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J Int Med Res ; 50(1): 3000605211070766, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994240

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between temperament and character traits in Cloninger's psychobiological theory and mental disorders.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted of five international databases for all articles published in English between January 1990 and April 2019 (PROSPERO-CRD42019133214). Owing to heterogeneity, pooled estimates of correlations for personality disorders and standardized mean differences for case-control studies related to other mental disorders were calculated using the random-effects method. RESULTS: The pooled effect sizes obtained from 149 studies showed that high harm avoidance (related to 22/24 diagnostic categories), low self-directedness (21/23), low cooperativeness (17/23), high self-transcendence (14/23), low reward dependence (11/24), high novelty-seeking (10/24), low novelty-seeking (7/24), high persistence (2/23), low persistence (2/23) and high reward dependence (2/24) were related to psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: All traits provided unique psychobiological tools for differential diagnosis of mental disorders. However, high harm avoidance and low self-directedness played a canonical role in psychopathology. Despite the study limitations, additional studies are warranted to evaluate the differential diagnoses suggested by the present model.

Mental Disorders , Temperament , Case-Control Studies , Character , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Personality Inventory
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 2, 2022 Jan 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996415

BACKGROUND: We have improved and named a new reverse rolling-mat type lymph node dissection, which effectively solves the dilemma faced by the traditional lymph node dissection in hand-assisted laparoscopic D2 radical gastrectomy through the optimization of the surgical procedure. However, the relevant clinical data are still scarce. The study aims to compare the clinical effects of two surgical procedure and explore the safety and feasibility of "reverse procedure". STUDY DESIGN: The clinicopathological data of 195 patients who underwent hand-assisted D2 radical total gastrectomy (HALTG) in our hospital from January 2011 to September 2017 were collected. A retrospective case-control study was used to compare the clinical outcomes of the two patterns of lymph node dissection. Among them, 89 patients underwent "cabbage type" lymph node dissection and 106 patients underwent the "reverse procedure" lymph node dissection. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups of patients in terms of gender, age, tumor location, incision length, postoperative hospitalization duration, pathological classification, recent complications, long-term recurrence and metastasis. The operation time of "cabbage type" group was shorter than that of "reverse procedure" group (178.35 ± 31.52 min vs 191.25 ± 32.77 min; P = 0.006). While, in the "reverse procedure" group, intraoperative blood loss was less (249.4 ± 143.12 vs 213.58 ± 101.43; P = 0.049), and there were more numbers of lymph nodes dissected (18.04 ± 7.00 vs 32.25 ± 14.23; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The pattern of reverse rolling-mat type lymph node dissection in HALTG perform well in terms of safety and feasibility.

Hand-Assisted Laparoscopy , Laparoscopy , Stomach Neoplasms , Case-Control Studies , Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 19, 2022 Jan 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016616

BACKGROUND: During a global crisis like the current COVID-19 pandemic, delayed admission to hospital in cases of emergent medical illness may lead to serious adverse consequences. We aimed to determine whether such delayed admission affected the severity of an inflammatory process regarding acute appendicitis, and its convalescence. METHODS: In a retrospective observational cohort case-control study, we analyzed the medical data of 60 patients who were emergently and consecutively admitted to our hospital due to acute appendicitis as established by clinical presentation and imaging modalities, during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic (our study group). We matched a statistically control group consisting of 97 patients who were admitted during a previous 12-month period for the same etiology. All underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. The main study parameters included intraoperative findings (validated by histopathology), duration of abdominal pain prior to admission, hospital stay and postoperative convalescence (reflecting the consequences of delay in diagnosis and surgery). RESULTS: The mean duration of abdominal pain until surgery was significantly longer in the study group. The rate of advanced appendicitis (suppurative and gangrenous appendicitis as well as peri-appendicular abscess) was greater in the study than in the control group (38.3 vs. 21.6%, 23.3 vs. 16.5%, and 5 vs. 1% respectively), as well as mean hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: A global crisis like the current viral pandemic may significantly affect emergent admissions to hospital (as in case of acute appendicitis), leading to delayed surgical interventions and its consequences.

Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Laparoscopy , Acute Disease , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Case-Control Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 13, 2022 Jan 06.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991575

BACKGROUND: Research regarding the association between severe obesity and in-hospital mortality is inconsistent. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) levels on mortality in the medical wards. The analysis was performed separately before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data of adult patients admitted to the medical wards at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. The study was conducted between January 1, 2011, to March 23, 2021. Patients were divided into two sub-cohorts: pre-COVID-19 and during-COVID-19. Patients were then clustered into groups based on BMI ranges. A multivariate logistic regression analysis compared the mortality rate among the BMI groups, before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Overall, 179,288 patients were admitted to the medical wards and had a recorded BMI measurement. 149,098 were admitted before the COVID-19 pandemic and 30,190 during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic, multivariate analysis showed a "J curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity (BMI > 40) had an aOR of 0.8 (95% CI:0.7-1.0, p = 0.018) compared to the normal BMI group. In contrast, during the pandemic, the analysis showed a "U curve" between BMI and mortality. Severe obesity had an aOR of 1.7 (95% CI:1.3-2.4, p < 0.001) compared to the normal BMI group. CONCLUSIONS: Medical ward patients with severe obesity have a lower risk for mortality compared to patients with normal BMI. However, this does not apply during COVID-19, where obesity was a leading risk factor for mortality in the medical wards. It is important for the internal medicine physician to understand the intricacies of the association between obesity and medical ward mortality.

Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 19, 2022 Jan 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983410

BACKGROUND: Up to now, epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among drug addicted individuals have been rarely performed. By designing an age and sex matched case-control study, we sought to determine the prevalence and associated factors with T. gondii infection in these population using serological and molecular techniques. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven drug addicted individuals and 141 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Informed consent as well as a standard questionnaire were obtained from all subjects participating. Blood samples were collected from each participant and the serum was screened for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgG and IgM). PCR assay was performed using the primer pair targeting the RE and GRA6 genes of T. gondii. Then, PCR products were sequenced to determine genotype. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection based on IgG titer was 34.3% in case and 9.9% in the control groups, revealing a statistically significant difference (OR = 4.37; 95% CI = 2.46-9.12; P = 0.001). After analyzing the variables studied through the questionnaire, age was the only significantly factor associated with the anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in case group. Considering PCR assays with RE genomic target, the prevalence of T. gondii infection was 5.1% in the case and 3.5% in control groups which the difference was no statistically significant (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.45-4.73; P = 0.521). Subsequently, all sequenced samples were genotype #1 using the GRA6 genomic target. CONCLUSIONS: T. gondii exposure is relatively high among drug addicted individuals in Iran, and there is a need for health policymakers and researchers to establish enlightenment and prevention programs for these population at risk of infection.

Pharmaceutical Preparations , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Antibodies, Protozoan , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 18, 2022 Jan 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983419

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is increasingly reported and associated with an aggressive course and high mortality rate. Existing literature on GBS IE is limited to case series; we compared the characteristics of patients with GBS IE to patients with GBS bacteremia without IE to identify risk factors for development of IE. METHODS: A nested case-control study in a cohort of adult patients with GBS bacteremia over a 18-year period was conducted across seven centres in three Canadian cities. A chart review identified patients with possible or definite IE (per Modified Duke Criteria) and patients with IE were matched to those without endocarditis in a 1:3 fashion. Multivariate analyses were completed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 520 patients with GBS bacteremia, 28 cases of possible or definite IE were identified (5.4%). 68% (19/28) met criteria for definite IE, surgery was performed in 29% (8/28), and the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 29% (8/28). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IE was associated with injection drug use (OR = 19.6, 95% CI = 3.39-111.11, p = 0.001), prosthetic valve (OR = 11.5, 95% CI = 1.73-76.92, p = 0.011) and lack of identified source of bacteremia (OR = 3.81, 95% CI = 1.24-11.65, p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: GBS bacteremia, especially amongst people who inject drugs, those with prosthetic valves, and those with no apparent source of infection, should increase clinical suspicion for IE.

