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J Affect Disord ; 296: 59-66, 2022 01 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592657

BACKGROUND: Severe psychological and psychosocial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are expected, especially for people already vulnerable to biological or psychosocial stressors, including those with mental health problems. The study aimed to investigate factors associated with the loss of jobs and unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, we investigated whether mental illness was associated with a higher risk of losing one's job because of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Nineteen thousand four hundred ninety-six adults living in Italy were administered an online protocol including a sociodemographic checklist and questionnaires investigating suicide ideation and risk, mental health status and general distress (stress, anxiety, and depression), resilience, and perceived support. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred seventy-four reported having lost their job because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 5.4% of the sample reported a mental illness (mostly a depressive disorder). Unemployment was independently associated with mental illness, poor mental health, and depression. Mental illness was associated with the risk of losing one's job because of the COVID-19 pandemic, but not at the multivariate analyses. Those who lost their job because of the COVID-19 pandemic (compared to others) reported worse mental health and depression. LIMITATIONS: The presence of mental illness was self-reported by respondents and the administered measures were self-reported questionnaires affected by social desirability and other response bias. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and social isolation measures and lockdown used to contain its spread among the Italian population were associated with occupational insecurity, especially among the more vulnerable social categories.

COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment
J Affect Disord ; 296: 370-379, 2022 01 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606816

BACKGROUND: Social isolation and the impact on mental health is a major concern during COVID-19. Trait equanimity is expected to protect individuals from psychological distress associated with social isolation. The aim of this study is to examine the link between social isolation and psychological distress via the mediator equanimity. It was hypothesised that objective (few social contacts) and perceived social isolation (loneliness) would predict psychological distress and that equanimity would mediate these relationships. METHODS: Five hundred and seventy-eight adult United States participants were recruited and completed measures of objective social isolation and perceived social isolation (De Jong Gierveld Social Isolation scale), trait equanimity (Phenomenological Experience of Meditative Equanimity Scale), and psychological distress (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, Short Form, DASS-21). RESULTS: Objective social isolation negatively predicted psychological distress, but equanimity did not mediate this relationship. Perceived social isolation positively predicted psychological distress and equanimity mediated this relationship. LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by its cross-sectional and self-report design and by a United States sample, which may affect the generalisability of findings. CONCLUSIONS: Rather than a lack of social contact it is the "perceived" nature of isolation that is related to psychological distress and this relationship indirectly operates through trait equanimity. Individuals high in trait equanimity may be better protected from the impact of perceived social isolation. Clinical interventions can be adapted to include equanimity skills to mitigate perceived social isolation for individuals and reduce adverse outcomes.

COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131494, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392198

BACKGROUND: Given the high concentrations of nicotine and flavor chemicals in EC (electronic cigarette) fluids, it is important to determine how efficiently they transfer to aerosols, how well they are retained by users (exposure), and if they are exhaled into the environment where they settle of surfaces forming ECEAR (EC exhaled aerosol residue). OBJECTIVES: To quantify the flavor chemicals and nicotine in refill fluids, inhaled aerosols, and exhaled aerosols. Then deduce their retention and contribution to ECEAR. METHODS: Flavor chemicals and nicotine were identified and quantified by GC-MS in two refill fluids, smoking machine-generated aerosols, and aerosols exhaled by 10 human participants (average age 21; 7 males). Machine generated aerosols were made with varying puff durations and two wattages (40 and 80). Participants generated exhale ad libitum; their exhale was quantified, and chemical retention and contribution to ECEAR was modeled. RESULTS: "Dewberry Cream" had five dominant (≥1 mg/mL) flavor chemicals (maltol, ethyl maltol, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, furaneol), while "Cinnamon Roll" had one (cinnamaldehyde). Nicotine transferred well to aerosols irrespective of topography; however, transfer efficiencies of flavor chemicals depended on the chemical, puff volume, puff duration, pump head, and EC power. Participants could be classified as "mouth inhalers" or "lung inhalers" based on their exhale of flavor chemicals and nicotine and retention. Lung inhalers had high retention and exhaled low concentrations of EC chemicals. Only mouth inhalers exhaled sufficient concentrations of flavor chemicals/nicotine to contribute to chemical deposition on environmental surfaces (ECEAR). CONCLUSION: These data help distinguish two types of EC users, add to our knowledge of chemical exposure during vaping, and provide information useful in regulating EC use.

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Adult , Aerosols , Flavoring Agents , Humans , Lung , Nicotine , Young Adult
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 98-117, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092147

This study probed the cognitive mechanisms that underlie order processing for number symbols, specifically the extent to which the direction and format in which number symbols are presented influence the processing of numerical order, as well as the extent to which the relationship between numerical order processing and mathematical achievement is specific to Arabic numerals or generalisable to other notational formats. Seventy adults who were bilingual in English and Chinese completed a Numerical Ordinality Task, using number sequences of various directional conditions (i.e., ascending, descending, mixed) and notational formats (i.e., Arabic numerals, English number words, and Chinese number words). Order processing was found to occur for ascending and descending number sequences (i.e., ordered but not non-ordered trials), with the overall pattern of data supporting the theoretical perspective that the strength and closeness of associations between items in the number sequence could underlie numerical order processing. However, order processing was found to be independent of the notational format in which the numerical stimuli were presented, suggesting that the psychological representations and processes associated with numerical order are abstract across different formats of number symbols. In addition, a relationship between the processing speed for numerical order judgements and mathematical achievement was observed for Arabic numerals and Chinese number words, and to a weaker extent, English number words. Together, our findings have started to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that could underlie order processing for different formats of number symbols, and raise new questions about the generalisability of these findings to other notational formats.

Achievement , Judgment , Adult , Cognition , Humans , Mathematics
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 417-424, 2022 Jan 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143904

BACKGROUND: Thiamethoxam is widely used to control pests in Chinese kale, popularly consumed leafy vegetables. The potential risk to the environment and human health has aroused much public concern. Therefore, it is important to investigate the degradation behavior, residue distribution and dietary risk assessment of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale. RESULTS: A sensitive analytical method for determination of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin residue in Chinese kale was established and validated through a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The recoveries were 85.4-101.2% for thiamethoxam and 79.5-108.1% for clothianidin, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.9-10.2% and 1.8-6.0%, respectively. For the dissipation kinetics, the data showed that thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was degraded with the half-lives of 4.1 to 4.5 days. In the terminal residue experiments, the residues of thiamethoxam were 0.017-0.357 mg kg-1 after application 2-3 times with a preharvest interval (PHI) of 7 days under the designed dosages. The chronic and acute dietary exposure assessment risk quotient (RQ) values of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale for different Chinese consumers were 0.08-0.19% and 0.05-0.12%, respectively, and those of clothianidin were 0.01-0.04% and 0.02-0.04%, respectively, all of the RQ values were lower than 100%. CONCLUSION: Thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was rapidly degraded following first-order kinetics models. The dietary risk of thiamethoxam and clothianidin through Chinese kale was negligible to consumers. The results from this study are important reference for Chinese governments to developing criteria for the safe and rational use of thiamethoxam, setting maximum residue levels (MRLs), monitoring the quality safety of agricultural products and protecting consumer health. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

Brassica/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Guanidines/metabolism , Neonicotinoids/metabolism , Pesticide Residues/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Thiamethoxam/chemistry , Thiamethoxam/metabolism , Thiazoles/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brassica/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Dietary Exposure/adverse effects , Dietary Exposure/analysis , Female , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Vegetables/chemistry , Vegetables/metabolism , Young Adult
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(1): 100-106, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307945

BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of transfusion in treating sickle cell disease acute chest syndrome, the target hemoglobin and optimal modality for transfusion remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare hospital length of stay (LOS) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute chest syndrome transfused to hemoglobin ≥ 8 g/dL versus patients transfused to hemoglobin < 8 g/dL; and to compare hospital LOS in acute chest syndrome patients treated with and without exchange transfusion. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all acute chest syndrome patients treated in the medical ICU at 2 tertiary care hospitals between January 2011 and August 2016 (n = 82). We compared median hospital LOS in patients transfused to hemoglobin ≥ 8 g/dL by the time of ICU transfer to the medical floor versus patients transfused to hemoglobin < 8 g/dL as well as patients who received exchange transfusion versus no exchange transfusion using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. We modeled the association between hospital LOS and hemoglobin at ICU transfer to the medical floor using multivariable log-linear regression. RESULTS: Median hospital LOS was about half as long for patients transfused to hemoglobin ≥ 8 g/dL versus hemoglobin < 8 g/dL (8.0 versus 16.5 days, P = 0.008). There was no difference in LOS for patients treated with and without exchange transfusion. On average, a 1 g/dL increase in hemoglobin was associated with a 19.5% decrease (95% CI 10.8-28.2%) in LOS, controlling for possible confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion to a hemoglobin target ≥ 8 g/dL is associated with decreased hospital LOS in patients with acute chest syndrome. There was no difference in LOS between patients who received exchange transfusion and those who did not.

Acute Chest Syndrome , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Acute Chest Syndrome/etiology , Acute Chest Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Retrospective Studies
Clin Imaging ; 81: 47-53, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598005

OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is used for the surveillance of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and its associated complications. The time interval gap for subsequent follow-up MRCP is variable depending on clinical practice patterns, therefore this study was done to assess the MRCP follow-up strategy used in our institution for screening PSC-associated hepatobiliary malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort included MRCP studies in adult patients, with clinical and radiological diagnosis of PSC over the past 15-year period between January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2018. The study population was grouped based on the presence and absence of PSC-associated malignancy. The frequency of MRCP follow-up was compared between the groups to look for MRI ordering trends in surveillance for PSC-associated complications. RESULTS: The overall median interval follow-up with MRCP was 14 months. The median follow-up interval in cases with PSC-associated malignancy was 6.0 months, compared to 13.1 months in the PSC group without malignancy (p 0.013). During the study period, the PSC-associated malignancy group had a median number of 7.5 scans, while the no malignancy group had a median number of 4 scans. Three patients (3/10, 30%) developed hepatobiliary malignancies within the first year of clinical diagnosis of PSC. The most common malignancy associated with PSC was cholangiocarcinoma (4.6%,7/10). Other PSC-associated malignancies included carcinoma gallbladder (1.3%,2/10), and hepatocellular carcinoma (0.6%,1/10). The median age of PSC associated malignancies was 56 (IQR 15) and higher compared to median age of PSC group without malignancies 46 (IQR 25.5), p 0.035. CONCLUSION: The median interval for subsequent follow-up MRCP in our study cohort was 14 months. One-third of PSC-associated hepato-biliary malignancies developed within the first year of clinical diagnosis of PSC, and the risk of PSC-associated hepato-biliary malignancy is constant after the first year.

Bile Duct Neoplasms , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Liver Neoplasms , Adult , Bile Duct Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Bile Duct Neoplasms/epidemiology , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/diagnostic imaging , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102482, 2022 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673233

Dirofilaria spp. nematodes are accidental parasites of humans causing mild to serious, superficial or visceral infections. Superficial dirofilariosis is rather common in Europe and is typically manifested as subcutaneous form. Herein we report 46 new cases of human dirofilariosis (19 patients with subcutaneous, 18 patients with ocular, 4 patients wih genital, 2 patients with submucosal, 2 patients with pulmonary and 1 patient with intramuscular form of infection) that were recorded from the beginning of 2015 to May 2021 on the Balkan Peninsula with a goal to update the prevalence of this parasitosis and point out potential problems in diagnosis and treatment. Besides, given the high possibility of misinterpretation as tumor, our second aim was to encourage the inclusion of this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules. Although quite common forms, subcutaneous and ocular dirofilariosis can be very often misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to the absence of specific clinical manifestations. Therefore, raising awareness of clinicians about this zoonosis is needed as well as closer collaboration between physicians and veterinarians.

Dirofilariasis , Zoonoses , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Balkan Peninsula/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dirofilariasis/diagnosis , Dirofilariasis/parasitology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Serbia , Young Adult , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/parasitology
Clin Imaging ; 81: 114-117, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700173

Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of infectious disease related death worldwide with extrapulmonary tuberculosis being particularly difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of pancreatic tuberculosis (PTB) in an immunocompetent young female, which mimicked a malignant tumor diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and biopsy (EUS-FNAB). A 19-year-old Japanese female with no prior medical history presented with abdominal epigastralgia and appetite loss lasting 2 months. A solid lobular mass was observed in the pancreatic head with enhanced abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested it was a malignant pancreatic tumor. Using EUS-FNAB, granulomas with caseous necrosis and acid-fast bacilli were observed. Polymerase chain reaction results were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis but negative for Mycobacterium avium complex. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with PTB. Her symptoms and radiological findings improved with a standard antituberculosis therapy. PTB is difficult to differentiate from other pancreatic diseases with Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of T1, T2 weighted, or diffusion-weighted image (DWI) images. To investigate novel radiological diagnostics for PTB, we focused on MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, which have not been investigated in this context. The present case showed 0.52 × 10-3 mm2/s; additionally, the mean value of other mass-forming pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatic cancer was 1.592 × 10-3 mm2/s (the range: 1.015-3.025 × 10-3 mm2/s). The range does not overlap with the present PTB case or other pancreatic diseases. Therefore, ADC values may be useful as a noninvasive radiological diagnostic method for PTB.

Pancreatic Diseases , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Tuberculosis , Adult , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Female , Humans , Pancreas/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
Clin Imaging ; 81: 150-156, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743065

Diverticulosis of the colon is a gradually progressive disease that usually starts in early adulthood and increases with advancing age in its anatomical extent and the size of diverticula. It is important to recognize the initial stages of diverticular development in young patients in order to properly diagnose and manage the potential complications of this very common intestinal disorder. This article presents the pathological and radiological features of early diverticular formation, when the mucosal outpouchings are very small and contained within the colonic wall as distinct intramural lesions. The subsequent development of intramural diverticulitis and the spectrum of its manifestations on barium enema examination or Computed tomography (CT) are illustrated.

Diverticulitis , Diverticulum , Adult , Colon , Diverticulitis/diagnostic imaging , Diverticulum/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Radiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 149986, 2022 Jan 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798713

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was linked to depression incidence, although the results were limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on depression risk prospectively in China. METHODS: The present study used data from Yinzhou Cohort on adults without depression at baseline, and followed up until April 2020. Two-year moving average concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured using land-use regression (LUR) models for each participant. Depression cases were ascertained using the Health Information System (HIS) of the local health administration by linking the unique identifiers. We conducted Cox regression models with time-varying exposures to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of depression with each pollutant, after adjusting for a sequence of individual covariates as demographic characteristics, lifestyles, and comorbidity. Besides, physical activity, baseline potential depressive symptoms, cancer status, COVID-19 pandemic, different outcome definitions and air pollution exposure windows were considered in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Among the 30,712 adults with a mean age of 62.22 ± 11.25, 1024 incident depression cases were identified over totaling 98,619 person-years of observation. Interquartile range increments of the air pollutants were associated with increased risks of depression, and the corresponding HRs were 1.59 (95%CI: 1.46, 1.72) for PM2.5, 1.49 (95%CI: 1.35, 1.64) for PM10 and 1.58 (95%CI: 1.42, 1.77) for NO2. Subgroup analyses suggested that participants without taking any protective measures towards air pollution were more susceptible. The results remained robust in all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was identified as a risk factor for depression onset. Strategies to reduce air pollution are necessary to decrease the disease burden of depression.

Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 380-383, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403142

The durability of infection-induced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunity has crucial implications for reinfection and vaccine effectiveness. However, the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and long-term anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level is poorly understood. Here, we measured the longevity of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in survivors who had recovered from COVID-19 1 year previously. In a cohort of 473 survivors with varying disease severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe), we observed a positive correlation between virus-specific IgG antibody titers and COVID-19 severity. In particular, the highest virus-specific IgG antibody titers were observed in patients with severe COVID-19. By contrast, 74.4% of recovered asymptomatic carriers had negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test results, while many others had very low virus-specific IgG antibody titers. Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG persistence and titer depend on COVID-19 severity.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 388-392, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415572

In the current COVID-19 pandemic, a better understanding of the relationship between merely binding and functionally neutralizing antibodies is necessary to characterize protective antiviral immunity following infection or vaccination. This study analyzes the level of correlation between the novel quantitative EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) and a microneutralization assay. A panel of 123 plasma samples from a COVID-19 outbreak study population, preselected by semiquantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing, was used to assess the relationship between the novel quantitative ELISA (IgG) and a microneutralization assay. Binding IgG targeting the S1 antigen was detected in 106 (86.2%) samples using the QuantiVac ELISA, while 89 (72.4%) samples showed neutralizing antibody activity. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated a strong positive relationship between anti-S1 IgG levels and neutralizing antibody titers (rs = 0.819, p < 0.0001). High and low anti-S1 IgG levels were associated with a positive predictive value of 72.0% for high-titer neutralizing antibodies and a negative predictive value of 90.8% for low-titer neutralizing antibodies, respectively. These results substantiate the implementation of the QuantiVac ELISA to assess protective immunity following infection or vaccination.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 279-286, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468990

Vaccines have been seen as the most important solution for ending the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibody levels after inactivated virus vaccination. We included 148 healthcare workers (74 with prior COVID-19 infection and 74 with not). They received two doses of inactivated virus vaccine (CoronaVac). Serum samples were prospectively collected three times (Days 0, 28, 56). We measured SARS-CoV-2 IgGsp antibodies quantitatively and neutralizing antibodies. After the first dose, antibody responses did not develop in 64.8% of the participants without prior COVID-19 infection. All participants had developed antibody responses after the second dose. We observed that IgGsp antibody titers elicited by a single vaccine dose in participants with prior COVID-19 infection were higher than after two doses of vaccine in participants without prior infection (geometric mean titer: 898 and 607 AU/ml). IgGsp antibodies, participants with prior COVID-19 infection had higher antibody levels as geometric mean titers at all time points (p < 0.001). We also found a positive correlation between IgGsp antibody titers and neutralizing capacity (rs = 0.697, p < 0.001). Although people without prior COVID-19 infection should complete their vaccination protocol, the adequacy of a single dose of vaccine is still in question for individuals with prior COVID-19. New methods are needed to measure the duration of protection of vaccines and their effectiveness against variants as the world is vaccinated. We believe quantitative IgGsp values may reflect the neutralization capacity of some vaccines.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Young Adult
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 287-290, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487373

In the 10th month of the pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination was given first to healthcare workers in Turkey after receiving emergency use approval from the Ministry of Health. This study, which was performed at the COVID-19 reference center in Ankara (the capital of Turkey) aimed to evaluate the seroconversion rate of the CoronaVac vaccine. The anti-spike immunoglobulin G response to the two-dose vaccination was retrospectively examined in healthcare workers who had no previous history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The postvaccine seroconversion rate was investigated by measuring the antibody levels of healthcare workers who had received CoronaVac. Vaccination was administered as 600 SU in 28-day intervals. The healthcare workers' anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G levels were used to determine the seroconversion rate 2 months after the second dose of the vaccine. Of the healthcare workers, 22.9% (n = 155) were seronegative. The younger the age of the participant, the higher the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G. Furthermore, anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G levels were much higher in women than men.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Seroconversion/physiology , Turkey , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 407-412, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491572

The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford University-Astra Zeneca) has demonstrated nearly 70% efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in trials and some real-world studies. The vaccine was the first to be approved in India in early January 2021 and is manufactured by the Serum Institute of India. Favorable short-term safety data of the vaccine in India in a real-world setting has been recently demonstrated. Here, we report secondary objective (COVID-19 occurrence) measures of the same ongoing prospective observational study in prioritized recipients of the vaccine. The findings are based on participants who could complete at least 2 months of follow-up (n = 1500; female/male: 472/1028; mean age: 38.8 years). Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in 27/65 participants (41%) who received a single dose and 271/1435 (19%) who received both doses. Specifically, among doctors, 18/27 (66.7%) one dose recipients and 131/377 (34.7%) fully vaccinated developed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of the cases were mild in all groups, and most were breakthrough infections. The occurrence of "severe" COVID-19 was 7.7 times lower (0.4%) in fully vaccinated participants compared to partially vaccinated (3.1%). Four deaths were observed in the study. One of the four deaths was due to sepsis, two due to unspecified cardiac events, and one due to unspecified post-COVID-19 complications. The results of this preliminary analysis necessitate vigorous research on the performance of vaccines against variants, optimal timing of vaccination, and also optimal timings of effectiveness studies to guide future vaccination policy.

COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , India/epidemiology , Male , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491581

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prevalence , Young Adult
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 303-309, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491594

Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n = 10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n = 7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.

Atypical Bacterial Forms/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Legionnaires' Disease/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , India , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 335-341, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524695

Fully automated immunoassays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies that are strongly correlated with neutralization antibodies (nAbs) are clinically important because they enable the assessment of humoral immunity after infection and vaccination. Access SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) II antibody tests are semi-quantitative, fully automated immunoassays that detect anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies and might reflect nAb levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no studies have investigated the clinical utility of these tests in association with nAbs to date. To evaluate the clinical utility of Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests and their correlation with the SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) that measures nAbs in patients with COVID-19, we analyzed 54 convalescent serum samples from COVID-19 patients and 89 serum samples from non-COVID-19 patients. The presence of anti-RBD antibodies was detected using Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests, while nAbs were measured by sVNT. The sensitivity and specificity of sVNT were 94.4% and 98.9%, respectively. There were strong positive correlations between the inhibition values of sVNT and the results of the Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM (R = 0.95, R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001) and IgG II antibody tests (R = 0.96, R2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). In terms of the presence of nAbs, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.1% and 98.9% in the IgM assay and 100.0% and 100.0% in the IgG II assay, respectively. The Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of nAbs in COVID-19 patients and might be alternatives for measuring nAbs.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity