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J Korean Med Sci ; 37(1): e12, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981682

BACKGROUND: Despite the extraordinary speed of mass vaccination efforts, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta variant in a vaccinee with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccine was identified in an adult day service center (ADSC) of Jeju, South Korea. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic features in infection-vulnerable facilities with a high vaccination rate of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The second was to estimate the secondary transmission prevention effect of the vaccine in the household members by vaccination status. METHODS: We included all ADSC participants, staff and their household members. All COVID-19 infected cases were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We calculated attack rate in ADSC and the secondary attack rate (SAR) in household members by vaccination status. RESULTS: Among a total of 42 participants and 16 staff, of which 96.6% were fully vaccinated with BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 12 symptomatic cases and 13 asymptomatic confirmed cases of COVID-19 were found. The attack rate was 43.1%, with 13 isolates identified as SARS-CoV-2 virus, delta variant. The SAR in unvaccinated and partially vaccinated household members were 27.8% (5/18) and 25.0% (5/20), respectively, while the SAR in fully vaccinated household members was 12.5% (1/8). CONCLUSION: We describe a SARS-CoV-2 delta variant outbreak in ADSC with high vaccine coverage rate, characterized by high infection rate, high transmissibility, and low clinical severity. The outbreak proceeded to unvaccinated or partially vaccinated household members, emphasizing the need for immunizing close contacts of high-risk groups.

COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vaccination
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(1): e13, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981683

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is generally asymptomatic or mild in otherwise healthy children, however, severe cases may occur. In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of children classified as critical COVID-19 in Korea to provide further insights into risk factors and management in children. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case series of children < 18 years of age classified as critical COVID-19. Cases were identified by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency surveillance system and medical records were reviewed. Critical COVID-19 was defined as cases with severe illness requiring noninvasive (high flow nasal cannula, continuous positive airway pressure, or bilevel positive airway pressure) or invasive mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), between January 20, 2020 and October 7, 2021. RESULTS: Among 39,146 cases diagnosed with COVID-19 in subjects < 18 years of age, eight cases (0.02%) were identified as critical COVID-19. The median age was 13 years (range 10 month-17 years) and male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Three children had underlying diseases; one child has asthma and major depressive disorder, one child had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and one child had mental retardation and was newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus with the diagnosis of COVID-19. Among the eight children, seven were obese (body mass index range [BMI] median 29.3, range 25.9-38.2, weight-for-length > 97% for infant) and one was overweight (BMI 21.3). All patients had fever, six patients had dyspnea or cough and other accompanied symptoms included sore throat, headache, lethargy and myalgia. Radiologic findings showed pneumonia within 1-8 days after symptom onset. Pneumonia progressed in these children for 2-6 days and was improved within 5-32 days after diagnosis. Among the eight critical cases, remdesivir was administered in six cases. Steroids were provided for all cases. Inotropics were administered in one case. Six cases were treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilator and three required mechanical ventilator. One case required ECMO due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. All cases were admitted to the intensive care unit and admission period ranged from 9-39 days. Among all critical COVID-19 cases < 18 years of age, there were no fatal cases. CONCLUSION: To develop appropriate policies for children in the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to monitor and assess the clinical burden in this population.

COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(1): e3508, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990520

Emerging evidence indicates a bi-directional relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and diabetes. The possibility exists that SARS-CoV-2 could induce diabetes, but it is not yet clear whether this might be a fulminant-type diabetes, autoimmune diabetes, or a new-onset transient hyperglycaemia. This viewpoint discusses mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 might trigger type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Specifically, we looked at the role of post-translational protein modifications (PTMs) and the generation of neoepitopes as a potential mechanism in the induction of islet autoimmunity, and the pathways via which coronavirus infections might exacerbate the formation of PTMs and, in so doing, provoke the onset of T1DM.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Humans
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(2)2022 01 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983870

Pooled testing increases efficiency by grouping individual samples and testing the combined sample, such that many individuals can be cleared with one negative test. This short paper demonstrates that pooled testing is particularly advantageous in the setting of pandemics, given repeated testing, rapid spread, and uncertain risk. Repeated testing mechanically lowers the infection probability at the time of the next test by removing positives from the population. This effect alone means that increasing frequency by x times only increases expected tests by around [Formula: see text] However, this calculation omits a further benefit of frequent testing: Removing infections from the population lowers intragroup transmission, which lowers infection probability and generates further efficiency. For this reason, increasing testing frequency can paradoxically reduce total testing cost. Our calculations are based on the assumption that infection rates are known, but predicting these rates is challenging in a fast-moving pandemic. However, given that frequent testing naturally suppresses the mean and variance of infection rates, we show that our results are very robust to uncertainty and misprediction. Finally, we note that efficiency further increases given natural sampling pools (e.g., workplaces, classrooms) that induce correlated risk via local transmission. We conclude that frequent pooled testing using natural groupings is a cost-effective way to provide consistent testing of a population to suppress infection risk in a pandemic.

