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Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(4): 348-355, 2021 Aug.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533538

Objective: This study aimed to describe the sound frequency of snoring in relation to the site of upper airway vibration among snorers. Methods: 383 snores from 40 participants who complained of snoring were digitally recorded during natural and induced sleep using a level III polysomnography monitor with a built-in microphone. During drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), the real-time site of upper airway obstruction was assessed, and the sound frequency of snoring was recorded synchronously. Results: The mean peak of snoring frequency for unilevel palatal, oropharynx and epiglottis obstruction were 522.5, 482.4 and 300.0 Hz, respectively. Most participants showed multilevel obstruction at the palate and oropharynx, in which the mean for bi-peak snoring frequency were 402.90 Hz and 1086.96 Hz, respectively. Severity of OSA was significantly associated with multilevel obstruction. Conclusions: There was a significant association between the snoring sound frequency and site of unilevel obstruction. Palatal or oropharyngeal obstruction produced sound at mid-frequency range, while the epiglottis produced a low frequency range. Multilevel obstruction documented a bi-peak snoring frequency.

Airway Obstruction , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Epiglottis , Humans , Polysomnography , Sleep , Snoring/epidemiology
Br J Anaesth ; 127(5): 661-664, 2021 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503831

Tracheal intubation is among the most frequently performed manoeuvres in the critical care setting, and can be life-saving in critical illness, though also associated with serious adverse events such as oesophageal intubation or tracheal tube obstruction, displacement, or disconnection from the ventilator. A key finding of the 4th National Audit Project (NAP4) was identification of waveform capnography as the single intervention with the highest potential for reducing morbidity and mortality during tracheal intubation and maintenance of an artificial airway. In the INTUBE study, penetration of capnography into ICUs was low, and was not in use in 70% of the episodes of oesophageal intubation. To reduce harm and avoidable death, there is a need for a global initiative to increase access to and use of capnography in ICUs.

Capnography/methods , Critical Care/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
Transpl Int ; 34(9): 1733-1739, 2021 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448266

Respiratory complications can be the cause of graft dysfunction after lung transplantation (LTx). MicroRNAs are small regulatory molecules-potential biomarkers of respiratory diseases and post-transplant complications. Galectin-3 is highly expressed in fibrosis of transplanted solid organs. The aim was to evaluate the expression of plasma miR-339 and galectin-3 concentrations in lung recipients including with airway obstruction after LTx. The study included 57 lung recipients (34 men and 23 women aged 10 to 74 years) were followed up to 5 years after LTx. The plasma microRNAs were detected by real-time PCR; galectin-3 levels were measured by ELISA. During follow-up in 30 recipients, post-transplant complications were detected: 12 (40.0%) cases of airway obstruction. The levels of miR-339 and galectin-3 were significantly higher in recipients with airway obstruction compare with 27 (47.3%) recipients without any complications (P = 0.036 and P = 0.014, resp.). Increasing miR-339 (above the 0.02 fold change) and galectin-3 (above the 11.7 ng/ml) threshold plasma levels in lung recipients is associated with high risk (RR = 7.14 ± 0.97 [95% CI 1.05-48.60], P = 0.045) of airway obstruction after LTx. A measurement of miR-339 expression in combination with galectin-3 level might be perspective to identify recipients at risk of airway obstruction after LTx.

Airway Obstruction , Lung Transplantation , MicroRNAs , Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Female , Galectin 3 , Humans , Lung , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Male
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 17.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404654

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is helpful in providing ventilatory support when other conventional methods of ventilation fail. We report a case of successful management of advanced tracheal malignancy with impeding airway obstruction where veno-venous ECMO (VV-ECMO) was instituted prior to performing critical endotracheal procedure. After securing the VV-ECMO through right jugular vein and left femoral vein under local anaesthesia, the tracheal stent placement was conducted under flexible bronchoscope and fluoroscope control. Oxygenation and carbon dioxide levels were maintained by the ECMO. VV-ECMO is a useful adjunct in the management of subglottic difficult airway obstruction due to complex tracheal pathology where conventional ventilation may not be possible or adequate.

