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Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 187(3): 357-363, 2021 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189818

Diagnosis of individuals affected by monogenic disorders was significantly improved by next-generation sequencing targeting clinically relevant genes. Whole exomes yield a large number of variants that require several filtering steps, prioritization, and pathogenicity classification. Among the criteria recommended by ACMG, those that rely on population databases critically affect analyses of individuals with underrepresented ancestries. Population-specific allelic frequencies need consideration when characterizing potential deleteriousness of variants. An orthogonal input for classification is annotation of variants previously classified as pathogenic as a criterion that provide supporting evidence widely sourced at ClinVar. We used a whole-genome dataset from a census-based cohort of 1,171 elderly individuals from São Paulo, Brazil, highly admixed, and unaffected by severe monogenic disorders, to investigate if pathogenic assertions in ClinVar are enriched with higher proportions of European ancestry, indicating bias. Potential loss of function (pLOF) variants were filtered from 4,250 genes associated with Mendelian disorders and annotated with ClinVar assertions. Over 1,800 single nucleotide pLOF variants were included, 381 had non-benign assertions. Among carriers (N = 463), average European ancestry was significantly higher than noncarriers (N = 708; p = .011). pLOFs in genomic contexts of non-European local ancestries were nearly three times less likely to have any ClinVar entry (OR = 0.353; p <.0001). Independent pathogenicity assertions are useful for variant classification in molecular diagnosis. However, European overrepresentation of assertions can promote distortions when classifying variants in non-European individuals, even in admixed samples with a relatively high proportion of European ancestry. The investigation and deposit of clinically relevant findings of diverse populations is fundamental improve this scenario.

Genetic Variation , Genomics , Aged , Brazil , Exome , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(5): 1017-1029, 2021 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633342

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Admixed populations are a resource to study the global genetic architecture of complex phenotypes, which is critical, considering that non-European populations are severely underrepresented in genomic studies. Here, we study the genetic architecture of BMI in children, young adults, and elderly individuals from the admixed population of Brazil. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Leveraging admixture in Brazilians, whose chromosomes are mosaics of fragments of Native American, European, and African origins, we used genome-wide data to perform admixture mapping/fine-mapping of body mass index (BMI) in three Brazilian population-based cohorts from Northeast (Salvador), Southeast (Bambuí), and South (Pelotas). RESULTS: We found significant associations with African-associated alleles in children from Salvador (PALD1 and ZMIZ1 genes), and in young adults from Pelotas (NOD2 and MTUS2 genes). More importantly, in Pelotas, rs114066381, mapped in a potential regulatory region, is significantly associated only in females (p = 2.76e-06). This variant is rare in Europeans but with frequencies of ~3% in West Africa and has a strong female-specific effect (95% CI: 2.32-5.65 kg/m2 per each A allele). We confirmed this sex-specific association and replicated its strong effect for an adjusted fat mass index in the same Pelotas cohort, and for BMI in another Brazilian cohort from São Paulo (Southeast Brazil). A meta-analysis confirmed the significant association. Remarkably, we observed that while the frequency of rs114066381-A allele ranges from 0.8 to 2.1% in the studied populations, it attains ~9% among women with morbid obesity from Pelotas, São Paulo, and Bambuí. The effect size of rs114066381 is at least five times higher than the FTO SNPs rs9939609 and rs1558902, already emblematic for their high effects. CONCLUSIONS: We identified six candidate SNPs associated with BMI. rs114066381 stands out for its high effect that was replicated and its high frequency in women with morbid obesity. We demonstrate how admixed populations are a source of new relevant phenotype-associated genetic variants.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 184(4): 896-911, 2020 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128510

We report the clinical and molecular data of a large cohort comprising 242 individuals with RASopathies, from a single Tertiary Center in Brazil, the largest study from Latin America. Noonan syndrome represented 76% of the subjects, with heterozygous variants in nine different genes, mainly PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, LZTR1, and RIT1, detected by Sanger and next-generation sequencing. The latter was applied to 126 individuals, with a positive yield of 63% in genes of the RAS/MAPK cascade. We present evidence that there are some allelic differences in PTPN11 across distinct populations. We highlight the clinical aspects that pose more medical concerns, such as the cardiac anomalies, bleeding diathesis and proliferative lesions. The genotype-phenotype analysis between the RASopathies showed statistically significant differences in some cardinal features, such as craniofacial and cardiac anomalies, the latter also statistically significant for different genes in Noonan syndrome. We present two individuals with a Noonan syndrome phenotype, one with an atypical, structural cardiac defect, harboring variants in genes mainly associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and discuss the role of these variants in their phenotype.

