/pathology , Facial Bones , Goldenhar Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Infant , Male , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(4): 481-5, 2015 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25026904

Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare craniofacial disorder comprising core features of micrognathia, condyle dysplasia and question mark ear. Causative variants have been identified in PLCB4, GNAI3 and EDN1, which are predicted to function within the EDN1-EDNRA pathway during early pharyngeal arch patterning. To date, two GNAI3 variants in three families have been reported. Here we report three novel GNAI3 variants, one segregating with affected members in a family previously linked to 1p21.1-q23.3 and two de novo variants in simplex cases. Two variants occur in known functional motifs, the G1 and G4 boxes, and the third variant is one amino acid outside of the G1 box. Structural modeling shows that all five altered GNAI3 residues identified to date cluster in a region involved in GDP/GTP binding. We hypothesize that all GNAI3 variants lead to dominant negative effects.

Ear Diseases/genetics , Ear/abnormalities , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go/genetics , Genetic Variation , Branchial Region/metabolism , Brazil , Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Pedigree , Phenotype , Protein Conformation
Am J Hum Genet ; 93(6): 1118-25, 2013 Dec 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24268655

Auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS) is a rare craniofacial disorder with mandibular hypoplasia and question-mark ears (QMEs) as major features. QMEs, consisting of a specific defect at the lobe-helix junction, can also occur as an isolated anomaly. Studies in animal models have indicated the essential role of endothelin 1 (EDN1) signaling through the endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) in patterning the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch. Mutations in the genes coding for phospholipase C, beta 4 (PLCB4) and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 (GNAI3), predicted to function as signal transducers downstream of EDNRA, have recently been reported in ACS. By whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified a homozygous substitution in a furin cleavage site of the EDN1 proprotein in ACS-affected siblings born to consanguineous parents. WES of two cases with vertical transmission of isolated QMEs revealed a stop mutation in EDN1 in one family and a missense substitution of a highly conserved residue in the mature EDN1 peptide in the other. Targeted sequencing of EDN1 in an ACS individual with related parents identified a fourth, homozygous mutation falling close to the site of cleavage by endothelin-converting enzyme. The different modes of inheritance suggest that the degree of residual EDN1 activity differs depending on the mutation. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that ACS and QMEs are uniquely caused by disruption of the EDN1-EDNRA signaling pathway.

Ear Diseases/genetics , Ear/abnormalities , Genes, Dominant , Genes, Recessive , Mutation , Phenotype , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , DNA Mutational Analysis , Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Ear Diseases/metabolism , Endothelin-1/genetics , Endothelin-1/metabolism , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Pedigree , Sequence Alignment , Signal Transduction
J Pediatr Genet ; 2(4): 173-80, 2013 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27625856

The authors describe the clinical findings of 38 children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure. This study included 38 cases, ascertained from case series of the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies from University of São Paulo, with evidence of intrauterine exposure to misoprostol in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Information about misoprostol intake and drug administration route was obtained through interviews with mothers. Clinical evaluation showed 18 individuals with facial phenotype compatible with Moebius syndrome; 11 individuals with multiple congenital anomalies; and nine individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate. This study showed a widening of the phenotypic spectrum associated with misoprostol embryotoxicity.

Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(8): 2003-8, 2012 Aug.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22740433

Most patients with Kabuki syndrome (KS) are the only person in their family with the condition. However, familial cases of KS have been described showing evidence that this syndrome can be inherited as a dominant trait with variable expressivity. We report on two related individuals with facial findings characteristic of KS. The proposita had arched eyebrows, long and upward slanting palpebral fissures, cleft lip and palate, retromicrognathia, brachydactyly of hands and feet, stubby fingers, nail hypoplasia, and prominent finger pads. Her mother had eyebrows with dispersed lateral half, long and upward slanting palpebral fissures, retrognathia, abnormal and posteriorly rotated ears, prominent finger pads, brachydactyly of feet, learning difficulties, and psychomotor development delay. DNA sequencing revealed a novel missense mutation in the MLL2 gene in both the proposita and her mother. The mutation (p.R5432Q) was found in the exon 51, within the SET domain of the gene, which confers methyltransferase activity on the protein. Therefore, the epigenetic and transcriptional regulatory properties of this protein may be altered and this suggests that the mutation is the cause of phenotype observed in both the patient and her mother. The clinical signs and the molecular evidence in this family further support the notion that KS is an autosomal dominant condition with variable expressivity. To our knowledge this is the first report of a Brazilian family with recurrence of this syndrome.

Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Hematologic Diseases/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Vestibular Diseases/genetics , Brazil , Face/abnormalities , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pedigree
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(1): 59-65, 2012 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22105959

Auriculo-condylar syndrome (ACS) is characterized by typical ears malformation (so-called "question mark" ears), prominent cheeks, microstomia, and abnormality of the temporomandibular joint and condyle of the mandible. In this report we describe a new simplex case and a previously unreported family with affected individuals in three generations documenting clinical variability. Linkage study for markers located in candidate region for ACS1 (1p21.1-q23.3) was excluded in our familial case, reinforcing the hypothesis of genetic heterogeneity for this condition. A review of the literature focusing diagnostic criteria and features of ACS was performed.

Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Ear Diseases/genetics , Brazil , Child , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1/genetics , Ear/abnormalities , Female , Genetic Heterogeneity , Genetic Linkage , Humans , Mandible/abnormalities , Microstomia/genetics , Pedigree , Temporomandibular Joint/abnormalities
Am J Med Genet A ; 149A(12): 2762-4, 2009 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19921636

We report on a Brazilian mother and her son affected with mandibulofacial dysostosis, growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, first branchial arch anomalies, and cleft palate. To date only three males and one female, all sporadic cases, with a similar condition have been reported. This article describes the first familial case with this rare condition indicating autosomal dominant or X-linked inheritance.

Cleft Palate/complications , Ear/abnormalities , Genes, X-Linked/genetics , Intellectual Disability/complications , Mandibulofacial Dysostosis/genetics , Microcephaly/complications , Skin Abnormalities/complications , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genes, Dominant , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mandibulofacial Dysostosis/complications , Mothers , Nuclear Family , Pregnancy , Syndrome
Clin Dysmorphol ; 18(2): 67-77, 2009 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19305190

Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS; OMIM 164210) is a complex condition characterized by defects of aural, oral, mandibular and vertebral development. The aetiology of this condition is likely to be heterogeneous; most cases are sporadic, however, familial cases suggesting autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant inheritance have been reported. In this study, we describe the clinical aspects of nine familial cases with evidence of autosomal dominant inheritance and compare them with reports in the literature. Interfamilial and intrafamilial clinical variabilities were observed in this study (reinforcing the necessity of careful examination of familial members). We suggest that oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with autosomal dominant inheritance is characterized mainly by bilateral auricular involvement and rarely presents extracranial anomalies.

Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Genes, Dominant , Goldenhar Syndrome/genetics , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Family , Female , Goldenhar Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , Male
Clin Ophthalmol ; 1(2): 183-7, 2007 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19668508

We report on two unrelated Brazilian patients both presenting a very unusual association of ano/microphthalmia, cystic orbital anomaly, atypical clefting, and facial appendages in one patient. Clinical manifestations presented by these patients represent a MCA/MR syndrome of unknown etiology. Considerations about syndromic delineation, genetic aspects, and differential diagnosis are discussed.