Airway Obstruction , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Tracheal Neoplasms , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Stents , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Trachea/surgery , Tracheal Neoplasms/complications , Tracheal Neoplasms/surgery
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD006822, 2021 08 16.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397099

BACKGROUND: Croup is an acute viral respiratory infection with upper airway mucosal inflammation that may cause respiratory distress. Most cases are mild. Moderate to severe croup may require treatment with corticosteroids (the benefits of which are often delayed) and nebulised epinephrine (adrenaline) (the benefits of which may be short-lived and which can cause dose-related adverse effects including tachycardia, arrhythmias, and hypertension). Rarely, croup results in respiratory failure necessitating emergency intubation and ventilation. A mixture of helium and oxygen (heliox) may prevent morbidity and mortality in ventilated neonates by reducing the viscosity of the inhaled air. It is currently used during emergency transport of children with severe croup. Anecdotal evidence suggests that it relieves respiratory distress. This review updates versions published in 2010, 2013, and 2018. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of heliox compared to oxygen or other active interventions, placebo, or no treatment on relieving signs and symptoms in children with croup as determined by a croup score and rates of admission and intubation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and LILACS, on 15 April 2021. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ( and ( on 15 April 2021. We contacted the British Oxygen Company, a leading supplier of heliox. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the effect of heliox in comparison with placebo, no treatment, or any active intervention(s) in children with croup. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Data that could not be pooled for statistical analysis were reported descriptively. MAIN RESULTS: We included 3 RCTs involving a total of 91 children aged between 6 months and 4 years. Study duration was from 7 to 16 months, and all studies were conducted in emergency departments. Two studies were conducted in the USA and one in Spain. Heliox was administered as a mixture of 70% heliox and 30% oxygen. Risk of bias was low in two studies and high in one study because of its open-label design. We did not identify any new trials for this 2021 update. One study of 15 children with mild croup compared heliox with 30% humidified oxygen administered for 20 minutes. There may be no difference in croup score changes between groups at 20 minutes (mean difference (MD) -0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.36 to 0.70) (Westley croup score, scale range 0 to 16). The mean croup score at 20 minutes postintervention may not differ between groups (MD -0.57, 95% CI -1.46 to 0.32). There may be no difference between groups in mean respiratory rate (MD 6.40, 95% CI -1.38 to 14.18) and mean heart rate (MD 14.50, 95% CI -8.49 to 37.49) at 20 minutes. The evidence for all outcomes in this comparison was of low certainty, downgraded for serious imprecision. All children were discharged, but information on hospitalisation, intubation, or re-presenting to emergency departments was not reported. In another study, 47 children with moderate croup received one dose of oral dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg) with either heliox for 60 minutes or no treatment. Heliox may slightly improve Taussig croup scores (scale range 0 to 15) at 60 minutes postintervention (MD -1.10, 95% CI -1.96 to -0.24), but there may be no difference between groups at 120 minutes (MD -0.70, 95% CI -1.56 to 0.16). Children treated with heliox may have lower mean Taussig croup scores at 60 minutes (MD -1.11, 95% CI -2.05 to -0.17) but not at 120 minutes (MD -0.71, 95% CI -1.72 to 0.30). Children treated with heliox may have lower mean respiratory rates at 60 minutes (MD -4.94, 95% CI -9.66 to -0.22), but there may be no difference at 120 minutes (MD -3.17, 95% CI -7.83 to 1.49). There may be a difference in hospitalisation rates between groups (odds ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.04 to 5.41). We assessed the evidence for all outcomes in this comparison as of low certainty, downgraded due to imprecision and high risk of bias related to an open-label design. Information on heart rate and intubation was not reported. In the third study, 29 children with moderate to severe croup all received continuous cool mist and intramuscular dexamethasone (0.6 mg/kg). They were then randomised to receive either heliox (given as a mixture of 70% helium and 30% oxygen) plus one to two doses of nebulised saline or 100% oxygen plus nebulised epinephrine (adrenaline), with gas therapy administered continuously for three hours. Heliox may slightly improve croup scores at 90 minutes postintervention, but may result in little or no difference overall using repeated-measures analysis. We assessed the evidence for all outcomes in this comparison as of low certainty, downgraded due to high risk of bias related to inadequate reporting. Information on hospitalisation or re-presenting to the emergency department was not reported. The included studies did not report on adverse events, intensive care admissions, or parental anxiety. We could not pool the available data because each comparison included data from only one study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Given the very limited available evidence, uncertainty remains regarding the effectiveness and safety of heliox. Heliox may not be more effective than 30% humidified oxygen for children with mild croup, but may be beneficial in the short term for children with moderate croup treated with dexamethasone. The effect of heliox may be similar to 100% oxygen given with one or two doses of adrenaline. Adverse events were not reported, and it is unclear if these were monitored in the included studies. Adequately powered RCTs comparing heliox with standard treatments are needed to further assess the role of heliox in the treatment of children with moderate to severe croup.