Endocarditis, Bacterial , Endocarditis , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Endocarditis/epidemiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus agalactiae
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 29(Pt 1): 214-223, 2022 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985438

Renal oxalosis is a rare cause of renal failure whose diagnosis can be challenging. Synchrotron deep ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence was assayed to improve oxalosis detection on kidney biopsies spatial resolution and sensitivity compared with the Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy gold standard. The fluorescence spectrum of synthetic mono-, di- and tri-hydrated calcium oxalate was investigated using a microspectrometer coupled to the synchrotron UV beamline DISCO, Synchrotron SOLEIL, France. The obtained spectra were used to detect oxalocalcic crystals in a case control study of 42 human kidney biopsies including 19 renal oxalosis due to primary (PHO, n = 11) and secondary hyperoxaluria (SHO, n = 8), seven samples from PHO patients who received combined kidney and liver transplants, and 16 controls. For all oxalocalcic hydrates samples, a fluorescence signal is detected at 420 nm. These spectra were used to identify standard oxalocalcic crystals in patients with PHO or SHO. They also revealed micrometric crystallites as well as non-aggregated oxalate accumulation in tubular cells. A nine-points histological score was established for the diagnosis of renal oxalosis with 100% specificity (76-100) and a 73% sensitivity (43-90). Oxalate tubular accumulation and higher histological score were correlated to lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher urinary oxalate over creatinine ratio.

Calcium Oxalate , Synchrotrons , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Microscopy, Fluorescence
Acta Neurol Taiwan ; 31(1): 7-14, 2022 Jan 25.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988949

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and multi-factorial (e.g. environmental, genetic) disease. We conducted a case-control study of month and season of birth (MOB and SOB) and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in the east of Iran. METHODS: The MS patients registered in Mashhad and Torbat Heydariyeh MS Society until 20 March 2018 was compared with the MOB and SOB in the healthy population during 1988 to 2018. Case group was matched for age, sex and place of residence with the control group. Differences in the distributions of MOB and SOB between the patients and the control groups were assessed using the chi-square test. RESULTS: There were 2,160 MS patients in case group and 2,245 in control group. There was a significant relationship between MOB ans SOB with the risk of MS (P less than 0.05). Analysis showed a significant (p less than 0.01) peak in the MOB during Mar-Apr (OR is equal to 1.60), May-Jun (OR is equal to 1.30) and Aug-Sep (OR is equal to 2.42). CONCLUSION: The findings show a relationship between MOB and SOB as risk factor for MS in Northeast Iran. Further studies are needed to confirm this result. Keyword: Multiple sclerosis, Month of Birth, seasonality, case-control, Iran.

Multiple Sclerosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Seasons
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980033

BACKGROUND: To determine whether it would be effective in predicting the results of the postoperative full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) closure when intraretinal cyst (IRC) is present. METHODS: Case-control study. Patients with idiopathic FTMH who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was undertaken in all patients. The new parameter, macular hole closing factor (MHCF) was defined as the base diameter - (arm length + IRC height) by adding IRC to the existing parameter. After surgery, patients were classified and analyzed according to the type of hole closure and the damage of photoreceptor. RESULTS: Of the 35 patients, 28 (80.00%) had type 1 closure and seven (20.00%) had type 2 closure. There was a significant difference in postoperative BCVA (P < 0.01), base diameter (P = 0.037), arm length (P = 0.045), and IRC height (P = 0.011) between the two groups. In the type 1 closure, they were further divided into two subgroups according to photoreceptor damage, and it was confirmed that there were significant differences in postoperative BCVA (P = 0.045), hole height (P = 0.048), and IRC height (P = 0.046) in the two subgroups. As for the new parameters, a significant difference between the three groups was confirmed (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: IRC may help predict hole closure along with the known horizontal parameters. Therefore, the new parameter containing both two factors can help predict not only hole closure but also damage to photoreceptors that affects postoperative visual prognosis.

Cysts , Retinal Perforations , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Retinal Perforations/diagnosis , Retinal Perforations/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vitrectomy
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 7, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980058

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is highly associated with disability and consequently, mortality in the elderly population. Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is not unusual and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine the incidences and potential risk factors for postoperative AKI in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients over 65 years of age who had been subjected to surgery for femoral neck fracture at Peking University People's Hospital from January 2015 to December 2019. Demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Guidelines (KDIGO). RESULTS: A total of 308 elderly patients with femoral neck fracture were included in the study. The overall incidence of postoperative AKI was 12% (37 cases). Through binary logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, intraoperative blood loss and BMI, we identified that early postoperative albumin levels, hemoglobin changes and intraoperative hypotension are independent risk factors for postoperative AKI. The model considering the three factors can improve accuracy of predicting the possibility of developing AKI. The patients with AKI had a significantly higher mortality of 40.5% than those without AKI (24.0%, p < 0.001) CONCLUSION: The incidence of postoperative AKI in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture was 12%. Independent risk factors for postoperative AKI included hemoglobin changes, early postoperative hypoalbuminemia and intraoperative hypotension. At the same time, postoperative AKI significantly increased mortality in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. Taking multiple possible factors into consideration can better predict the possibility of elderly patients developing AKI after surgery.

Acute Kidney Injury , Femoral Neck Fractures , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Femoral Neck Fractures/epidemiology , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Humans , Incidence , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 27, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980081

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the utility of a clinician-reported outcome (the Japanese Orthopedic Association [JOA] hip score) as evaluated by clinicians and physiotherapists. This assessment was made by comparing these scores to those of the JOA hip disease evaluation questionnaire (JHEQ), which is a measurement of patient-reported outcomes after total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, 52 hips that underwent primary total hip arthroplasty were included in the analyses. The mean age of the participants was 66.8 years (sex, seven male and 45 female participants). The JOA hip score included four categories: pain, range of motion, ability to walk, and active daily living. The JHEQ included three categories: pain, movement, and mental health. These scores were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively by clinicians or physiotherapists. Pearson's correlation coefficients were utilized to analyze the association of the JOA hip scores to those of the JHEQ. RESULTS: The JOA hip scores were determined by clinicians and physiotherapists (scores of 46.8 and 57.3, respectively) preoperatively and at 24 months (scores of 94.4 and 91.7, respectively) postoperatively. The JHEQ points were 28.8 and 66.2 preoperatively and at 24 months postoperatively, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the JOA hip and JHEQ scores were .66 and .69 preoperatively and .57 and .76 at 24 months postoperatively, as evaluated by clinicians and physiotherapists, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the JHEQ scores were positively correlated to the JOA hip scores by clinicians and physiotherapists preoperatively and postoperatively, this study implies that clinicians may interpret the results in a way that might have been beneficial to them. To comprehend a patients' health status, we should inclusively understand the varying range of information among different evaluators.

Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Physical Therapists , Surgeons , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053051, 2022 01 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987042

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global health challenge. SARS-CoV-2 can infect host cells via the ACE2 receptor, which is widely expressed in the corpus cavernosum, testis and male reproductive tract, and participates in erection, spermatogenesis and androgen metabolism. Also, the immune response and persistent fever resulting from COVID-19 may lead to damage of the testicular activity, consequently compromising male fertility. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal database, Chinese Biomedical Databases and Wanfang Data will be systematically searched for observational studies (case-control and cohort) published up to March 2021 in English or in Chinese literature on the impacts of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive function. This protocol will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. The primary outcome will be semen parameters, and the additional outcomes will include: (a) detection of SARS-COV-2 in semen, (b) male sexual hormones, (c) sperm DNA fragmentation index, (d) erectile function, (e) evaluation of testis and also the male genital tract. Two reviewers will independently extract data from the included studies based on a predesigned data extraction form. The risk of bias of included studies will be evaluated through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. Review Manager software V.5.3 will be used for statistical analysis. Q statistic and I² test will be performed to assess the heterogeneity among studies. Sensitivity analysis will be used to explore the robustness of pooled effects. We will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system to assess the quality of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021245161.

COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Male , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(2): 130-135, 2022 Jan 11.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012302

Objective: To investigate the characteristics and effect factors of collateral blood supply of patients with early trimester cesarean scar pregnancy(CSP). Methods: This study was a multicenter case-control study, with 219 inpatients with CSP in First People's Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou Central Hospital, Third People's Hospital of Zhengzhou and Henan No3 Provincial People's Hospital from January 1, 2017 to June 30, 2020 who were selected to obtain their clinical data. Double-blind method was performed in digital subtraction angiography imaging analysis. The patients were divided into collateral blood supply group and non-collateral blood supply group, and the incidence of collateral blood supply of patients with early trimester CSP was calculated. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to find the independent risk factors of collateral blood supply of patients with early trimester CSP. As well, clinical outcomes after uterine artery embolization (UAE) were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 219 patients with early trimester CSP have average age of (32.4±5.0) years old and average pregnancy of (51.0±10.6) days. The incidence of collateral blood supply was 12.3% (27 cases), of which16 cases were on the left, 6 on the right and 5 in both sides. A total of 43 collateral vessels were found, with 1.59 vessels per patient on average. Bladder artery was the most common source of collateral blood supply, accounting for 74.4% (32/43), followed by internal pudendal artery for 18.6% (8/43). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that gestational weeks ≥8 weeks, maximum diameter of gestational sac ≥50 mm and rich blood supply of gestational sac are independent risk factors for collateral blood supply of patients with early trimester CSP, with OR (95%CI) 3.68 (1.06-12.76), 7.00 (1.52-32.19)、9.96 (3.59-27.58), respectively, all P<0.05. The success rates of UAE were 100% in both groups. The reduction in serum ß-Human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) level at 24 hours after UAE, vaginal bleeding during uterine curettage, hysterectomy and menstrual recovery time were not found to have significant difference between groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Early trimester CSP leads to a certain occurrence of collateral blood supply, which may have adverse impact on the efficacy of UAE and patient safety. Gestational weeks, the maximum diameter of gestational sac and the degree of vascularization of gestation sac have certain value in suggesting the collateral blood supply of patients with early trimester CSP, which is helpful for the complete embolization of gestational sac in the process of UAE.

Cesarean Section , Cicatrix , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 27(1): 24-30, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017287

OBJECTIVES: To investigate catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met gene polymorphism in MDMA use disorder (MUD) by comparing genotype distributions between MUD patients and healthy controls considering clinical parameters. METHODS: Eighty-two MUD patients' were consecutively admitted to the outpatient psychiatry clinic in May 2019-January 2020, and 95 healthy volunteers were included in the case-control study. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine COMT Val158Met polymorphism. RESULTS: The COMT Val158Met genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the MUD patient group were significantly different from the healthy control group. The Met/Met genotype (OR: 2.692; 95% Cl: 1.272-5.698; p=0.008) and Met allele frequencies (OR: 1.716; 95% Cl: 1.118-2.633; p=0.013) were significantly higher in the control group than in MUD patients. When the COMT Val158Met genotype and allele frequency distributions were compared between 2 groups according to the psychotic symptoms in the MUD patient group, the COMT Val158Met genotype distributions were significantly different between the groups of patients. The percentage of patients with the Val/Val genotype was significantly lower in MUD patients with a psychotic symptom than the MUD patients without a psychotic symptom (OR: 2.625; 95% Cl: 1.069-6.446; p=0.033). CONCLUSION: The COMT Val158Met gene polymorphism was found to be related to the MUD-diagnosed Turkish patients and MDMA-induced psychotic symptoms.

N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine , Psychotic Disorders , Case-Control Studies , Catechol O-Methyltransferase/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20210262, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019025

This study aimed to investigate if SNP rs6313, SNP rs2770304, SNP rs4941573, and SNP rs1923884 of the 5-HT2A receptor gene and SNP rs6295 of the 5-HT1A receptor gene are associated with bruxism etiology. METHODOLOGY: This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018094561). A search was conducted for articles published in or before May 2021. To qualify for eligibility in this review, the studies had to be case-controls, cohort or cross-sectional. The inclusion criteria were the articles with a group of patients with bruxism and a control group in which the presence of these SNPs was evaluated. The exclusion criteria were the investigations of other polymorphisms, the studies that did not consider a control group for comparison, case reports, and reviews. The NOS and JBI were used to evaluate the methodological quality of studies. RESULTS: We conducted this study with databases, such as Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and ProQuest. We considered four studies eligible. A total of 672 participants were included,187 with sleep bruxism, 105 with awake bruxism, 89 with sleep and awake bruxism, and 291 controls. One study found a strong association between the SNPs rs6313, rs2770304 and rs4941573 of the 5-HT2A receptor gene and sleep bruxism. In one study, we considered the C allele of the SNP rs2770304 a risk factor for sleep bruxism. We found no significant results of other SNPs in sleep bruxers compared to controls. We found no positive association concerning the SNPs and groups of awake bruxism and sleep and awake bruxism. CONCLUSION: The different results regarding the SNPs in sleep bruxers could be explained by the genetic distinction between Chilean, Mexican, Japanese, and Polish population. More clinical trials and prospective studies must be conducted with larger sample size and in different ethnicities to confirm the results of this review.

Sleep Bruxism , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Serotonin/genetics , Sleep Bruxism/genetics
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 107-111, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999688

Platelets are involved in regeneration at sites of bony defect, apart from their function in coagulation. An autologous preparation platelet-rich plasma gel applied to sites of bony defects after surgical treatment of jaw cyst. This case-control study was conducted in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery from September 2017 to August 2018. Total 30 patients were chosen having jaw cyst. They were divided into 2 groups; Group A and Group B, where Group A got the platelet rich plasma, after removal of the cystic lesion; and Group B got the normal usual treatment. Platelet rich plasma gel was prepared using a standardized technique and applied to the surgical site of the Group A. The differences of radiographic changes between the two groups at 6th, 12th, 18th and 24th weeks after surgery were analyzed. Study showed significant changes in early bone regeneration in group A at 12th and 18th weeks post operatively. Platelet rich plasma induces early bone regeneration and it has proven successful outcome.

Jaw Cysts , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Blood Platelets , Bone Regeneration , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Jaw Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Jaw Cysts/surgery
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 216-222, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999705

Zinc is one of the important trace elements of blood. It helps in maturation of immune system in our body. In the past studies originate the relationship between viral disease and serum zinc deficiency. This was a multicenter case-control study to measure the serum zinc level of COVID-19 patients with different respiratory supports and to evaluate the Odds Ratio (OR) and Relative risk (RR) of zinc deficiency for oxygen requirement for COVID-19 patients. Study places were COVID-19 unit of three tertiary hospitals of Sylhet, a Northern district of Bangladesh. There were 30 controls and 90 cases in this study. The mean zinc level of cases (53-38mcg/dl) was significantly (p=0.000072) lower than the level of controls (73-23mcg/dl). The mean zinc level of the COVID-19 patients required oxygen (49-33mcg/dl) was significantly (p=0.0054) lower than the patients were not treated by oxygen therapy (64-51mcg/dl). The RR of getting affected by COVID-19 was 1-91 for the low zinc level people. Among the COVID-19 affected participants the lower zinc level people had a RR of 1-93 to receive oxygen supplementation. Lower zinc level people are more likely to be affected by COVID-19 in comparison to the normal zinc level people. Among the COVID-19 patients the lower zinc level people had nearly double (RR 1-93) risk of becoming hypoxic and eventually prone for oxygen support.

COVID-19 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Oxygen , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc
Prog Orthod ; 23(1): 2, 2022 Jan 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001180

BACKGROUND: Bruxism is defined as repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterized by the grinding and clenching of teeth. The prevalence of bruxism in children is extensive, and it can cause irregularities in dental arches. The study aimed to investigate the presence of any effects of bruxism on maxillary arch length and width in children using three-dimensional (3D) digital model analysis. METHOD: This study evaluated 30 children with bruxism. For every child with bruxism, a case control without bruxism was selected and matched for gender, age, and dentition. Digital models of the patients' maxilla were obtained with a 3D intraoral scanner, and width and length measurements between the reference points on the maxilla were obtained on the digital models. RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 9.13 ± 1.27. Insignificance differences were found between females and males within and between groups in terms of maxillary width and length. Insignificant difference was found between the control and study groups when the lengths of 3R-3L, 4R-4L, 5R-5L, 6R-6L, and IP-M were compared (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on the study results, there were no differences in the maxillary arch length and width in patients with bruxism and patients without bruxism.

Bruxism , Maxilla , Case-Control Studies , Child , Dental Arch , Female , Humans , Male
J Headache Pain ; 23(1): 3, 2022 Jan 06.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991456

BACKGROUND: Several inflammatory and vascular molecules, and neurotrophins have been suggested to have a possible role in the development of migraine. However, pathophysiological events leading to migraine onset and transformation of episodic migraine (EM) to chronic migraine (CM) are not fully understood. Thus, we aimed to assess peripheral levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in EM and CM patients, and controls. METHODS: From September 2017 to June 2020, 89 subjects were enrolled in a case-control study; 23 and 36 EM and CM patients, respectively, and 30 age and sex-matched controls. Demographic data and medical history were obtained from all patients. Headache characteristics were recorded at baseline visit and ensuing 30 days for persons with migraine disease. Serum levels of NGF, BDNF, VEGF, and PGE2 were measured once for controls and EM and CM patients, and adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. RESULTS: Serum levels of NGF were significantly lower in EM patients compared to controls and CM patients (P-value=0.003 and 0.042, respectively). Serum levels of BDNF were significantly lower in EM and CM patients as opposed to controls (P-value<0.001), but comparable between EM and CM patients (P-value=0.715). Peripheral blood levels of VEGF were significantly higher in EM and CM patients as opposed to controls (P-value<0.001), but not different between EM and CM patients (P-value=0.859). Serum levels of PGE2 were significantly lower in EM patients compared to controls (P-value=0.011), however similar between EM and CM patients (P-value=0.086). In migraine patients, serum levels of NGF and PGE2 positively correlated with headache frequency (NGF: ρ = 0.476 and P-value<0.001; PGE2: ρ = 0.286 and P-value=0.028), while corresponding levels of BDNF and VEGF did not correlate with headache frequency (BDNF: ρ = 0.037 and P-value=0.778; VEGF: ρ= -0.025 and P-value=0.850). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that NGF, BDNF, PGE2, and VEGF may play a significant role in migraine pathogenesis and/or chronification, and therefore might bear potential value for novel targeted abortive and prophylactic migraine therapy. Further prospective cohort studies with larger sample sizes can more robustly evaluate the implications of these findings.

Dinoprostone , Migraine Disorders , Nerve Growth Factor , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Biomarkers , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 58(1): 14-21, 2022 Jan 11.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979788

Objective: To evaluate the concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humor of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) patients at the angle-closure stage in different treatment periods and its relationship with recurrence. Methods: A prospective case-control study. Angle-closure stage NVG patients who came to Peking University Third Hospital from September 2018 to September 2019 were enrolled and followed-up for at least 12 months. Patients received triple sequential therapy, including anti-vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) injection, trabeculectomy, and panretinal photocoagulation. The aqueous humor before anti-VEGF treatment, before trabeculectomy, and during recurrence was collected. Multiplex bead immunoassay was applied to measure the concentration of 45 cytokines including VEGF, interleukin (IL), and chemokine. The relevant data were compared with the values of 25 proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients and 24 age-related cataract patients undergoing phacoemulsification as controls. The concentration of cytokines was presented as M (Q1, Q3). The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test was applied to compare the cytokine concentration between the NVG group and controls. The difference between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups was compared with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The average age of NVG patients was (60±11) years, and there were 22 males and 10 females. No significant differences were found in age and gender between the NVG group and the two control groups (both P>0.05). The median concentrations of VEGF in the NVG group before anti-VEGF treatment, before trabeculectomy, and after recurrence were 2 151.3 (1 433.1, 4 280.0) ng/L, 655.4 (287.3, 836.3) ng/L and 2 003.4 (1 603.1, 2 468.9) ng/L respectively. The concentrations of VEGF before anti-VEGF treatment and after recurrence in the NVG group were significantly higher than the PDR group [453.8 (189.9, 595.8) ng/L] and the cataract group [143.5 (112.7, 269.8) ng/L] (all P<0.05). The median concentration of programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) was 38.9 (22.4, 50.6) ng/L before anti-VEGF treatment, higher than that in the PDR group [12.0 (6.3, 20.1) ng/L] and the cataract group [14.6 (11.4, 19.3) ng/L]. The median concentration of fractalkine was 242.7 (189.0, 306.7) ng/L, higher than that in the PDR group [131.1 (119.1, 157.6) ng/L] and the cataract group [116.7 (10.2, 135.9) ng/L]. The median concentration of IL-7 was 18.0 (12.0, 32.7) ng/L, higher than that in the PDR group [7.7 (2.0, 10.8) ng/L] and the cataract group [3.3 (1.9, 6.8) ng/L]. The median concentration of eotaxin was 84.0 (52.4, 122.7) ng/L, higher than that in the PDR group [26.6 (17.1, 72.3) ng/L] and the cataract group [7.1 (5.6, 14.8) ng/L]. The median concentration of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was 3.6 (2.8, 6.4) ng/L, higher than that in the cataract group [1.1 (0.3, 2.3) ng/L]. All the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the NVG and control groups in other cytokines or other treatment periods (all P>0.05). Six NVG patients suffered recurrence during the follow-up. The baseline concentration of IL-7 of these patients [10.5 (8.4, 16.0) ng/L] was significantly lower than that in patients who did not have recurred disease [22.7 (15.7, 34.1) ng/L] (Z=-2.74, P<0.01). Conclusions: In the angle-closure stage of NVG patients, the concentrations of VEGF, PD-L1, fractalkine, IL-7, eotaxin, and TRAIL in the aqueous humor significantly increase during the onset of disease. Lower IL-7 may indicate a recurring tendency.

Glaucoma, Neovascular , Aged , Aqueous Humor , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines , Female , Glaucoma, Neovascular/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A