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Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-13. (OPAS-W/BRA/FGL/COVID-19/22-0009).
Non-conventional Pt | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr2-55598

Embora a maioria das vacinas contra COVID-19 só sejam aprovadas para uso em adultos com 18 anos ou mais, um número crescente de vacinas também está sendo autorizado para uso em crianças. Alguns países deram autorização de uso de emergência para vacinas de mRNA para uso na faixa etária adolescente (de 12 a 17 anos): a BNT162b2 desenvolvida pela Pfizer; e a mRNA 1273 desenvolvida pela Moderna. Em novembro de 2021, uma autoridade reguladora rigorosa aprovou a vacina mRNA BNT162b2 para uso em crianças de 5 a 11 anos. Foram concluídos estudos em crianças com 3 anos de idade para duas vacinas inativadas (Sinovac-CoronaVac e BBIBPCorV), e esses produtos foram aprovados pelas autoridades chinesas para a indicação de idade de 3-17 anos.

COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Adolescent
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 12, 2022 01 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994768

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perimetric features and their associations with structural and functional features in patients with RP1L1-associated occult macular dystrophy (OMD; i.e. Miyake disease). Methods: In this international, multicenter, retrospective cohort study, 76 eyes of 38 patients from an East Asian cohort of patients with RP1L1-associated OMD were recruited. Visual field tests were performed using standard automated perimetry, and the patients were classified into three perimetric groups based on the visual field findings: central scotoma, other scotoma (e.g. paracentral scotoma), and no scotoma. The association of the structural and functional findings with the perimetric findings was evaluated. Results: Fifty-four eyes (71.1%) showed central scotoma, 14 (18.4%) had other scotomata, and 8 (10.5%) had no scotoma. Central scotoma was mostly noted in both eyes (96.3%) and within the central 10 degrees (90.7%). Among the three perimetric groups, there were significant differences in visual symptoms, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and structural phenotypes (i.e. severity of photoreceptor changes). The central scotoma group showed worse BCVA often with severe structural abnormalities (96.3%) and a pathogenic variant of p.R45W (72.2%). The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) groups largely corresponded with the perimetric groups; however, 8 (10.5%) of 76 eyes showed mfERG abnormalities preceding typical central scotoma. Conclusions: The patterns of scotoma with different clinical severity were first identified in occult macular dystrophy, and central scotoma, a severe pattern, was most frequently observed. These perimetric patterns were associated with the severity of BCVA, structural phenotypes, genotype, and objective functional characteristics which may precede in some cases.

Macular Degeneration/physiopathology , Scotoma/physiopathology , Visual Fields/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Electroretinography , Eye Proteins/genetics , Far East , Female , Genotype , Humans , Macular Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Macular Degeneration/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Scotoma/diagnostic imaging , Scotoma/genetics , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology , Visual Field Tests , Young Adult
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 45, 2022 Jan 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016628

BACKGROUND: While some evidence has been demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of routine hepatitis A vaccination in middle-income countries, the evidence is still limited in other settings including in South Africa. Given this, the evidence base around the cost of care for hepatitis A needs to be developed towards considerations of introducing hepatitis A vaccines in the national immunisation schedule and guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To describe the severity, clinical outcomes, and cost of hepatitis A cases presenting to two tertiary healthcare centers in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective folder review of patients presenting with hepatitis A at two tertiary level hospitals providing care for urban communities of metropolitan Cape Town, South Africa. Patients included in this folder review tested positive for hepatitis A immunoglobulin M between 1 January 2008 and 1 March 2018. RESULTS: In total, 239 folders of hepatitis A paediatric patients < 15 years old and 212 folders of hepatitis A adult patients [Formula: see text] 15 years old were included in the study. Before presenting for tertiary level care, more than half of patients presented for an initial consultation at either a community clinic or general physician. The mean length of hospital stay was 7.45 days for adult patients and 3.11 days for paediatric patients. Three adult patients in the study population died as a result of hepatitis A infection and 29 developed complicated hepatitis A. One paediatric patient in the study population died as a result of hepatitis A infection and 27 developed complicated hepatitis A, including 4 paediatric patients diagnosed with acute liver failure. The total cost per hepatitis A hospitalisation was $1935.41 for adult patients and $563.06 for paediatric patients, with overhead costs dictated by the length of stay being the largest cost driver. CONCLUSION: More than 1 in every 10 hepatitis A cases (13.3%) included in this study developed complicated hepatitis A or resulted in death. Given the severity of clinical outcomes and high costs associated with hepatitis A hospitalisation, it is important to consider the introduction of hepatitis A immunisation in the public sector in South Africa to potentially avert future morbidity, mortality, and healthcare spending.