Airway Obstruction/therapy , Croup/therapy , Helium/administration & dosage , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Resistance/drug effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Croup/complications , Croup/drug therapy , Helium/therapeutic use , Humans , Infant , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353829

We describe the case of a 33-year-old female smoker who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with a 1-day history of rapidly evolving airway compromise. She had no preceding illness or other objective signs/symptoms on presentation, had a history of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and a previous opioid addiction. Following failed endotracheal intubation, the airway was secured with an emergency surgical tracheostomy. Subsequent direct laryngoscopy revealed a severely diseased glottis and supraglottic area, from which biopsy samples revealed a multiple drug-resistant strain of Candida albicans requiring specialist microbiology input and antifungal treatment. We describe the presentation, investigation, management and outcome of this rare case, along with a literature review of the subject.

Airway Obstruction , Candidiasis , Larynx , Adult , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Candidiasis/complications , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy , Larynx/diagnostic imaging , Tracheostomy
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 149: 110841, 2021 Oct.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303126

OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep disorder breathing (OSDB) in children under age 2 years is unclear. The present study aimed to identify the perioperative symptoms and clinical outcomes of adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy in very young children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present, single-center, retrospective cohort study, conducted from January 2010 to April 2020, enrolled patients under age 2 years with moderate to severe upper airway obstruction who underwent an adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy. The patients were divided according to The Brodsky grading scale into group 1 (Grade 0 to 1 tonsils) or group 2 (Grade 2 or higher tonsils), who received only an adenoidectomy. Group 3 comprised patients with a concomitant adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy. Perioperative symptoms among the groups and the cumulative revision-free status and recurrence-free status rates in groups 1 and 2 were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients were enrolled. The median standard deviation score (SDS) for height and weight was -0.79 and -0.31, respectively. No postoperative complications, such as bleeding, were observed. However, two patients underwent intubation preoperatively due to severe obstruction. Seven patients underwent revision surgery. The cumulative revision-free and recurrence-free rates at week 60 were 81% and 100% for Group 1 and 42% and 48.5% for Group 2, respectively. The cumulative revision-free rate and cumulative recurrence-free rate were significantly higher in Group 1 (P < 0.0001; HR: 47.9; 95% CI: 1.12-2050 and P < 0.007; HR: 4.62; 95% CI: 1.37-15.6, respectively). None of the patients in Group 3 had revision surgery or symptom recurrence. CONCLUSION: Simple adenoidectomy in children with large tonsils carries a high risk of revision surgery. However, given the high risk of severe obstruction in very young children with OSDB, timely surgery is recommended. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

Airway Obstruction , Tonsillectomy , Adenoidectomy , Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Palatine Tonsil , Retrospective Studies , Tonsillectomy/adverse effects
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 149: 110851, 2021 Oct.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311168