Noonan Syndrome , Brazil , Genotype , Humans , Mutation , Noonan Syndrome/genetics , Phenotype
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 446, 2020 Jun 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600246

BACKGROUND: Approximately 5% of the human genome shows common structural variation, which is enriched for genes involved in the immune response and cell-cell interactions. A well-established region of extensive structural variation is the glycophorin gene cluster, comprising three tandemly-repeated regions about 120 kb in length and carrying the highly homologous genes GYPA, GYPB and GYPE. Glycophorin A (encoded by GYPA) and glycophorin B (encoded by GYPB) are glycoproteins present at high levels on the surface of erythrocytes, and they have been suggested to act as decoy receptors for viral pathogens. They are receptors for the invasion of the protist parasite Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of malaria. A particular complex structural variant, called DUP4, creates a GYPB-GYPA fusion gene known to confer resistance to malaria. Many other structural variants exist across the glycophorin gene cluster, and they remain poorly characterised. RESULTS: Here, we analyse sequences from 3234 diploid genomes from across the world for structural variation at the glycophorin locus, confirming 15 variants in the 1000 Genomes project cohort, discovering 9 new variants, and characterising a selection of these variants using fibre-FISH and breakpoint mapping at the sequence level. We identify variants predicted to create novel fusion genes and a common inversion duplication variant at appreciable frequencies in West Africans. We show that almost all variants can be explained by non-allelic homologous recombination and by comparing the structural variant breakpoints with recombination hotspot maps, confirm the importance of a particular meiotic recombination hotspot on structural variant formation in this region. CONCLUSIONS: We identify and validate large structural variants in the human glycophorin A-B-E gene cluster which may be associated with different clinical aspects of malaria.

Genomic Structural Variation , Glycophorins/genetics , Malaria, Falciparum/genetics , Chromosome Breakpoints , Chromosome Mapping , Databases, Genetic , Disease Resistance , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Sequence Alignment , Whole Genome Sequencing
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(4): e1133, 2020 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073752

BACKGROUND: Bloom syndrome (BS) is a rare autosomal recessive chromosome instability disorder. The main clinical manifestations are growth deficiency, telangiectasic facial erythema, immunodeficiency, and increased risk to develop neoplasias at early age. Cytogenetic test for sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) is used as a diagnostic marker for BS. In addition, most patients also present mutations in the BLM gene, related to defects in the DNA repair mechanism. However, the molecular mechanism behind the pathogenicity of BS is still not completely understood. METHODS: We describe two patients confirmed with BS by SCE and molecular analysis. Also, we performed the gene expression profile by the RNA-seq methodology in mRNA transcripts for differential gene expression analysis using as a biological condition for comparison BS versus health controls. RESULTS: We detected 216 differentially expressed genes related to immunological pathways such as positive regulation and activation of B cells, immune effector process and absence of difference of DNA repair genes expression. In addition; we also observed differentially expressed genes associated with apoptosis control, such as BCL2L1, CASP7, CDKN1A, E2F2, ITPR, CD274, TNFAIP6, TNFRSF25, TNFRSF13C, and TNFRSF17. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the combination of altered expression of genes involved in signaling pathways of immune response and apoptosis control may contribute directly to the main characteristics observed in BS, such as recurrent infections, growth failure, and high risk of cancer. Transcriptome studies of other instability syndromes could allow a more accurate analysis of the relevant gene interactions associated with the destabilization of the genome. This is a first description of the profile of differential gene expression related to immunological aspects detected in patients with BS by RNA-seq.

Bloom Syndrome/genetics , Transcriptome , Adolescent , Adult , Apoptosis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Bloom Syndrome/immunology , Female , Humans , Male
Dis Model Mech ; 13(2)2020 01 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826868

X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy (XMEA) is a genetic disease associated with weakness of the proximal muscles. It is caused by mutations in the VMA21 gene, coding for a chaperone that functions in the vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase) assembly. Mutations associated with lower content of assembled v-ATPases lead to an increase in lysosomal pH, culminating in partial blockage of macroautophagy, with accumulation of vacuoles of undigested content. Here, we studied a 5-year-old boy affected by XMEA, caused by a small indel in the VMA21 gene. Detection of sarcoplasmic Lc3 (also known as MAP1LC3B)-positive vacuoles in his muscle biopsy confirmed an autophagy defect. To understand how autophagy is regulated in XMEA myogenesis, we used patient-derived muscle cells to evaluate autophagy during in vitro muscle differentiation. An increase in lysosomal pH was observed in the patient's cells, compatible with predicted functional defect of his mutation. Additionally, there was an increase in autophagic flux in XMEA myotubes. Interestingly, we observed that differentiation of XMEA myoblasts was altered, with increased myotube formation observed through a higher fusion index, which was not dependent on lysosomal acidification. Moreover, no variation in the expression of myogenic factors nor the presence of regenerating fibers in the patient's muscle were observed. Myoblast fusion is a tightly regulated process; therefore, the uncontrolled fusion of XMEA myoblasts might generate cells that are not as functional as normal muscle cells. Our data provide new evidence on the reason for predominant muscle involvement in the context of the XMEA phenotype.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

Cell Differentiation , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/pathology , Autophagy , Base Sequence , Biopsy , Brazil , Cell Proliferation , Child, Preschool , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lysosomes/metabolism , Male , Membrane Fusion , Muscle Development/genetics , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/genetics , Myoblasts/metabolism , Myoblasts/pathology , Pedigree , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/genetics , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism , Vacuoles/pathology , Vacuoles/ultrastructure
J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev ; 4(10): e20.00083, 2020 10 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986224

Orthopaedic practices have been markedly affected by the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the ban on elective procedures, it is impossible to define the medical urgency of a case solely on whether a case is on an elective surgery schedule. Orthopaedic surgical procedures should consider COVID-19-associated risks and an assimilation of all available disease dependent, disease independent, and logistical information that is tailored to each patient, institution, and region. Using an evidence-based risk stratification of clinical urgency, we provide a framework for prioritization of orthopaedic sport medicine procedures that encompasses such factors. This can be used to facilitate the risk-benefit assessment of the timing and setting of a procedure during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , Sports Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Athletic Injuries/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 836-843, 2019 10 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564437

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a genetically heterogeneous group of skeletal fragility diseases. Here, we report on five independent families with a progressively deforming type of OI, in whom we identified four homozygous truncation or frameshift mutations in MESD. Affected individuals had recurrent fractures and at least one had oligodontia. MESD encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein for the canonical Wingless-related integration site (WNT) signaling receptors LRP5 and LRP6. Because complete absence of MESD causes embryonic lethality in mice, we hypothesized that the OI-associated mutations are hypomorphic alleles since these mutations occur downstream of the chaperone activity domain but upstream of ER-retention domain. This would be consistent with the clinical phenotypes of skeletal fragility and oligodontia in persons deficient for LRP5 and LRP6, respectively. When we expressed wild-type (WT) and mutant MESD in HEK293T cells, we detected WT MESD in cell lysate but not in conditioned medium, whereas the converse was true for mutant MESD. We observed that both WT and mutant MESD retained the ability to chaperone LRP5. Thus, OI-associated MESD mutations produce hypomorphic alleles whose failure to remain within the ER significantly reduces but does not completely eliminate LRP5 and LRP6 trafficking. Since these individuals have no eye abnormalities (which occur in individuals completely lacking LRP5) and have neither limb nor brain patterning defects (both of which occur in mice completely lacking LRP6), we infer that bone mass accrual and dental patterning are more sensitive to reduced canonical WNT signaling than are other developmental processes. Biologic agents that can increase LRP5 and LRP6-mediated WNT signaling could benefit individuals with MESD-associated OI.

Molecular Chaperones/genetics , Mutation , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/genetics , Animals , Female , Genes, Recessive , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5/metabolism , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-6/metabolism , Male , Mice , Pedigree , Phenotype , Wnt Signaling Pathway
Horm Res Paediatr ; 91(4): 252-261, 2019.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132774

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment in patients with Noonan syndrome (NS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients (35 PTPN11+) were treated with rhGH, and 17 were followed-up until adult height. The outcomes were changes in growth velocity (GV) and height standard deviation scores (SDS) for normal (height-CDC SDS) and Noonan standards (height-NS SDS). RESULTS: The pretreatment chronological age was 10.3 ± 3.5 years. Height-CDC SDS and height-NS SDS were -3.1 ± 0.7 and -0.5 ± 0.6, respectively. PTPN11+ patients had a better growth response than PTPN11- patients. GV SDS increased from -1.2 ± 1.8 to 3.1 ± 2.8 after the first year of therapy in PTPN11+ patients, and from -1.9 ± 2.6 to -0.1 ± 2.6 in PTPN11- patients. The gain in height-CDC SDS during the first year was higher in PTPN11+ than PTPN11- (0.6 ± 0.4 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2, p = 0.008). Similarly, the gain was observed in height-NS SDS (0.6 ± 0.3 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2, respectively, p < 0.001). Among the patients that reached adult height (n = 17), AH-CDC SDS and AH-NS SDS were -2.1 ± 0.7 and 0.7 ± 0.8, respectively. The total increase in height SDS was 1.3 ± 0.7 and 1.5 ± 0.6 for normal and NS standards, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the advantage of rhGH therapy on adult height in PTPN11+ patients. In comparison, PTPN11- patients showed a poor response to rhGH. However, this PTPN11- group was small, preventing an adequate comparison among different genotypes and no guarantee of response to therapy in genes besides PTPN11.

Body Height/drug effects , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Mutation , Noonan Syndrome , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11/genetics , Adult , Body Height/genetics , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Noonan Syndrome/drug therapy , Noonan Syndrome/genetics , Noonan Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 422-438, 2019 03 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773277

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is an autosomal-recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, metaphyseal striations, and disproportionate short stature. Scoliosis, coxa vara, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia have also been reported in this disorder. Although an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been hypothesized, pathogenic variants in a specific gene have not been discovered in individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. Here, we identified bi-allelic variants in TONSL, which encodes the Tonsoku-like DNA repair protein, in nine subjects (from eight families) with SPONASTRIME dysplasia, and four subjects (from three families) with short stature of varied severity and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with or without immunologic and hematologic abnormalities, but no definitive metaphyseal striations at diagnosis. The finding of early embryonic lethality in a Tonsl-/- murine model and the discovery of reduced length, spinal abnormalities, reduced numbers of neutrophils, and early lethality in a tonsl-/- zebrafish model both support the hypomorphic nature of the identified TONSL variants. Moreover, functional studies revealed increased amounts of spontaneous replication fork stalling and chromosomal aberrations, as well as fewer camptothecin (CPT)-induced RAD51 foci in subject-derived cell lines. Importantly, these cellular defects were rescued upon re-expression of wild-type (WT) TONSL; this rescue is consistent with the hypothesis that hypomorphic TONSL variants are pathogenic. Overall, our studies in humans, mice, zebrafish, and subject-derived cell lines confirm that pathogenic variants in TONSL impair DNA replication and homologous recombination-dependent repair processes, and they lead to a spectrum of skeletal dysplasia phenotypes with numerous extra-skeletal manifestations.

Chromosomal Instability , DNA Damage , Genetic Variation , Musculoskeletal Abnormalities/pathology , NF-kappa B/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Alleles , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , Genetic Association Studies , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Musculoskeletal Abnormalities/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing , Young Adult , Zebrafish
Bone ; 121: 163-171, 2019 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599297

Heterozygous pathogenic variants in the FN1 gene, encoding fibronectin (FN), have recently been shown to be associated with a skeletal disorder in some individuals affected by spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with "corner fractures" (SMD-CF). The most striking feature characterizing SMD-CF is irregularly shaped metaphyses giving the appearance of "corner fractures". An array of secondary features, including developmental coxa vara, ovoid vertebral bodies and severe scoliosis, may also be present. FN is an important extracellular matrix component for bone and cartilage development. Here we report five patients affected by this subtype of SMD-CF caused by five novel FN1 missense mutations: p.Cys123Tyr, p.Cys169Tyr, p.Cys213Tyr, p.Cys231Trp and p.Cys258Tyr. All individuals shared a substitution of a cysteine residue, disrupting disulfide bonds in the FN type-I assembly domains located in the N-terminal assembly region. The abnormal metaphyseal ossification and "corner fracture" appearances were the most remarkable clinical feature in these patients. In addition, generalized skeletal fragility with low-trauma bilateral femoral fractures was identified in one patient. Interestingly, the distal femoral changes in this patient healed with skeletal maturation. Our report expands the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of the FN1-related SMD-CF and emphasizes the importance of FN in bone formation and possibly also in the maintenance of bone strength.

Fibronectins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density/genetics , Bone Diseases, Developmental/genetics , Child , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Mutation/genetics , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
Genet Mol Biol ; 41(3): 545-554, 2018.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043834

Our aim was to develop and apply a comprehensive noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) by using high-coverage targeted next-generation sequencing to estimate fetal fraction, determine fetal sex, and detect trisomy and monogenic disease without parental genotype information. We analyzed 45 pregnancies, 40 mock samples, and eight mother-child pairs to generate 35 simulated datasets. Fetal fraction (FF) was estimated based on analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele fraction distribution. A Z-score was calculated for trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21), and fetal sex detection. Monogenic disease detection was performed through variant analysis. Model validation was performed using the simulated datasets. The novel model to estimate FF was robust and accurate (r2= 0.994, p-value < 2.2e-16). For samples with FF > 0.04, T21 detection had 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 63.06 to 100%) and 98.53% specificity (95% CI: 92.08 to 99.96%). Fetal sex was determined with 100% accuracy. We later performed a proof of concept for monogenic disease diagnosis of 5/7 skeletal dysplasia cases. In conclusion, it is feasible to perform a comprehensive NIPT by using only data from high coverage targeted sequencing, which, in addition to detecting trisomies, also make it possible to identify pathogenic variants of the candidate genes for monogenic diseases.

Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1372-1383, 2018 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969175

The Reelin-DAB1 signaling pathway plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal migration and synapse function. Although many rare heterozygous variants in the Reelin gene (RELN) have been identified in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), most variants are still of unknown clinical significance. Also, genetic data suggest that heterozygous variants in RELN alone appear to be insufficient to cause ASD. Here, we describe the identification and functional characterization of rare compound heterozygous missense variants in RELN in a patient with ASD in whom we have previously reported hyperfunctional mTORC1 signaling of yet unknown etiology. Using iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from this patient, we provide experimental evidence that the identified variants are deleterious and lead to diminished Reelin secretion and impaired Reelin-DAB1 signal transduction. Also, our results suggest that mTORC1 pathway overactivation may function as a second hit event contributing to downregulation of the Reelin-DAB1 cascade in patient-derived NPCs, and that inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin attenuates Reelin-DAB1 signaling impairment. Taken together, our findings point to an abnormal interplay between Reelin-DAB1 and mTORC1 networks in nonsyndromic ASD.

Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/genetics , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Genetic Variation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/chemistry , Alleles , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Case-Control Studies , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/chemistry , Child , Child, Preschool , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Female , Gene Expression , Heterozygote , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Male , Models, Molecular , Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry , Neural Stem Cells/cytology , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8706, 2018 06 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880844

Whole-exome sequencing of samples from affected members of two unrelated families with late-onset non-syndromic hearing loss revealed a novel mutation (c.2090 T > G; NM_017433) in MYO3A. The mutation was confirmed in 36 affected individuals, showing autosomal dominant inheritance. The mutation alters a single residue (L697W or p.Leu697Trp) in the motor domain of the stereocilia protein MYO3A, leading to a reduction in ATPase activity, motility, and an increase in actin affinity. MYO3A-L697W showed reduced filopodial actin protrusion initiation in COS7 cells, and a predominant tipward accumulation at filopodia and stereocilia when coexpressed with wild-type MYO3A and espin-1, an actin-regulatory MYO3A cargo. The combined higher actin affinity and duty ratio of the mutant myosin cause increased retention time at stereocilia tips, resulting in the displacement of the wild-type MYO3A protein, which may impact cargo transport, stereocilia length, and mechanotransduction. The dominant negative effect of the altered myosin function explains the dominant inheritance of deafness.

Genes, Dominant , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Hearing Loss/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Myosin Heavy Chains/genetics , Myosin Type III/genetics , Actins/genetics , Actins/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Brazil , COS Cells , Cell Movement/genetics , Child , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/metabolism , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/pathology , Hearing Loss/metabolism , Hearing Loss/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myosin Heavy Chains/metabolism , Myosin Type III/metabolism , Pseudopodia/genetics , Pseudopodia/metabolism , Pseudopodia/pathology , Stereocilia/genetics , Stereocilia/metabolism , Stereocilia/pathology
Genet. mol. biol ; 41(1): 85-91, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article En | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892471

Abstract CHIME syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder caused by mutations in PIGL. PIGL is an endoplasmic reticulum localized enzyme that catalyzes the second step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis, which plays a role in the anchorage of cell-surface proteins including receptors, enzymes, and adhesion molecules. Germline mutations in other members of GPI and Post GPI Attachment to Proteins (PGAP) family genes have been described and constitute a group of diseases within the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Patients in this group often present alkaline phosphatase serum levels abnormalities and neurological symptoms. We report a CHIME syndrome patient who harbors a missense mutation c.500T > C (p.Leu167Pro) and a large deletion involving the 5' untranslated region and part of exon 1 of PIGL. In CHIME syndrome, a recurrent missense mutation c.500T > C (p.Leu167Pro) is found in the majority of patients, associated with a null mutation in the other allele, including an overrepresentation of large deletions. The latter are not detected by the standard analysis in sequencing techniques, including next-generation sequencing. Thus, in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of CHIME syndrome in which only one mutation is found, an active search for a large deletion should be sought.

Genet Mol Biol ; 41(1): 85-91, 2018.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473937

CHIME syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder caused by mutations in PIGL. PIGL is an endoplasmic reticulum localized enzyme that catalyzes the second step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis, which plays a role in the anchorage of cell-surface proteins including receptors, enzymes, and adhesion molecules. Germline mutations in other members of GPI and Post GPI Attachment to Proteins (PGAP) family genes have been described and constitute a group of diseases within the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Patients in this group often present alkaline phosphatase serum levels abnormalities and neurological symptoms. We report a CHIME syndrome patient who harbors a missense mutation c.500T > C (p.Leu167Pro) and a large deletion involving the 5' untranslated region and part of exon 1 of PIGL. In CHIME syndrome, a recurrent missense mutation c.500T > C (p.Leu167Pro) is found in the majority of patients, associated with a null mutation in the other allele, including an overrepresentation of large deletions. The latter are not detected by the standard analysis in sequencing techniques, including next-generation sequencing. Thus, in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of CHIME syndrome in which only one mutation is found, an active search for a large deletion should be sought.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(2): 604-614, 2018 02 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155992

Context: Genetic evaluation has been recognized as an important tool to elucidate the causes of growth disorders. Objective: To investigate the cause of short stature and to determine the phenotype of patients with IHH mutations, including the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. Patients and Methods: We studied 17 families with autosomal-dominant short stature by using whole exome sequencing and screened IHH defects in 290 patients with growth disorders. Molecular analyses were performed to evaluate the potential impact of N-terminal IHH variants. Results: We identified 10 pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants in IHH, an important regulator of endochondral ossification. Molecular analyses revealed a smaller potential energy of mutated IHH molecules. The allele frequency of rare, predicted to be deleterious IHH variants found in short-stature samples (1.6%) was higher than that observed in two control cohorts (0.017% and 0.08%; P < 0.001). Identified IHH variants segregate with short stature in a dominant inheritance pattern. Affected individuals typically manifest mild disproportional short stature with a frequent finding of shortening of the middle phalanx of the fifth finger. None of them have classic features of brachydactyly type A1, which was previously associated with IHH mutations. Five patients heterozygous for IHH variants had a good response to rhGH therapy. The mean change in height standard deviation score in 1 year was 0.6. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the association of pathogenic variants in IHH with short stature with nonspecific skeletal abnormalities and established a frequent cause of growth disorder, with a preliminary good response to rhGH.

Dwarfism/genetics , Hedgehog Proteins/genetics , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Musculoskeletal Abnormalities/genetics , Mutation , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , DNA Mutational Analysis , Dwarfism/complications , Family , Female , Gene Frequency , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Infant , Male , Musculoskeletal Abnormalities/complications , Pedigree , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 52(10): 1300-1305, 2017 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771972

BACKGROUND: As of 2013, fewer than 20% of patients in the Brazilian CF Registry had two CFTR mutations identified. The aim of this study was to sequence the coding region of the CFTR in Brazilian CF patients and determine the frequency of mutations in this cohort. METHODS: Patients with CF and those with suspected atypical CF or CFTR-related disorders were invited to enroll. Total DNA was extracted from blood samples, quantified, and purified. Library preparation was performed using Ion Xpress™ Plus gDNA and Amplicon Library preparation kits (Life Technologies), as well as sequencing using the Ion Torrent platform (Life Technologies). RESULTS: A total of 141 patients were enrolled, and 45 mutations were identified. Among 126 CF patients, we identified mutations in 97.2% of alleles. The three most common mutations were F508del, G542X, and 3120 + 1G->A. Five novel pathogenic mutations were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Next generation sequencing (NGS) allowed the identification of mutations in most CF alleles and confirmed allelic heterogeneity in our population.

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Adolescent , Alleles , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Female , Gene Frequency , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Mutation
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(4): 938-945, 2017 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328130

Auriculocondylar syndrome, mainly characterized by micrognathia, small mandibular condyle, and question mark ears, is a rare disease segregating in an autosomal dominant pattern in the majority of the families reported in the literature. So far, pathogenic variants in PLCB4, GNAI3, and EDN1 have been associated with this syndrome. It is caused by a developmental abnormality of the first and second pharyngeal arches and it is associated with great inter- and intra-familial clinical variability, with some patients not presenting the typical phenotype of the syndrome. Moreover, only a few patients of each molecular subtype of Auriculocondylar syndrome have been reported and sequenced. Therefore, the spectrum of clinical and genetic variability is still not defined. In order to address these questions, we searched for alterations in PLCB4, GNAI3, and EDN1 in patients with typical Auriculocondylar syndrome (n = 3), Pierre Robin sequence-plus (n = 3), micrognathia with additional craniofacial malformations (n = 4), or non-specific auricular dysplasia (n = 1), which could represent subtypes of Auriculocondylar syndrome. We found novel pathogenic variants in PLCB4 only in two of three index patients with typical Auriculocondylar syndrome. We also performed a detailed comparative analysis of the patients presented in this study with those previously published, which showed that the pattern of auricular abnormality and full cheeks were associated with molecularly characterized individuals with Auriculocondylar syndrome. Finally, our data contribute to a better definition of a set of parameters for clinical classification that may be used as a guidance for geneticists ordering molecular testing for Auriculocondylar syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Ear/abnormalities , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Micrognathism/diagnosis , Mutation , Phospholipase C beta/genetics , Pierre Robin Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Child , Ear/pathology , Ear Diseases/classification , Ear Diseases/genetics , Ear Diseases/pathology , Endothelin-1/genetics , Female , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go/genetics , Gene Expression , Genes, Dominant , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Micrognathism/classification , Micrognathism/genetics , Micrognathism/pathology , Pedigree , Phenotype , Pierre Robin Syndrome/classification , Pierre Robin Syndrome/genetics , Pierre Robin Syndrome/pathology , Terminology as Topic