Hepatitis A , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Vaccination
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO6259, 2022.
Article En, Pt | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019036

OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of patients with asthma with misperception of poor control of their disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of patients with asthma and aged ≥18 years. Asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma questionnaire. The Kappa coefficient was used to analyze the agreement between the results of these tests and the patients' perception of asthma control, defined by the response to one question of the Asthma Control Test: "How do you evaluate your asthma control during the last 4 weeks?". RESULTS: Among the 71 patients aged 19 to 81 years and a mean of 57.7±13.9 years, there were 27 (38%) controlled, according to the Asthma Control Test, and 18 (25.3%) using the Global Initiative for Asthma questionnaire. The Kappa coefficients of the results of these tests and the perception of control by the patients were 0.4 and 0.29, respectively. Among the 41 (57.7%) patients who considered themselves controlled, 18 (43.9%) had a misperception of their poor control, as per the Asthma Control Test, and 25 (61%) by the Global Initiative for Asthma. CONCLUSION: Applying the Asthma Control Test, it was observed that almost half of the participants had a misperception of their poor control of the disease and, according to the Global Initiative for Asthma questionnaire, more than half of the sample did not notice the lack of asthma control.

Asthma , Outpatients , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma/prevention & control , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 115, 2022.
Article En, Pt | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019051

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the food and physical activity environments in Brazilian public and private schools, and develop indicators to evaluate them. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with data from a questionnaire on school characteristics of the 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, answered by principals or coordinators, referring to 3040 public and private schools throughout the country. The variables related to food and physical activity environments were described in isolation, and an indicator was developed for each environment, with scores ranging from 0 to 100. The frequency and mean score of each variable were described according to the administrative sphere (public or private). RESULTS: The public sector showed a predominance of school meals offer (97.8%), whereas the private sector, of canteens (89.8%). Both had a similar frequency of alternative food outlets in the surroundings. Private schools provided all markers of healthy and unhealthy eating in canteens more frequently. Public schools scored higher in "Food and beverage availability" (64.9) than private schools (55.8). The characteristics of physical activity environments showed that sports courts and sports or games equipment were common in public (69.2% and 90.7%, respectively) and private schools (94.1% and 99.8%, respectively), though at a significantly higher frequency in the second group. Private schools scored higher in "Structures and materials availability" than public schools (63.3 and 41.6, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Public schools provide a more favorable food environment, whereas private schools, a physical activity environment.

Exercise , Schools , Adolescent , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Meals
Br J Nurs ; 31(1): S4-S9, 2022 Jan 13.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019738

An online meeting was arranged with four professionals representing four countries to debate current practices and future steps in naming HIV to children (disclosing HIV status). This article considers the evidence and reports on the commentary and debate from the meeting. Naming HIV to children remains a challenge. Although studies identify some of the facilitators and barriers to informing children of their HIV diagnosis, further review of practice is required. This article presents a global perspective of naming practices from different settings. The article comprises commentary and a report of the online debate, along with supporting evidence. The four participating authors concluded that health professionals must work in collaboration with families to support early naming of HIV to children or having an open discussion about HIV in clinics. Naming when a child is younger reduces self-stigma and empowers children and young people to adhere to their medication, make informed decisions and share their own diagnosis appropriately. The authors concluded that health professionals play a key role in educating colleagues and the public to reduce stigma and discrimination. Professionals working with children and families living with HIV require support and resources to instil confidence in naming and facilitate naming of HIV status to a child.

HIV Infections , Adolescent , Child , Family , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Social Stigma
Pediatr Ann ; 51(1): e8-e14, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020508

Childhood cancer is the leading cause of nonaccidental death in children and adolescents. Over the past 50 years, development of novel therapies and improvements in supportive care have led to improvements in long-term survival rates. However, there remains great morbidity associated with cancer treatment among childhood cancer survivors, and the outcomes for patients who relapse remain poor. The introduction of precision medicine, an approach that uses the understanding of genetic and biochemical profiles of a disease (as enabled by next-generation sequencing) to tailor treatment to a patient, has quickly started to change the diagnostic and therapeutic landscape of pediatric oncology. With its use, a better understanding of tumor biology, improved classification systems for various cancers, and genetically and molecularly targeted therapeutic strategies have been developed. We review the implementation of precision medicine in pediatric oncology and its effect on diagnosis, management, and treatment of pediatric cancers. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(1):e8-e14.].

Neoplasms , Precision Medicine , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Medical Oncology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/therapy
Pediatr Ann ; 51(1): e27-e33, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020510

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who have cancer face a distinct set of challenges beginning during the initial diagnosis, extending throughout treatment, and continuing into survivorship. Owing to significant strides made in cancer therapy in recent decades, more than 80% of this group will go on to become long-term survivors. Despite these improvements, however, many AYAs continue to have poorer outcomes when compared with older and younger patients. The purpose of this article is to underscore the unique set of multifaceted obstacles that this vulnerable group encounters and to pinpoint critical areas of attention and intervention throughout the health care journey. Moreover, it aims to highlight the importance of the role of the primary care provider as a constant partner in safeguarding the long-term physical and mental health of this diverse population within a complex and, at times, trying health care system. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(1):e27-e33.].

Neoplasms , Survivorship , Adolescent , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Mental Health , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Survivors , Young Adult
Saudi Med J ; 43(1): 113-116, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022293

OBJECTIVES: To examine asthma prevalence and the relationship between the level of knowledge and quality of life (QoL) among asthmatic secondary school children aged 13-14 years old in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was employed. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, asthma symptoms, knowledge on asthma, and QoL. RESULTS: Data from 2891 asthmatic schoolchildren aged 13-14 years old from secondary schools in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, were analyzed. According to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) scoring for asthma prevalence, the number of children who exhibited signs and symptoms of asthma was 9% (n=260). The mean score for total knowledge indicated a low knowledge level (82.7%). No significant relationship was found between knowledge level and QoL. Only the race factor was associated with asthma knowledge. CONCLUSION: This study has provided valuable information on asthma prevalence among Malaysian adolescents and their knowledge on asthma condition. Further research should explore the correlation factors of asthma knowledge and QoL.

Asthma , Quality of Life , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(1): 91-5, 2022 Jan 12.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025164

Regarding the development of international standard of Guideline for Clinical Practice of Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Migraine, the existing problems of the design and methodology of randomized controlled trial (RCT) on acupuncture and moxibustion for migraine were summarized in views of participant, intervention, control, outcome and study design. Four directions need to be further explored, (1) research of adolescent migraine, special subtype of migraine and migraine in a special population; (2) research of the immediate analgesic effect of acupuncture and moxibuation at the attack stage of migraine and the therapeutic effect of migraine at each stage; (3) research on safety and health economics; (4) clinical trial registration of acupuncture and moxibustion. In study, the target population should be further determined and specialized, the diagnosis criteria of western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine be generalized and concentrated, the staging and type division of disease be accurate, the intervention procedure be integrated, the control design be rationalized, the outcomes be validated, and the description of randomization and blinding be clarified.