Mass Screening/economics , Mass Screening/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Uncertainty
Anaesthesia ; 77 Suppl 1: 49-58, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001383

Delirium is a common condition affecting hospital inpatients, including those having surgery and on the intensive care unit. Delirium is also common in patients with COVID-19 in hospital settings, and the occurrence is higher than expected for similar infections. The short-term outcomes of those with COVID-19 delirium are similar to that of classical delirium and include increased length of stay and increased mortality. Management of delirium in COVID-19 in the context of a global pandemic is limited by the severity of the syndrome and compounded by the environmental constraints. Practical management includes effective screening, early identification and appropriate treatment aimed at minimising complications and timely escalation decisions. The pandemic has played out on the national stage and the effect of delirium on patients, relatives and healthcare workers remains unknown but evidence from the previous SARS outbreak suggests there may be long-lasting psychological damage.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/metabolism , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Intensive Care Units/trends
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0260836, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995283

In the era of open data, Poisson and other count regression models are increasingly important. Still, conventional Poisson regression has remaining issues in terms of identifiability and computational efficiency. Especially, due to an identification problem, Poisson regression can be unstable for small samples with many zeros. Provided this, we develop a closed-form inference for an over-dispersed Poisson regression including Poisson additive mixed models. The approach is derived via mode-based log-Gaussian approximation. The resulting method is fast, practical, and free from the identification problem. Monte Carlo experiments demonstrate that the estimation error of the proposed method is a considerably smaller estimation error than the closed-form alternatives and as small as the usual Poisson regressions. For counts with many zeros, our approximation has better estimation accuracy than conventional Poisson regression. We obtained similar results in the case of Poisson additive mixed modeling considering spatial or group effects. The developed method was applied for analyzing COVID-19 data in Japan. This result suggests that influences of pedestrian density, age, and other factors on the number of cases change over periods.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Markov Chains , Models, Statistical , Monte Carlo Method , Normal Distribution , Poisson Distribution , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spatial Analysis , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262141, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995288

The deadliest coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is taking thousands of lives worldwide and presents an extraordinary challenge to mental resilience. This study assesses mental health status during the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated factors among informal waste workers in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in June 2020 among 176 informal waste workers selected from nine municipalities and one city corporation in Bangladesh. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to assess respondents' mental health. The study found that 80.6% of the individuals were suffering from psychological distress; 67.6% reported anxiety and depression, 92.6% reported social dysfunction, and 19.9% reported loss of confidence. The likelihood of psychological distress (Risk ratio [RR]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.48) was significantly higher for female than male. Multiple COVID-19 symptoms of the family members (RR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03-1.41), unawareness about COVID-19 infected neighbor (RR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04-1.41), income reduction (RR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.06-2.41) and daily household meal reduction (RR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.03-1.73) were also found to be associated with psychological distress. These identified factors should be considered in policy-making and support programs for the informal waste workers to manage the pandemic situation as well as combating COVID-19 related psychological challenges.

COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Working Poor/psychology , Adult , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sanitary Engineering/methods , Sanitary Engineering/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261756, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995290

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes have often been sudden and massive. The study investigated the role SARS-CoV-2 virus spread in nearby population plays in introducing the disease in nursing homes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was carried out through modelling the occurrences of first cases in each of 943 nursing homes of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes French Region over the first epidemic wave (March-July, 2020). The cumulative probabilities of COVID-19 outbreak in the nursing homes and those of hospitalization for the disease in the population were modelled in each of the twelve Départements of the Region over period March-July 2020. This allowed estimating the duration of the active outbreak period, the dates and heights of the peaks of outbreak probabilities in nursing homes, and the dates and heights of the peaks of hospitalization probabilities in the population. Spearman coefficient estimated the correlation between the two peak series. RESULTS: The cumulative proportion of nursing homes with COVID-19 outbreaks was 52% (490/943; range: 22-70% acc. Département). The active outbreak period in the nursing homes lasted 11 to 21 days (acc. Département) and ended before lockdown end. Spearman correlation between outbreak probability peaks in nursing homes and hospitalization probability peaks in the population (surrogate of the incidence peaks) was estimated at 0.71 (95% CI: [0.66; 0.78]). CONCLUSION: The modelling highlighted a strong correlation between the outbreak in nursing homes and the external pressure of the disease. It indicated that avoiding disease outbreaks in nursing homes requires a tight control of virus spread in the surrounding populations.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Nursing Homes/trends , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261428, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995292

INTRODUCTION: Delay between symptom onset and access to care is essential to prevent clinical worsening for different infectious diseases. For COVID-19, this delay might be associated with the clinical prognosis, but also with the different characteristics of patients. The objective was to describe characteristics and symptoms of community-acquired (CA) COVID-19 patients at hospital admission according to the delay between symptom onset and hospital admission, and to identify determinants associated with delay of admission. METHODS: The present work was based on prospective NOSO-COR cohort data, and restricted to patients with laboratory confirmed CA SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to Lyon hospitals between February 8 and June 30, 2020. Long delay of hospital admission was defined as ≥6 days between symptom onset and hospital admission. Determinants of the delay between symptom onset and hospital admission were identified by univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Data from 827 patients were analysed. Patients with a long delay between symptom onset and hospital admission were younger (p<0.01), had higher body mass index (p<0.01), and were more frequently admitted to intensive care unit (p<0.01). Their plasma levels of C-reactive protein were also significantly higher (p<0.01). The crude in-hospital fatality rate was lower in this group (13.3% versus 27.6%), p<0.01. Multiple analysis with correction for multiple testing showed that age ≥75 years was associated with a short delay between symptom onset and hospital admission (≤5 days) (aOR: 0.47 95% CI (0.34-0.66)) and CRP>100 mg/L at admission was associated with a long delay (aOR: 1.84 95% CI (1.32-2.55)). DISCUSSION: Delay between symptom onset and hospital admission is a major issue regarding prognosis of COVID-19 but can be related to multiple factors such as individual characteristics, organization of care and severe pathogenic processes. Age seems to play a key role in the delay of access to care and the disease prognosis.

COVID-19/metabolism , Hospitalization/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0260897, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995294

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can manifest with varying disease severity and mortality. Genetic predisposition influences the clinical course of infectious diseases. We investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes ACE2, TIRAP, and factor X are associated with clinical outcomes in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective cohort study. All patients who visited the emergency department with SARS-CoV-2 infection proven by polymerase chain reaction were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ACE2 (rs2285666), TIRAP (rs8177374) and factor X (rs3211783) were assessed. The outcomes were mortality, respiratory failure and venous thromboembolism. Respiratory failure was defined as the necessity of >5 litres/minute oxygen, high flow nasal oxygen suppletion or mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Between March and April 2020, 116 patients (35% female, median age 65 [inter quartile range 55-75] years) were included and treated according to the then applicable guidelines. Sixteen patients (14%) died, 44 patients (38%) had respiratory failure of whom 23 required endotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation, and 20 patients (17%) developed venous thromboembolism. The percentage of TIRAP polymorphism carriers in the survivor group was 28% as compared to 0% in the non-survivor group (p = 0.01, Bonferroni corrected p = 0.02). Genotype distribution of ACE2 and factor X did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSION: This study shows that carriage of TIRAP polymorphism rs8177374 could be associated with a significantly lower mortality in COVID-19. This TIRAP polymorphism may be an important predictor in the outcome of COVID-19.

COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-1/genetics , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Factor X/genetics , Factor X/metabolism , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-1/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262283, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995338

In stressful situations such as the COVID-19-pandemic, unpleasant emotions are expected to increase while pleasant emotions will likely decrease. Little is known about the role cognitive appraisals, information management, and upregulating pleasant emotions can play to support emotion regulation in a pandemic. In an online survey (N = 1682), we investigated predictors of changes in pleasant and unpleasant emotions in a German sample (aged 18-88 years) shortly after the first restrictions were imposed. Crisis self-efficacy and felt restriction were predictors of changes in unpleasant emotions and joy alike. The application of emotion up-regulation strategies was weakly associated with changes in joy. Among the different upregulation strategies, only "savouring the moment" predicted changes in joy. Our study informs future research perspectives assessing the role of upregulating pleasant emotions under challenging circumstances.

COVID-19/psychology , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Epidemics/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(2): e14, 2022 Jan 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014226

BACKGROUND: Preventive measures are needed to reduce the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs). Notably, hospital staff are usually exposed when they are unmasked. There are limited data on the risk of transmission during mealtimes at hospital staff cafeterias. We aimed to evaluate the risk of transmission in cafeterias. METHODS: From January 2020 through September 2021, we analyzed the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through closed-circuit television and radio-frequency identification tracking and follow-up testing when 33 HCWs, who were eventually diagnosed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ate in staff cafeterias during the infectious period. The seats were arranged so the HCWs would sit on either side without facing each other. There were no plastic barriers installed, and HCWs were encouraged not to talk during meals. RESULTS: Three of the 119 individuals who ate at seats next (about 30 cm) to index during the period of transmission and underwent follow-up SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests were diagnosed with COVID-19 (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-7.4%). Among the 98 HCWs who were investigated about talking during meals, there was a higher attack rate among those who spoke with each other than among those who did not (12.5% [3/24] vs. 0% [0/74], P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: The risk of transmission in a hospital's employee cafeterias is not high with side-by-side seating, especially in the absence of conversation.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Restaurants/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Meals , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(2): e15, 2022 Jan 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014227

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the incidence of rhinovirus (RV) is inversely related to the intensity of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs), such as universal mask wearing and physical distancing. METHODS: Using RV surveillance data, changes in the effect of NPIs were investigated in South Korea during the pandemic. The time to the first visible effect of NPIs after the onset of NPIs (T1), time to the maximum effect (T2), and duration of the maximum effect (T3) were measured for each surge. For each week, the RVdiff [(RV incidence during the pandemic) - (RV incidence within 5 years before the pandemic)] was calculated, and number of weeks for RVdiff to be below zero after NPIs (time to RVdiff ≤ 0) and number of weeks RVdiff remains below zero after NPIs (duration of RVdiff ≤ 0) were measured for each surge. RESULTS: During the study period, four surges of COVID-19 were reported. As the pandemic progressed, T1 and T2 increased, but T3 decreased. Additionally, the "time to RVdiff of ≤ 0" increased and "duration of RVdiff of ≤ 0" decreased. These changes became more pronounced during the third surge (mid-November 2020), before the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine, and from the emergence of the delta variant. CONCLUSION: The effect of NPIs appears slower, the duration of the effect becomes shorter, and the intensity also decreases less than a year after the onset of the pandemic owing to people's exhaustion in implementing NPIs. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 response strategy must be completely overhauled.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Common Cold/epidemiology , Primary Prevention/methods , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Human bocavirus/isolation & purification , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142322, 2022 01 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015063

Importance: Severe outcomes among youths with SARS-CoV-2 infections are poorly characterized. Objective: To estimate the proportion of children with severe outcomes within 14 days of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in an emergency department (ED). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study with 14-day follow-up enrolled participants between March 2020 and June 2021. Participants were youths aged younger than 18 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection at one of 41 EDs across 10 countries including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Italy, New Zealand, Paraguay, Singapore, Spain, and the United States. Statistical analysis was performed from September to October 2021. Exposures: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nucleic acid (eg, polymerase chain reaction) testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severe outcomes, a composite measure defined as intensive interventions during hospitalization (eg, inotropic support, positive pressure ventilation), diagnoses indicating severe organ impairment, or death. Results: Among 3222 enrolled youths who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3221 (>99.9%) had index visit outcome data available, 2007 (62.3%) were from the United States, 1694 (52.6%) were male, and 484 (15.0%) had a self-reported chronic illness; the median (IQR) age was 3 (0-10) years. After 14 days of follow-up, 735 children (22.8% [95% CI, 21.4%-24.3%]) were hospitalized, 107 (3.3% [95% CI, 2.7%-4.0%]) had severe outcomes, and 4 children (0.12% [95% CI, 0.03%-0.32%]) died. Characteristics associated with severe outcomes included being aged 5 to 18 years (age 5 to <10 years vs <1 year: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% CI, 1.09-2.34]; age 10 to <18 years vs <1 year: OR, 2.39 [95% CI 1.38-4.14]), having a self-reported chronic illness (OR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.59-3.44]), prior episode of pneumonia (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 1.83-5.42]), symptoms starting 4 to 7 days prior to seeking ED care (vs starting 0-3 days before seeking care: OR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.29-3.82]), and country (eg, Canada vs US: OR, 0.11 [95% CI, 0.05-0.23]; Costa Rica vs US: OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.05-2.96]; Spain vs US: OR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.27-0.98]). Among a subgroup of 2510 participants discharged home from the ED after initial testing and who had complete follow-up, 50 (2.0%; 95% CI, 1.5%-2.6%) were eventually hospitalized and 12 (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%) had severe outcomes. Compared with hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-negative youths, the risk of severe outcomes was higher among hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive youths (risk difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 1.1%-6.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, approximately 3% of SARS-CoV-2-positive youths tested in EDs experienced severe outcomes within 2 weeks of their ED visit. Among children discharged home from the ED, the risk was much lower. Risk factors such as age, underlying chronic illness, and symptom duration may be useful to consider when making clinical care decisions.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 89(Suppl 1): S1-S2, 2022 02 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015738

ABSTRACT: Our understanding of HIV/AIDS has been reframed during the recent past because the use of novel antiretroviral therapy has enabled clinicians and patients to control the progression of the disease. This supplement provides an overview of the HIV and Aging in the Era of ART and COVID-19, a virtual symposium held on February 8-9, 2021, organized by the Miami Center for AIDS Research along with articles contributed by some of the speakers and members of the organizing committee and presentations by junior investigators.

Aging/immunology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2