PURPOSE: To investigate antenatally-determined imaging characteristics associated with invasive airway management at birth in patients with cervical masses, as well as to describe postnatal management and outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of 52 patients with antenatally diagnosed neck masses was performed using single-center data from January 2008 to January 2019. Antenatal imaging, method of delivery, management, and outcomes data were abstracted from the medical record and analyzed. RESULTS: Antenatal diagnosis of neck masses in this cohort consisted of 41 lymphatic malformations (78.8%), 6 teratomas (11.5%), 3 hemangiomas (5.8%), 1 hemangioendothelioma (1.9%), and 1 giant foregut duplication cyst (1.9%). Mean gestational age at time of diagnostic imaging was 29 weeks 3 days (range: 19w4d - 37w). Overall, 22 patients (42.3%) required invasive airway management at birth, specifically 18 patients (34.6%) required endotracheal intubation and 4 (7.7%) required tracheostomy. 15 patients (28.8%) underwent ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) for the purposes of securing an airway. Polyhydramnios, tracheal deviation and compression, and anterior mass location on antenatal imaging were significantly associated with incidence of invasive airway intervention at birth, EXIT procedure, and tracheostomy during the neonatal hospitalization (p < 0.025; Fisher's exact test). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant association between increasing antenatally-estimated mass volume and incidence of invasive airway management at birth (p = 0.02). Post-natal cervical mass management involved surgical excision (32.7%), sclerotherapy (50%), and adjuvant therapy with rapamycin (17.3%). Demise in the neonatal period occurred in 4 (7.7%) patients. CONCLUSION: This series documents the largest single-center experience of airway management in antenatally diagnosed cervical masses. Fetal imaging characteristics may help inform the appropriate method of delivery, airway management strategy at birth, and prenatal counseling.

Airway Obstruction , Teratoma , Airway Management , Airway Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Teratoma/diagnostic imaging , Teratoma/surgery , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 26.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312132

Subglottic concretion is a rare and perilous condition usually presenting with existing or impending airway obstruction. Due to long-standing nature of the condition, slow progression of symptoms and rarity of occurrence, the condition is either missed or misdiagnosed. Its resemblance in presentation and symptoms to that of foreign body (FB) bronchus can lead to a diagnostic misadventure. Detailed history, chronology of symptoms and radiological imaging in conjunction with fiberoptic evaluation are keys for establishing correct diagnosis. Treatment outcomes in such cases depend on appropriate management approach with backup plan in tandem. We describe a child with ß thalassemia major with subglottic concretion, which was erroneously diagnosed and managed as a case of subglottic FB due to its classical history and presentation. The aim is to highlight the circumstances leading to this diagnostic misadventure with emphasis on airway management, problems faced and lessons learnt during the same.

Airway Obstruction , Foreign Bodies , beta-Thalassemia , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Child , Dreams , Foreign Bodies/diagnosis , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Humans , beta-Thalassemia/complications , beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304526

Objective:To explore the value of CT location of the upper airway obstruction site after inducing sleep on the condition of obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) and its surgical efficacy. Methods:Forty patients with moderate-to-severe OSA diagnosed by polysomnography, first performed awake CT scan, then, the patient was slowly injected intravenously with dexmedetomidine to induce sleep, when the patient was apnea during sleep, CT scan of the corresponding part of the upper airway was performed. Compare and measure the cross-sectional area of the upper airway stenosis level in the two states, and evaluate the correlation between the cross-sectional area of the stenosis level after induction of sleep and the patient's AHI, blood oxygen saturation<90% of the time(CT90). According to the change value of the cross-sectional area of each plane, it was divided into 2 groups, 22 cases in first group underwent hypothermia plasma uvulapalatopharyngoplasty, and 18 cases in second group underwent multi-plane combined surgery. After 12 months of follow-up, compare the post-long-term efficacy, changes in cross-sectional area values of various narrow planes before and after surgery, and changes in indicators related to sleep quality between the two groups. Results:Compared with the cross-sectional area of the nasopharyngeal area, posterior soft palate area, the posterior tongue area, and the epiglottis area measured by upper airway CT under awake breathing state, the cross-sectional area of each obstruction plane during sleep state decreased(P<0.01). The minimum cross-sectional area of the upper airway plane sleep phase was negatively correlated with AHI and CT90, and the posterior soft palate and the posterior lingual base were highly correlated with AHI and CT90.12 months after treatment, the minimum cross-sectional area of each phase of the sleep phase in the experimental group 1 was significantly improved(P<0.01) compared with that before treatment, followed by the posterior tongue area(P<0.05). There was no statistical difference between the nasopharyngeal area and the epiglottis area. The differences in nasopharyngeal area, posterior soft palate area, posterior tongue area, and epiglottis area in experimental group 2 after treatment were statistically significant(P<0.01 or P<0.05), compared with that before treatment. The sleep-related indexes ESS, CT90, AHI, and LSaO2 of the two groups were better than those before treatment after 12 months of treatment(P<0.01). Comparison of experiment group 1 and 2, the effective rates were 72.72% and 95.23%(χ²=10.62, P<0.01), the significant efficiency was 58.33% and 80.45%(χ²=8.62, P<0.01), and the cure rates were 12.37% and 17.48%(x²=7.62, P<0.01). Conclusion:CT examination of OSA patients after drug-induced sleep is safe and feasible, and it has important value for the accurate location of the upper airway obstruction site. 64-slice spiral CT upper airway scanning under induced sleep has guiding significance for the evaluation of OSA patients' condition and long-term surgical efficacy.

Airway Obstruction , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Airway Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Humans , Polysomnography , Sleep , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 28.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321261

A 17-year-old man was admitted to Accident & Emergency out of hours with unilateral tonsillar enlargement covering more than 75% of his oropharyngeal inlet. He appeared calm and stable on initial presentation, but in a short span of time rapidly deteriorated, leading to near complete airway obstruction necessitating an emergency awake cricothyroidotomy. Tracheostomy and tonsillectomy were done after this, he was ventilated postoperatively in intensive therapy unit and discharged home in a week. This is a rare clinical scenario in a patient presenting with palatine tonsillitis. A few subtle points in the history and examination alerted the team and prevented a risky inter hospital transfer for ear, nose and throat review. This is the first reported case in UK of palatine tonsillitis not due to infectious mononucleosis presenting with acute upper airway obstruction in a patient with no airway anomalies. It may also have been a varied presentation of COVID-19.

Airway Obstruction , COVID-19 , Tonsillectomy , Tonsillitis , Adolescent , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tonsillitis/complications , Tonsillitis/surgery
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(7): 2335-2340, 2021 Oct 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074926

INTRODUCTION: Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) effectively treats upper airway obstruction (UAO) in young patients with Robin sequence (RS). The most commonly used MDO devices have internal and external components that require manual activation. Although complications associated with MDO in infants with RS have been well documented, hardware/device malfunction has not been precisely described. The present study reports the authors' recent experiences with such problems, in an effort to shed light on these complications and identify potential steps to mitigate future related issues. DESIGN: The authors reviewed a prospectively gathered database to identify all young children under the age of 3 years who underwent MDO using buried internal devices for UAO associated with grade 3 RS from March 2007 to September 2019. We specifically focused on complications attributable to the hardware itself. RESULTS: Nineteen patients with 40 devices met inclusion criteria. The median age at MDO was 2.3 months (interquartile range 1.4-6.3 months). Intraoperative activation of all devices under direct vision resulted in satisfactory distraction. Four devices (10.5%) developed postoperative complications directly related to the device, including break down of component parts (N = 3) and failure to maintain distraction distance (N = 1). Two patients required surgical replacement of one device each, whereas the remaining complications occurred during the consolidation phase and did not require intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This report documents a series of device/hardware malfunction in infants and young children undergoing MDO for severe UAO associated with RS. Despite rigorous testing and development, these devices may fail, resulting in patient morbidity.

Airway Obstruction , Osteogenesis, Distraction , Pierre Robin Syndrome , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Mandible , Pierre Robin Syndrome/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Prague Med Rep ; 122(2): 61-72, 2021.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137682

Extracorporeal life support has been increasingly utilized in different clinical settings to manage either critical respiratory or heart failure. Complex airway surgery with significant or even total perioperative airway obstruction represents an indication for this technique to prevent/overcome a critical period of severe hypoxaemia, hypoventilation, and/or apnea. This review summarizes the current published scientific evidence on the utility of extracorporeal respiratory support in airway obstruction associated with hypoxaemia, describes the available methods, their clinical indications, and possible limitations. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using veno-arterial or veno-venous mode is most commonly employed in such scenarios caused by endoluminal, external, or combined obstruction of the trachea and main bronchi.

Airway Obstruction , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/therapy , Humans
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 71(3): 281-284, 2021.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934881

Mediastinal masses in pregnancy, although rare, can present with life threatening central airway obstruction if general anesthesia is required. In patients with central airway obstruction who are classified as being high risk for anesthesia, specific cardiothoracic interventions are usually required when there is no alternative to general anesthesia. We describe the case of a young female who presented in her second trimester with severe tracheal compression and worsening dyspnea secondary to a mediastinal mass. Intravenous dexamethasone was started, following which her symptoms improved and a drastic reduction in her tracheal compression was observed. The patient subsequently underwent successful vaginal delivery under epidural anesthesia. We discuss the complexities in perioperative decision making for this rare presentation and potential therapeutic options.

Airway Obstruction , Anesthesia, Epidural , Mediastinal Neoplasms , Respiration Disorders , Airway Management , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Anesthesia, General , Female , Humans , Pregnancy
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10682, 2021 05 21.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021186

Electrical signals from the peripheral nervous system have the potential to provide the necessary motor, sensory or autonomic information for implementing closed-loop control of neuroprosthetic or neuromodulatory systems. However, developing methods to recover information encoded in these signals is a significant challenge. Our goal was to test the feasibility of measuring physiologically generated nerve action potentials that can be classified as sensory or motor signals. A tetrapolar recording nerve cuff electrode was used to measure vagal nerve (VN) activity in a rodent model of upper airway obstruction. The effect of upper airway occlusions on VN activity related to respiration (RnP) was calculated and compared for 4 different cases: (1) intact VN, (2) VN transection only proximal to recording electrode, (3) VN transection only distal to the recording electrode, and (4) transection of VN proximal and distal to electrode. We employed a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model with Gaussian Kernel to learn a model capable of classifying efferent and afferent waveforms obtained from the tetrapolar electrode. In vivo results showed that the RnP values decreased significantly during obstruction by 91.7% ± 3.1%, and 78.2% ± 3.4% for cases of intact VN or proximal transection, respectively. In contrast, there were no significant changes for cases of VN transection at the distal end or both ends of the electrode. The SVM model yielded an 85.8% accuracy in distinguishing motor and sensory signals. The feasibility of measuring low-noise directionally-sensitive neural activity using a tetrapolar nerve cuff electrode along with the use of an SVM classifier was shown. Future experimental work in chronic implant studies is needed to support clinical translatability.

Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/physiopathology , Vagus Nerve/physiology , Algorithms , Anesthesia , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Electrophysiological Phenomena , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Models, Biological , ROC Curve , Rats , Rodentia , Signal Transduction
Med J Malaysia ; 76(3): 441-445, 2021 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031351

Hunter Syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by deficiency of Iduronate-2-Sulfatase enzyme activity, resulting in accumulation of glycoaminoglycans in various organs including the central airways. We report a case of severe tracheomalacia and airway stenosis at Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru, Malaysia requiring mechanical ventilation in a middle aged gentleman who was previously undiagnosed of mucopolysaccharidosis. The patient underwent emergency tracheostomy for failed intubation, when he presented with shortness of breath and acute respiratory failure. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the neck and thorax revealed that the trachea distal to the tracheostomy tube had collapsed with narrowed right and left main bronchus. These findings were confirmed via direct visualization of the airway through a flexible bronchoscopy. Eventually, a tracheal stenting were performed to maintain the airway patency and assist in weaning off from mechanical ventilation. Further investigations to identify the aetiology of the central airway stenosis revealed elevated urinary glycoaminoglycans and the absence of iduronate-2-Sulfatase activity tested on dried blood spots, thus confirming the diagnosis of Hunter Syndrome. Managing mucopolysacharidosis with central airway obstruction requires multidisciplinary team effort in handling the difficult airway, anaesthesiology risk, potential comorbidities and providing genetic counselling.

Airway Obstruction , Mucopolysaccharidosis II , Tracheomalacia , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Bronchoscopy , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucopolysaccharidosis II/complications , Mucopolysaccharidosis II/diagnosis , Tracheomalacia/diagnostic imaging , Tracheomalacia/etiology , Tracheostomy