Acupuncture Therapy , Acupuncture , Migraine Disorders , Moxibustion , Adolescent , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Migraine Disorders/therapy
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 13.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027378

Heminasal agenesis is an exceedingly rare congenital anomaly which is frequently associated with disorders of eye, lacrimal drainage system and face. At times, a proboscis may also be noted with this condition. Herein, we present a case of a 13-year-old boy who presented to us with heminasal agenesis with concomitant microphthalmos, leucomatous corneal opacity, blepharoptosis, dacryocystocoele and maxillary hypoplasia. The child underwent a modified transeptal external dacryocystorhinostomy with placement of a lacrimal stent. There was significant improvement of epiphora and discharged following surgery. Heminasal aplasia with dacryocystocoele is surgical challenge; however, a well thought out surgical approach can yield satisfactory outcomes.

Dacryocystorhinostomy , Eye Abnormalities , Lacrimal Apparatus , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction , Nasolacrimal Duct , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Male , Nasal Cavity , Nasolacrimal Duct/diagnostic imaging , Nasolacrimal Duct/surgery
J Int Med Res ; 50(1): 3000605211069751, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001697

OBJECTIVE: To present the authors' experience of Mahaim-type accessory pathways (MAPs), focusing on anatomic localizations. METHODS: Data from consecutive patients who underwent electrophysiological study (EPS) for MAP ablation in two tertiary centres, between January 1998 and June 2020, were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: Of the 55 included patients, 27 (49.1%) were male, and the overall mean age was 29.5 ± 11.6 years (range, 12-66 years). MAPs were ablated at the tricuspid annulus in 43 patients (78.2%), mitral annulus in four patients (7.3%), paraseptal region in three patients (5.5%), and right ventricle mid-apical region in five patients (9.1%). Among 49 patients who planned for ablation therapy, the success rate was 91.8% (45 patients). CONCLUSION: MAPs were most often ablated at the lateral aspect of the tricuspid annuli, sometimes at other sides of the tricuspid and mitral annuli, and infrequently in the right ventricle. The M potential mapping technique is likely to be a useful target for ablation of MAPs.

Catheter Ablation , Pre-Excitation, Mahaim-Type , Adolescent , Adult , Electrocardiography , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Male , Mitral Valve , Pre-Excitation, Mahaim-Type/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010783

(1) Background: Knowledge of COVID-19 prevention among communities is the first step towards protective behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess COVID-19 prevention knowledge among a Middle Eastern and North African community in Houston, Texas. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated quantitative survey; survey questions consisted of three parts: COVID-19 specific questions, general health questions, and sociodemographic questions. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of perception of knowledge on preventing COVID-19 spread. The outcome of interest comprised of "good/excellent" versus "average and below" knowledge. (3) Results: A total of 366 participants (66.39% males) completed the survey. A univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences in self-reported COVID-19 prevention knowledge among those with and without health insurance, different ages, level of knowledge, and perceived severity of COVID-19 infection. In the multivariate logistic regression, two predictors were identified: those in the 18-25-year-old group were more likely to have "excellent/good" knowledge on COVID-19 spread compared to the ≥40-year-old group (OR: 6.36; 95% CI: 1.38, 29.34). Those who somewhat agree with knowing how to protect themselves from COVID-19 were more likely to have "excellent/good" knowledge of preventing COVID-19 spread compared to those that neither agree nor disagree or disagree (OR: 7.74; 95% CI: 2.58, 23.26). (4) Conclusions: Younger adults reported higher knowledge of COVID-19 prevention.

COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Texas , Young Adult
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(2): 119-124, 2022 Jan 11.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012300

Objective: To construct an epigenetic clock model for assessing and calibrating human biological age. Methods: Convenience sampling was used to select 186 subjects from the longevity cohort of Guangxi Zhuang Antonornous Region from July 1 to November 30, 2019, and 124 subjects from the physical examination population of the Seventh Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from October 1 to December 31, 2020. Self-designed questionnaire was applied to collect demographic characteristics and family history of disease. Physical examination was applied to determine heart rate and blood pressure. Fasting peripheral venous blood was drawn for determination of fasting plasma glucose, plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and telomere length. Methylation levels of EDARADD cg09809672, IPO8 cg19722847, NHLRC1 cg22736354, P2RX6 cg05442902 and SCGN cg06493994 were detected by targeted methylation site sequencing. A total of 54 subjects with unqualified quality control of DNA methylation and telomere length were excluded, and 256 subjects' data were finally analyzed. Trend test was used for the change of methylation level among different ages groups, multiple linear regression method was used to build prediction models of biological age. Kendal rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of age gap (Gregorian calendar age minus biological age) with telomere length. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the health-related indicators between subjects with different age gap within different age groups. Results: The M(Q1, Q3)of age of subjects were 67 (51, 91) years old, including 166 females (64.84%). With increase of age, the methylation levels of gene loci were decreased (EDARADD cg09809672, IPO8 cg19722847 and P2RX6 cg05442902) and increased (NHLRC1 cg22736354 and SCGN cg06493994) (all P values<0.05). The established biological age prediction model was as follows: Y=-53.121×EDARADD cg09809672-137.564×IPO8 cg19722847+141.040×NHLRC1 cg22736354-67.893×P2RX6 cg05442902+149.547×SCGNcg06493994+4.592×sex+64.185 (R2=0.86, P<0.001), where Y was the biological age, and the items in the equation were methylation level, sex (male =1, female =2) and intercept in sequence. The Kendall rank correlation coefficient between age gap and telomere length was 0.731 (P<0.001). Compared with the subjects whose age gaP<0, the subjects with age gaP≥0 had higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [(88.50±8.89) and (109.83±9.48) mmHg, respectively, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa]; lower TC [(5.48±0.23) and (3.98±0.54) mmol/L, respectively, ] and TG [(3.51±0.32) and (3.41±0.20) mmol/L] in young adults; lower fasting blood glucose in middle age [(6.17±0.67) and (5.37±0.79) mmol/L, respectively, ] and higher diastolic blood pressure in nonagenarian age [(76.99±6.78) and (83.97±9.36) mmHg, respectively, ] (all P values<0.05). Conclusion: The constructed epigenetic clock model can be used to evaluate and calibrate human biological age.

Healthy Aging , Adolescent , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , China , Epigenesis, Genetic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Triglycerides , Young Adult
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 44, 2022 Jan 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012452

BACKGROUND: In Germany, HPV vaccination of adolescent girls was introduced in 2007. Nationally representative data on the distribution of vaccine-relevant HPV types in the pre-vaccination era are, however, only available for the adult population. To obtain data in children and adolescents, we assessed the prevalence and determinants of serological response to 16 different HPV types in a representative sample of 12,257 boys and girls aged 1-17 years living in Germany in 2003-2005. METHODS: Serum samples were tested for antibodies to nine mucosal and seven cutaneous HPV types. The samples had been collected during the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents in 2003-2006. We calculated age- and gender-specific HPV seroprevalence. We used multivariable regression models to identify associations between demographic and behavioral characteristics and HPV seropositivity. RESULTS: We found low but non-zero seroprevalence for the majority of tested HPV types among children and adolescents in Germany. The overall seroprevalence of HPV-16 was 2.6%, with slightly higher values in adolescents. Seroprevalence of all mucosal types but HPV-6 ranged from 0.6% for HPV-33, to 6.4% for HPV-31 and did not differ by gender. We found high overall seroprevalence for HPV-6 with 24.8%. Cutaneous HPV type seroprevalence ranged from 4.0% for HPV-38 to 31.7% for HPV-1. In the majority of cutaneous types, seroprevalence did not differ between boys and girls, but increased sharply with age, (e.g., HPV-1 from 1.5% in 1-3-years-old to 45.1% in 10-11-years-old). Associations between behavioral factors and type-specific HPV prevalence were determined to be heterogeneous. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first nationally representative data of naturally acquired HPV antibody reactivity in the pre-HPV-vaccination era among children and adolescents living in Germany. These data can be used as baseline estimates for evaluating the impact of the current HPV vaccination strategy targeting 9-14-years-old boys and girls.

Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Germany , Human papillomavirus 6 , Humans , Infant , Male , Papillomaviridae , Seroepidemiologic Studies
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 3, 2022 Jan 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012568

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a frequent complaint amongst children and adolescents with obesity, and it interferes with adherence to dietary and exercise regimes that could reduce obesity. The present study evaluated the effect of an inpatient 3-week body weight reduction program on body weight and fatigue. METHOD: One hundred children and adolescents with obesity (64% female; aged 11-18 years) undertook an inpatient program of personalized diet, daily exercise, education, and counselling. RESULTS: The sample evidenced a mean reduction in body mass (females: ΔM = 4.3 (sd = 2.1) kg, p < .001), males: ΔM = 6.2 (sd = 2.6) kg, p < .001), BMI standard deviation score (females: ΔM = 0.17 (sd = 0.07), males: ΔM = 0.24 (sd = 0.08), p < .001) and fatigue (females: ΔM = 7.8 (sd = 9.7), males: ΔM = 5.0 (sd = 6.9), p < .001) as measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (PedsQL-MFS) and improvements on the Attention problems subscale of the Youth Self Report (total sample: ΔM = 0.89 (sd = 2.44), p < .001). Reliable change analyses revealed fatigue changes were achieved by up to 34% females and 17% males, but the majority did not achieve reliable change and changes in fatigue were not correlated with changes in body mass. CONCLUSIONS: The program achieved clinically significant improvements in some children and adolescents. Future studies should explore predictors of treatment responsiveness. Trial registration Observational study. Not registered.

Pediatric Obesity , Weight Reduction Programs , Adolescent , Child , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Quality of Life
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 4, 2022 Jan 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012590

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing evidence of the extreme efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in adults and the elderly, the administration of the same prophylactic measures to pediatric subjects is debated by some parents and by a number of researchers. The aim of this manuscript is to explain the reasons for overcoming hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents and to highlight the importance of universal COVID-19 vaccination in the pediatric population. MAIN FINDINGS: Recent epidemiological data suggest that the risk that a child with COVID-19 is hospitalized or admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit is greater than initially thought. Children may also suffer from long COVID and school closure because of COVID-19 can cause relevant mental health problems in the pediatric population. Placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, clinical trials showed appropriate efficacy, safety and tolerability of authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in children and adolescents 12-17 years old. Vaccination in children younger than 12 years of age will allow further benefits . CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccine administration seems mandatory in all the children and adolescents because of COVID-19 related complications as well as the efficacy, safety and tolerability of COVID-19 vaccines in this population. Due to the recent approval of COVID-9 vaccines for children 5-10 years old, it is desirable that vaccine opponents can understand how important is the universal immunization against COVID-19 for the pediatric subjects.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Mandatory Programs , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Risk Assessment
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 19(2): 61-64, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017372

Background: Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency amongst the paediatric population. Available diagnostic tools are focussed to make a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A definitive predictive factor for the diagnosis of complicated appendicitis is lacking. Thus, this aims to analyse hyperbilirubinaemia as a predictor of complicated appendicitis amongst the paediatric population. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital from November 2018 to October 2019. All children undergoing emergency appendectomy were included in the study. Preoperatively, patients were evaluated clinically, and routine investigations including total and direct serum bilirubin were sent. All patients were grouped as 'simple appendicitis' or 'complicated appendicitis' based on intra-operative and histological findings. Bilirubin level was compared between these groups and analysed. Results: A total of 52 children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. The mean age was 13.2 ± 4.2 years, and the male: female ratio was 2.1:1. Thirty-four (65.4%) had simple appendicitis and 18 (34.6%) had complicated appendicitis. Total bilirubin was 23.83 ± 5.94 mmol/L in the complicated appendicitis group and 13.15 ± 3.29 mmol/L in the simple appendicitis group. Direct bilirubin was 5.28 ± 2.22 mmol/L in complicated appendicitis and 2.62 ± 0.83 mmol/L in simple one. Both total and direct bilirubin were significantly high in the complicated group (P < 0.001) compared to the simple appendicitis group. On the Receiver operating curve (ROC), the best cutoff value for total and direct bilirubin was 21 and 5.5 mmol/L, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of total and direct bilirubin were 72.2%, 100%, and 61.1%, and 85.3%, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that hyperbilirubinaemia is a good predictor for paediatric complicated appendicitis.

Appendicitis , Adolescent , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , Bilirubin , Child , Female , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia/diagnosis , Hyperbilirubinemia/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 19(2): 112-114, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017383

The surgical treatment of long bone defects in septic environments remains a challenge for any orthopedic surgeon. The two-stage reconstruction technique described by Masquelet AC is a better alternative in our regions where expertise in microsurgical techniques is rare. We report our first experience with this technique through the reconstruction of the humeral diaphyseal bone defect. We presented a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis of the left humerus with sequestrum, a pathologic fracture with overly joint involvement. The first stage consisted of a sequestrectomy removing the entire humerus shaft (25 cm) with conservation of the humerus paddle followed by the implantation of cement spacer into the bone defect and stabilization with 2 Kirschner wires (22/10th) and a thoraco-brachial cast. Eleven months later, we performed a cancellous autograft associated with a free non-vascularised fibula graft (12 cm). The bone corticalisation was obtained after 11 months. At the 43-month follow-up, despite joint stiffness and unequal length of brachial segments, the patient and his parents were satisfied.

Osteomyelitis , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Adolescent , Bone Transplantation , Child , Fibula/surgery , Humans , Humerus/diagnostic imaging , Humerus/surgery , Male , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Osteomyelitis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Codas ; 34(2): e20210024, 2022.
Article Pt, En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019078

PURPOSE: To verify the immediate effects of different doses of photobiomodulation on maximum lip pressure. METHODS: Experimental, randomized and triple-blind study. The sample consisted of 23 women and 17 men, age between 18 and 33 years old (average 23.18 years old, SD=2.1), distributed in four groups: CG (control group), G1, G4 and G7. The maximum pressure was assessed with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). The bulb was placed between the lips and the participants were instructed to press it as strong as possible. Infrared LASER (808 nm), manufactured by DMC, Therapy EC model, 100 mW of power output, was applied. The doses tested were 1 J (G1), 4 J (G4) and 7 J (G7), applied at six points of the orbicularis oris muscle. In the CG there was no intervention. The evaluation procedures were repeated after the LASER application. The results were analyzed with a significance level of 95%. RESULTS: The maximum lip pressure increased significantly only in the group irradiated with 7 J. CONCLUSION: Low level LASER therapy with 7 J dose promoted changes in the performance of the orbicularis oris muscle in the maximum pressure task.

OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos imediatos da fotobiomodulação sobre a pressão máxima dos lábios para diferentes doses. MÉTODO: Estudo experimental, randomizado e triplo cego. A amostra foi composta por 23 mulheres e 17 homens com idade entre 18 e 33 anos (média 23,18 anos, DP=2,1), divididos em quatro grupos: GC (grupo controle), G1, G4 e G7. A pressão máxima foi avaliada com o Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). O bulbo foi posicionado entre os lábios e os participantes foram orientados a pressioná-lo com a maior força possível. Aplicou-se o LASER infravermelho (808 nm) da marca DMC, modelo Therapy EC, 100 mW de potência. As doses testadas foram 1 J (G1), 4 J (G4) e 7 J (G7) aplicadas em seis pontos do músculo orbicular da boca. No GC não houve intervenção. Após a aplicação do LASER, foram repetidos os procedimentos de avaliação. Os resultados foram analisados com nível de significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: A pressão máxima de lábios aumentou significativamente apenas no grupo irradiado com 7 joules. CONCLUSÃO: O LASER de baixa intensidade na dose de 7 J promoveu mudanças no desempenho do músculo orbicular da boca em tarefa de pressão máxima.

Lip , Low-Level Light Therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Clinical Protocols , Facial Muscles , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult