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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-03.
Es | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-55125

En la actualidad, las guías basadas en la evidencia constituyen una de las herramientas más útiles para mejorar la salud pública y la práctica clínica. Su finalidad es formular intervenciones con sólidas pruebas de eficacia, evitar riesgos innecesarios, utilizar los recursos de forma eficiente, disminuir la variabilidad clínica y, en esencia, mejorar la salud y garantizar una atención de calidad, razón de ser de los sistemas y servicios de salud. Las presentes directrices se elaboraron siguiendo la metodología GRADE con el apoyo de un panel de expertos clínicos de distintos países, todos ellos convocados por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Por medio de la respuesta a doce preguntas clave sobre el diagnóstico clínico y el tratamiento del dengue, el chikunguña y el zika, se formulan recomendaciones basadas en evidencia para pacientes pediátricos, jóvenes, adultos, personas mayores y embarazadas expuestos a estas enfermedades o con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de infección. La finalidad de las directrices es evitar la progresión a las formas graves y a los eventos mortales que puedan causar. Las recomendaciones están dirigidas a profesionales de la salud, incluidos el personal médico general, residente y especialista; y los profesionales de enfermería, así como a estudiantes de medicina y enfermería, quienes de una u otra forma participan en la atención de pacientes con sospecha de dengue, chikunguña o zika. También se dirige a los administradores de las unidades de salud y a los equipos directivos de los programas nacionales de prevención y control de enfermedades arbovirales, quienes tienen la responsabilidad de facilitar el proceso de aplicación de estas directrices. Esperamos que esta publicación beneficie no solo al personal de salud, que dispondrá de información científica actualizada y de la mejor calidad posible, sino a los menores, los adultos, las embarazadas, las personas mayores y la población en general, quienes recibirán una mejor atención de salud prestada por personal médico debidamente capacitado.


Chikungunya virus , Dengue Virus , Communicable Diseases , Clinical Diagnosis , Dengue , Zika Virus , Arboviruses , Pregnant Women , Child , Pediatrics , Aged , Communicable Disease Control
2.
Acta Neurol Taiwan ; 31(1): 36-40, 2022 Jan 25.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988952

PURPOSE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) displayed various acute neurological symptoms. PRES is a rare presentation of hypercalcemia. Here we present a case with ectopic secretion of parathyroid hormone from neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium presenting as hypercalcemia-related PRES. CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old woman presented with acute generalized tonic-clonic seizure followed by post-ictal confusion and neuropsychiatric behaviors. The diagnosis is PRES. Investigations showed uterine cervical region with multiple liver metastasis complicated with hypercalcemia, elevated intact parathyroid hormone. Further pathology concluded as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with neuroendocrine differentiation and immunoreactive for PTH. The patient's neurologic manifestations had resolved. Serum free calcium level and intact-PTH had declined after first course of definitive chemoradiation. CONCLUSION: Immunostaining of the tumor tissue can be used to estimate the ectopic PTH production within the tumor cells. Early detection and appropriate clinical treatment hold the potential to improve the prognosis of refractory hypercalcemia and hypercalcemia related PRES. Keyword: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; hypercalcemia; intact-parathyroid hormone; parathyroid hormone-related peptide; neuroendocrine carcinoma of endometrium.


Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Hypercalcemia , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Aged , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/complications , Endometrium , Female , Humans , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone
3.
Agri ; 34(1): 33-37, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988956

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to compare the Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score (MASES) values of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA) with and without coccydynia. METHODS: We included 42 cases between the ages of 18 to 65 that were admitted to our clinic between August 1, 2019 and April 20, 2020 with the diagnosis of ax-SpA. The first group consisted of 13 patients with coccydynia and the second group consisted of 29 patients without coccydynia. Besides the demographic data Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (ASDAS-CRP), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and MASES values of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: We found that 13 (29.5%) of 42 patients with ax-SpA had coccydynia. While the rate of female patients in the coccydynia group was 46.15%, in the group without coccydynia, this rate was 31.03%. The mean of MASES, ASDAS-CRP, and BASFI values of the coccydynia group was statistically significantly higher than the group without coccydynia. We found that the BASFI was the most effective factor affecting the presence of coccydynia. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the increased prevalence of coccydynia in patients with ax-SpA. In this study, we found that the presence of coccydynia may be associated with hypomobility rather than enthesitis.


Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/complications , Young Adult
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 37-45, 2022 Jan 08.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989488

This study explores the effect of different ozone metrics on the total mortality risk in China. Using the CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, Web of Science, and PubMed databases, the time series studies and case crossover studies from the establishment of each database to December 31, 2020 were retrieved, and 22 eligible studies were included in this analysis. A meta-analysis was performed for the ozone metrics of O3-M1h, O3-M8h, and O3-24h. The results indicated that the increase in the total mortality risk is more closely associated with O3-M1h (RR #, 1.0052; 95%CI, 1.0031-1.0073) and is more weakly associated with O3-24h (RR #, 1.0036; 95%CI, 1.0025-1.0048) and O3-M8h (RR #, 1.0031; 95%CI, 1.0022-1.0041). A subgroup analysis of the three metrics revealed that the total mortality risk of ozone is higher in the cold season, the elderly (≥ 65) are more vulnerable to ozone pollution, and the total mortality risk in the north is higher than that in the south.


Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Ozone , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Benchmarking , China/epidemiology , Humans , Ozone/analysis
5.
Parasitol Res ; 121(1): 275-286, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981216

Among the Plasmodium species that infect humans, P. falciparum has been largely studied in malaria endemic areas. However, P. malariae infection is less documented among the human population. This study aimed to monitor the prevalence and distribution of P. malariae in Southern Benin. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural localities in the Ouidah-Kpomasse-Tori Bossito (OKT) health district in Southern Benin from June to October 2019. Socio-demographic data were collected using a questionnaire, while malaria infection data were obtained on the one hand by microscopy diagnosis and, on the other, by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Based on microscopy, the prevalence of P. malariae mono-infection and coinfection of P. falciparum, P. malariae was respectively 2.3% and 1.2% in the OKT health district. This prevalence was higher (P < 0.01) than that reported by Damien et al. (2010) 10 years ago in the same study area with 0.7% and 0.3% of P. malariae and P. falciparum/P. malariae, respectively. Based on PCR analysis, P. malariae prevalence was 14.1%, including 5.2% of mono-infection and 8.9% of mixed infection with P. falciparum. Sub-microscopic Plasmodium infections were high (30.6%) and more pronounced in older participants (>20 years). The present study revealed that P. malariae increased in the OKT health district with a high prevalence of submicroscopic infection. Since our results provide valuable evidence of increasing P. malariae infection, the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) must consider P. malariae when designing future measures for effective control and malaria treatment.


Malaria , Plasmodium malariae , Aged , Benin , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Plasmodium falciparum , Prevalence
6.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 6, 2022 Jan 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996410

BACKGROUND: Ingestion of fish bones leading to gastric perforation and inducing abscess formation in the caudate lobe of the liver is very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of subxiphoid pain. There were no specific symptoms other than pain. Laboratory tests showed only an increase in the number and percentage of neutrophils. Contrast-enhanced Computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed two linear dense opacities in the gastric cardia, one of which penetrated the stomach and was adjacent to the caudate lobe of the liver, with inflammatory changes in the caudate lobe. We finally diagnosed his condition as a caudate lobe abscess secondary to intestinal perforation caused by a fishbone based on the history and imaging findings. The patient underwent 3D laparoscopic partial caudate lobectomy, incision and drainage of the liver abscess, and fishbone removal. The procedure was successful and we removed the fishbone from the liver. The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day without other complications. CONCLUSIONS: Liver abscess caused by foreign bodies requires multidisciplinary treatment. Especially when located in the caudate lobe, we must detect and remove the cause of the abscess as early as possible. Foreign bodies that perforate the gastrointestinal tract can penetrate to the liver and cause abscess formation, as in this case. When exploring the etiology of liver abscesses, we should investigate the general condition, including the whole gastrointestinal tract.


Foreign Bodies , Foreign-Body Migration , Laparoscopy , Liver Abscess , Aged , Animals , Foreign Bodies/complications , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Foreign-Body Migration/complications , Foreign-Body Migration/diagnostic imaging , Foreign-Body Migration/surgery , Humans , Liver Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Liver Abscess/etiology , Liver Abscess/surgery , Male
7.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996411

BACKGROUND: The frequency of gallstones is higher in patients who have undergone gastrectomy than in the general population. While there have been some studies of gallstone formation after open gastrectomy, there are few reports of gallstones after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the incidence of gallstones after LG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 184 patients who underwent LG between January 2011 and May 2016 at Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital. After gastrectomy, abdominal ultrasonography was generally performed every 6 months for 5 years. Patients who underwent cholecystectomy before LG, underwent simultaneous cholecystectomy, and did not undergo abdominal ultrasonography, with an observation period of < 24 months, were excluded from the study. Finally, 90 patients were analyzed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed whenever biliary complications occurred. Patient characteristics were compared using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test or Chi-square test. In addition, the risk factors for postoperative gallstones were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 90 patients included in this study, 60 were men (78%), and the mean age was 65.5 years. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy was performed for 15 patients and laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for 75 patients. D2 lymph node dissection was performed for 8 patients (9%), whereas 68 patients underwent LG with Roux-en-Y reconstruction (76%). Gallstones were detected after LG in 27 of the 90 (30%) patients. Multivariate analysis identified Roux-en-Y reconstruction and male sex as significant risk factors of gallstones after gastrectomy. The incidence of gallstones was significantly higher (53%) in male patients who underwent Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Symptomatic gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were found in 6 cases (6/27, 22%), and all patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. CONCLUSION: Roux-en-Y reconstruction and male sex were identified as significant risk factors for gallstones after LG.


Gallstones , Laparoscopy , Stomach Neoplasms , Aged , Gallstones/diagnostic imaging , Gallstones/epidemiology , Gallstones/etiology , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Male , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
8.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 7, 2022 Jan 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996421

BACKGROUND: A relationship between obesity and adverse outcomes in patients with post-sternotomy wounds undergoing pedicle flap reconstruction is not well-documented. In this study, we present a single-centre retrospective case series analysis of early postoperative outcomes of patients with infected post-sternotomy wounds undergoing pedicle flap reconstruction. We also propose a management algorithm for such patients, based on BMI and wound width. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all patients, who underwent pedicle flap reconstruction for major sternal wound infections after sternotomy for cardiac surgery in a tertiary hospital in Germany during a 5-year period. Exclusion criteria included patients younger than 18 years of age and patients with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to BMI: normal-weight (NW; BMI < 25 kg/m2) and overweight/obese (OB/OW; BMI > 25 kg/m2). Both groups were compared in terms of preoperative parameters and early postoperative outcomes. Preoperative parameters included demographics, wound bacteria and comorbidities. Postoperative outcomes included duration of surgery time (from incision to skin closure), transfusion requirement (during surgery and entire hospital stay), onset of flap and donor-site complications, length of stay and 30-day mortality. We employed the two-tailed t-test to compare continuous variables and the two-sided Fischer's exact test to compare categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The total sample consisted of 48 patients. Overall mean BMI was 28.4 (6.1) kg/m2. Mean age was 67 (12) years. The study group consisted of 28 patients with BMI > 25 kg/m2, who were compared with 20 normal-weight patients. There was a significant difference amongst both groups regarding duration of surgery (120 vs. 174 min, p < 0.05). Donor-site complications requiring intervention were observed in 30% of patients in both groups. Flap-related complications were recorded in 16 (57%) cases in the study group and 7 cases in the control group (35%, p = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wound width and BMI can aid the decision-making process for patients with infected sternal wounds after cardiac surgery requiring pedicle flap reconstruction. However, in our case series analysis, OB/OW patients were not found to be at statistically significantly increased risk for worse postoperative outcomes, but were associated with a longer duration of surgery.


Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Sternotomy , Aged , Algorithms , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Obesity/complications , Overweight , Retrospective Studies , Sternotomy/adverse effects , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology
9.
World J Surg Oncol ; 20(1): 10, 2022 Jan 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996481

BACKGROUND: Patients with gastric cancer are aging in Japan. It is not clear which patients and which surgical procedures have survival benefits after gastrectomy. A multivariate analysis was performed. METHODS: The medical records of 166 patients aged ≥ 80 years who underwent gastrectomy without macroscopic residual tumors were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazard models were performed to detect prognostic factors for overall survival. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, age (≥ 90 vs. ≥ 80, < 85), performance status (3 vs. 0), American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) (3, 4 vs. 1, 2), Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (< 40 vs. ≥ 45), the physiological score of the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) (≥ 40 vs. ≥ 20, ≤ 29), surgical approach (laparoscopic vs. open), extent of gastrectomy (total, proximal vs. distal), extent of lymphadenectomy (D1 vs. ≥ D2), pathological stage (II-IV vs. I), and residual tumor (R1 vs. R0) were significantly correlated with worse overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that ASA-PS [3, 4 vs. 1, 2, hazard ratio (HR) 2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-4.24], extent of gastrectomy (total vs. distal, HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.10-4.31) (proximal vs. distal, HR 4.05, 95% CI 1.45-11.3), extent of lymphadenectomy (D0 vs. ≥ D2, HR 12.4, 95% CI 1.58-97.7), and pathological stage were independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: ASA-PS was a useful predictor for postoperative mortality. Gastrectomy including cardia is best avoided.


Stomach Neoplasms , Aged , Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
10.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 1, 2022 Jan 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996500

BACKGROUND: Creating a box lesion in the posterior wall of the left atrium from the epicardial side of the beating heart remains a challenge. Although a transmural lesion can be created by applying radiofrequency (RF) energy at clampable sites, it is still difficult to create a transmural lesion at unclampable sites because the inner blood flow in the unclampable free wall weakens the thermal effect on the outside. Our aim was to apply the newly developed infrared coagulator to create linear transmural lesions on the beating heart thoracoscopically to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old male was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and permanent atrial fibrillation. The patient was first diagnosed with atrial fibrillation 20 years before. Direct current cardioversion had been performed every few years a total of four times, but sinus rhythm restoration had always been temporary. On February 27, 2020, thoracoscopic PV isolation together with infrared roof- and bottom-line ablation to create a box lesion and left atrial appendage amputation (LAAA) were performed. The coagulator could be applied to clinical thoracoscopic surgery to successfully create a box lesion without any complication. The patient restored a regular sinus rhythm, it has been maintained for eleven months, and there have been no adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The infrared coagulator might have enough potential to create transmural lesions on the beating heart in thoracoscopic AF surgery.


Atrial Fibrillation , Catheter Ablation , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Heart Atria/surgery , Humans , Male , Thoracoscopy , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(1): 102.e1-102.e12, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996571

INTRODUCTION: Prolonged length of stay in emergency departments is associated with increased hospitalization, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, medication errors, and mortality. In acute admissions in Denmark in 2018, 67% of patients experienced waiting time from arrival to examination. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of prolonged length of stay (≥6 hours) and identify risk factors related to input, throughput, and output components. METHODS: A retrospective health records repository review included 4743 patients admitted to a single urban emergency department in Denmark in January 2019. Data collected from the electronic health record system repository included demographic and organizational characteristics and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Among patients admitted in the study period, 31% had a prolonged length of stay of ≥6 hours. Prolonged length of emergency department stay was associated with being female (male odds ratio [OR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.98), treatment by medical service (OR, 4.25, 95% CI, 3.63-4.98) vs surgical or injury, triage acuity of 2-Orange (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18-1.78) or 3-Yellow (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23-1.75) on a 5-level scale, evening (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.66) or night (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.91-2.91) arrival, ages 56 to 80 (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.52-2.11) and >81 (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.99-2.88) years, and hospital admission (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.38) vs discharge from the emergency department to home. DISCUSSION: Female, elderly, and medical patients were each identified as at-risk characteristics for ≥6-hour length of stay in the emergency department. Acute care patient pathways in the emergency department, particularly for evening and night, with guideline-based care and system level improvements in patient flow are warranted. Further research with larger populations is needed to identify and support interventions to decrease prolonged length of stay.


Emergency Service, Hospital , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996768

An 82-year-old man presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and febrile symptoms that had been present for 4 days. Blood tests showed elevated liver enzymes and white blood cell count, and abdominal contrast-enhanced CT revealed a 35 mm cystic lesion in the left lateral liver lobe. On closer examination, the cystic lesion was found to have contiguous bile duct dilatation and internal nodules. Furthermore, mucus production was observed during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which led to the diagnosis of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB), with cystic infection. Although the patient was an older adult, there was no background disease that would have prevented surgery, and resection was performed. Pathological examination revealed type 1 IPNB, with invasive carcinoma. The number of reports of IPNB is expected to increase with an increasing older population in Asia, and we report the findings of this case.


Bile Duct Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Papillary , Carcinoma , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bile Duct Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Bile Duct Neoplasms/surgery , Bile Ducts , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/surgery , Humans , Male
13.
Am J Occup Ther ; 76(1)2022 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997839

IMPORTANCE: Unplanned hospital readmissions can profoundly affect older adults' quality of life and the financial status of skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Although many clinical practices focus on reforming these issues, occupational therapy's involvement remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore clinical practices aimed at reducing hospital readmissions of older adults pursuing postacute care (PAC) at SNFs and describe how they align with occupational therapy's scope of practice. DATA SOURCES: We searched CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed, and OTseeker for articles published from January 2011 to February 2020. Study Selection and Data Collection: We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed articles with functional outcomes of clinical practices reducing unplanned hospital readmissions of patients older than age 65 yr pursuing PAC services in SNFs. Trained reviewers completed the title and abstract screens, full-text reviews, and data extraction. FINDINGS: Thirteen articles were included and focused on five areas: risk and medical disease management and follow-up, hospital-to-SNF transition, enhanced communication and care, function, and nutrition. Early coordination of care and early identification of patients' needs and risk of readmission were common features. All clinical practices aligned with occupational therapy domains and processes, but only 1 study specified occupational therapy as part of the research team. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Comprehensive, multipronged clinical practices encompassing care coordination and early identification and management of acute conditions are critical in reducing preventable readmissions among older adults pursuing PAC services in SNFs. Further research is needed to support occupational therapy's value in preventing hospital readmissions of older adults in this setting. What This Article Adds: This scoping review maps the presence of occupational therapy's domains and processes in the clinical practices that reduce hospital readmissions of older adults pursuing PAC services in SNFs. Findings provide occupational therapy practitioners with opportunities to assume roles beyond direct patient care, research, advocate, and publish more, thereby increasing their presence and adding value to occupational therapy interventions that reduce hospital readmissions.


Patient Readmission , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , Humans , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , Subacute Care
14.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e935059, 2022 Jan 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999671

BACKGROUND Blastomycosis is a rare opportunistic disease caused by inhalation of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. Blastomycosis can occur in all individuals but is most commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. If left untreated or not caught early enough, blastomycosis can progress to fulminant multilobar pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. CASE REPORT A 74-year-old immunocompromised man in northeast Ohio presented to the Emergency Department with shortness of breath and hemoptysis. The patient had a negative evaluation for a gastrointestinal bleed and was found to have significant blood collection in the larynx and trachea. A bronchoscopy demonstrated right upper lobe hemorrhage and an infection with Blastomyces species. The patient was started on amphotericin B 5 mg/kg every 24 h for severe blastomycosis. The patient continued to have pulmonary hemorrhage and progressed to multilobar pneumonia and ARDS. Ultimately, the patient died due to respiratory distress after being hospitalized for 5 days. CONCLUSIONS Blastomycosis can present with multiple clinical manifestations, including pulmonary hemorrhage, in severe disease. Diagnostic delay of blastomycosis is common owing to a nonspecific patient presentation. Blastomycosis is an opportunistic infection; therefore, the fungus can be more commonly seen within immunocompromised hosts. The combination of diagnostic delay and immunocompromised hosts leads to an increased mortality rate from blastomycosis infections.


Blastomycosis , Aged , Blastomyces , Blastomycosis/diagnosis , Delayed Diagnosis , Hemoptysis , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male
15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980061

BACKGROUND: Quantitative evaluation of radiographic images has been developed and suggested for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are limited opportunities to use these image-based diagnostic indices in clinical practice. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the utility of a novel visually-based classification of pulmonary findings from computed tomography (CT) images of COVID-19 patients with the following three patterns defined: peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse findings of pneumonia. We also evaluated the prognostic value of this classification to predict the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between January 1st and September 30th, 2020, who presented with suspicious findings on CT lung images at admission (n = 69). We compared the association between the three predefined patterns (peripheral, multifocal, and diffuse), admission to the intensive care unit, tracheal intubation, and death. We tested quantitative CT analysis as an outcome predictor for COVID-19. Quantitative CT analysis was performed using a semi-automated method (Thoracic Volume Computer-Assisted Reading software, GE Health care, United States). Lungs were divided by Hounsfield unit intervals. Compromised lung (%CL) volume was the sum of poorly and non-aerated volumes (- 500, 100 HU). We collected patient clinical data, including demographic and clinical variables at the time of admission. RESULTS: Patients with a diffuse pattern were intubated more frequently and for a longer duration than patients with a peripheral or multifocal pattern. The following clinical variables were significantly different between the diffuse pattern and peripheral and multifocal groups: body temperature (p = 0.04), lymphocyte count (p = 0.01), neutrophil count (p = 0.02), c-reactive protein (p < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.01), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (p < 0.01), D-dimer (p < 0.01), and steroid (p = 0.01) and favipiravir (p = 0.03) administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our simple visual assessment of CT images can predict the severity of illness, a resulting decrease in respiratory function, and the need for supplemental respiratory ventilation among patients with COVID-19.


COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Mucin-1/blood , Neutrophils , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use
16.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 1, 2022 01 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980198

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 seems to affect the regulation of pulmonary perfusion. Hypoperfusion in areas of well-aerated lung parenchyma results in a ventilation-perfusion mismatch that can be characterized using subtraction computed tomography angiography (sCTA). This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of oral sildenafil in treating COVID-19 inpatients showing perfusion abnormalities in sCTA. METHODS: Triple-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Chile in a tertiary-care hospital able to provide on-site sCTA scans and ventilatory support when needed between August 2020 and March 2021. In total, 82 eligible adults were admitted to the ED with RT-PCR-confirmed or highly probable SARS-COV-2 infection and sCTA performed within 24 h of admission showing perfusion abnormalities in areas of well-aerated lung parenchyma; 42 were excluded and 40 participants were enrolled and randomized (1:1 ratio) once hospitalized. The active intervention group received sildenafil (25 mg orally three times a day for seven days), and the control group received identical placebo capsules in the same way. Primary outcomes were differences in oxygenation parameters measured daily during follow-up (PaO2/FiO2 ratio and A-a gradient). Secondary outcomes included admission to the ICU, requirement of non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and mortality rates. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: Totally, 40 participants were enrolled (20 in the placebo group and 20 in the sildenafil group); 33 [82.5%] were male; and median age was 57 [IQR 41-68] years. No significant differences in mean PaO2/FiO2 ratios and A-a gradients were found between groups (repeated-measures ANOVA p = 0.67 and p = 0.69). IMV was required in 4 patients who received placebo and none in the sildenafil arm (logrank p = 0.04). Patients in the sildenafil arm showed a significantly shorter median length of hospital stay than the placebo group (9 IQR 7-12 days vs. 12 IQR 9-21 days, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant differences were found in the oxygenation parameters. Sildenafil treatment could have a potential therapeutic role regarding the need for IMV in COVID-19 patients with specific perfusion patterns in sCTA. A large-scale study is needed to confirm these results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Sildenafil for treating patients with COVID-19 and perfusion mismatch: a pilot randomized trial, NCT04489446, Registered 28 July 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04489446 .


COVID-19 , Sildenafil Citrate , Vasodilator Agents , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Sildenafil Citrate/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053894, 2022 01 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980621

INTRODUCTION: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, social isolation and loneliness (SIL) affected at least one-third of the older people. The pandemic has prompted governments around the world to implement some extreme measures such as banning public gatherings, imposing social distancing, mobility restrictions and quarantine to control the spread and impact of the novel coronavirus. Though these unprecedented measures may be crucial from a public health perspective, they also have the potential to further exacerbate the problems of SIL among residents in long-term care homes (LTCHs). However, some LTCHs have developed promising best practices (PBPs) to respond to the current situation and prepare for future pandemics. Key aspects of such practices revolve around maintaining and strengthening social connections between residents and their families which helps to reduce SIL. This scoping review looks at existing PBPs that have been implemented to reduce SIL among LTCH residents during the most recent pandemics. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will follow Arksey and O'Malley's framework of scoping review, further developed by Levac et al. In addition, we will also apply the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' 'Methodology for Scoping Reviews'. Ten electronic databases and grey literature will be searched for articles published from January 2003 to March 2021 in either English or French. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts and then full texts for final inclusion. Data will be extracted using a standardised form from 'Evidence for Policy and Practice Information'. The results will be presented in a tabular form and will be summarised and interpreted using a narrative synthesis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required as no primary data are collected. Findings will be used to develop a solid knowledge corpus to address the challenges of SIL in LTCHs. Our findings will help to identify cutting edge practices, including technological interventions that could support health services in addressing SIL in the context of LTCHs and our ageing society.


COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Humans , Loneliness , Long-Term Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e054069, 2022 01 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980623

OBJECTIVE: The first COVID-19-19 epidemic wave was over the period of February-May 2020. Since 1 October 2020, Italy, as many other European countries, faced a second wave. The aim of this analysis was to compare the 28-day mortality between the two waves among COVID-19 hospitalised patients. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. Standard survival analysis was performed to compare all-cause mortality within 28 days after hospital admission in the two waves. Kaplan-Meier curves as well as Cox regression model analysis were used. The effect of wave on risk of death was shown by means of HRs with 95% CIs. A sensitivity analysis around the impact of the circulating variant as a potential unmeasured confounder was performed. SETTING: University Hospital of Modena, Italy. Patients admitted to the hospital for severe COVID-19 pneumonia during the first (22 February-31 May 2020) and second (1 October-31 December 2020) waves were included. RESULTS: During the two study periods, a total of 1472 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to our hospital, 449 during the first wave and 1023 during the second. Median age was 70 years (IQR 56-80), 37% women, 49% with PaO2/FiO2 <250 mm Hg, 82% with ≥1 comorbidity, median duration of symptoms was 6 days. 28-day mortality rate was 20.0% (95% CI 16.3 to 23.7) during the first wave vs 14.2% (95% CI 12.0 to 16.3) in the second (log-rank test p value=0.03). After including key predictors of death in the multivariable Cox regression model, the data still strongly suggested a lower 28-day mortality rate in the second wave (aHR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.90, p value=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In our hospitalised patients with COVID-19 with severe pneumonia, the 28-day mortality appeared to be reduced by 36% during the second as compared with the first wave. Further studies are needed to identify factors that may have contributed to this improved survival.


COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(1): 105-111, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982633

Informal care, or care provided by family and friends, is the most common form of care received by community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. However, less is known about informal care provision within residential care settings including residential care facilities (for example, assisted living) and nursing homes. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (2016) and the National Health and Aging Trends Study (2015), we found that informal care was common among older adults with functional limitations, whether they lived in the community, a residential care facility, or a nursing home. The hours of informal care provided were also nontrivial across all settings. This evidence suggests that informal caregiving and some of the associated burdens do not end when a person transitions from the community to residential care or a nursing home setting. It also points to the large role that families play in the care and well-being of these residents, which is especially important considering the recent visitor bans during the COVID-19 epidemic. Family members are an invisible workforce in nursing homes and residential care facilities, providing considerable front-line work for their loved ones. Providers and policy makers could improve the lives of both the residents and their caregivers by acknowledging, incorporating, and supporting this workforce.


COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Caregivers , Humans , Nursing Homes , Residential Facilities , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Korean J Radiol ; 23(1): 89-100, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983097

OBJECTIVE: To improve the N biomarker in the amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration system by radiomics and study its value for predicting cognitive progression in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 147 healthy controls (HCs) (72 male; mean age ± standard deviation, 73.7 ± 6.3 years), 197 patients with MCI (114 male; 72.2 ± 7.1 years), and 128 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (74 male; 73.7 ± 8.4 years) were included. Optimal A, T, and N biomarkers for discriminating HC and AD were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A radiomics model containing comprehensive information of the whole cerebral cortex and deep nuclei was established to create a new N biomarker. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were evaluated to determine the optimal A or T biomarkers. All MCI patients were followed up until AD conversion or for at least 60 months. The predictive value of A, T, and the radiomics-based N biomarker for cognitive progression of MCI to AD were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and the log-rank test. RESULTS: The radiomics-based N biomarker showed an ROC curve area of 0.998 for discriminating between AD and HC. CSF Aß42 and p-tau proteins were identified as the optimal A and T biomarkers, respectively. For MCI patients on the Alzheimer's continuum, isolated A+ was an indicator of cognitive stability, while abnormalities of T and N, separately or simultaneously, indicated a high risk of progression. For MCI patients with suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology, isolated T+ indicated cognitive stability, while the appearance of the radiomics-based N+ indicated a high risk of progression to AD. CONCLUSION: We proposed a new radiomics-based improved N biomarker that could help identify patients with MCI who are at a higher risk for cognitive progression. In addition, we clarified the value of a single A/T/N biomarker for predicting the cognitive progression of MCI.


Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Biomarkers , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Peptide Fragments , tau Proteins
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