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Agri ; 34(1): 38-46, 2022 Jan.
Article Tr | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988963

OBJECTIVES: Central blocks such as caudal, spinal, and sacral epidural are frequently used in pediatric inguinal surgeries. Furthermore, peripheral blocks have been used and successful results have been obtained in pediatric inguinal surgeries. In this study, we aimed to compare the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic efficacy of the ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric (IL/IH) block under general anesthesia with the sacral epidural block. METHODS: This study was carried out in Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, after obtaining permission from the Ethics Committee of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine and the Central Ethics Committee of the General Directorate of Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacy of the Turkish Ministry of Health, numbered B.10.0.IEG.011.00.01. Sixty patients in the American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II group between the ages of 1 and 8 years who will undergo elective unilateral inguinal hernia operation under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups. Group S (n=30) sacral epidural block and group I (n=30) IL/IH nerve block were planned. RESULTS: Hemodynamic values were found to be statistically significantly lower than control values in both groups. The minimum alveolar concentration values for sevoflurane were statistically significantly lower values in both groups at all surgery periods. In terms of additional analgesic requirement, the group I was found to be statistically significantly lower than the group s at the 8th-12th h. When the first analgesic intake hours were examined, no significant difference was found between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In our study, group I and group S analgesic efficacy was found to be similar.

Hernia, Inguinal , Nerve Block , Analgesics , Child , Child, Preschool , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Herniorrhaphy , Humans , Infant , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053094, 2022 01 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980617

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is having a disproportionate impact on Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups and women. Concern over direct and indirect effects may also impact on sleep. We explore the levels and social determinants of self-reported sleep loss among the UK population during the pandemic, focusing on ethnic and gender disparities. SETTING: This prospective longitudinal study analysed data from seven waves of the Understanding Society: COVID-19 Study collected from April 2020 to January 2021 linked to prepandemic data from the 2019 mainstage interviews, providing baseline information about the respondents prior to the pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: The analytical sample included 8163 respondents aged 16 and above who took part in all seven waves with full information on sleep loss, defined as experiencing 'rather more' or 'much more' than usual sleep loss due to worry, providing 57 141 observations. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported sleep loss. Mixed-effects regression models were fitted to consider within-individual and between-individual differences. RESULTS: Women were more likely to report sleep loss than men (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 2.4) over the 10-month period. Being female, having young children, perceived financial difficulties and COVID-19 symptoms were all predictive of sleep loss. Once these covariates were controlled for, the bivariate relationship between ethnicity and sleep loss (1.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.4) was reversed (0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8). Moreover, the strength of the association between gender and ethnicity and the risk of sleep loss varied over time, being weaker among women in July (0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7), September (0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.8), November (0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0) and January 2021 (0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.9) compared with April 2020, but positively stronger among BAME individuals in May (1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1), weaker only in September (0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has widened sleep deprivation disparities, with women with young children, COVID-19 infection and BAME individuals experiencing sleep loss, which may adversely affect their mental and physical health.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , United Kingdom/epidemiology
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 6, 2022 01 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989762

Purpose: To assess whether monocular contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity impairments remain when visual acuity is fully recovered in children with refractive amblyopia. Methods: A retrospective review of 487 patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia whose visual acuity improved to 0.08 logMAR or better in both eyes following optical treatment was conducted. Measurements of monocular contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity had been made when visual acuity normalized. All patients had been treated with refractive correction for approximately 2 years following diagnosis. No other treatments were provided. Monocular contrast sensitivity was measured using the CSV-1000E chart for children 6 years of age or younger and a psychophysical technique called the quick contrast sensitivity function in older children. Stereoacuity was measured using the Random Dot Test that includes monocular cues and the Randot Stereoacuity Test that does not have monocular cues. Results: Statistically significant interocular differences in contrast sensitivity were observed. These differences tended to occur at higher spatial frequencies (12 and 18 cycles per degree). Stereoacuity within the age-specific normal range was achieved by 47.4% of patients for the Random Dot Test and only 23.1% of patients for the Randot Stereoacuity Test. Conclusions: Full recovery of visual acuity following treatment for refractive amblyopia does not equalize interocular contrast sensitivity or restore normal stereopsis. Alternative therapeutic approaches that target contrast sensitivity and/or binocular vision are required.

Amblyopia/therapy , Contrast Sensitivity/physiology , Depth Perception/physiology , Eyeglasses , Hyperopia/therapy , Myopia/therapy , Amblyopia/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Hyperopia/physiopathology , Male , Myopia/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensory Deprivation , Vision Tests/methods , Vision, Binocular , Visual Acuity
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 46, 2022 Jan 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016630

BACKGROUND: Diphtheria is a contagious vaccine-preventable disease that contributes to the high morbidity and mortality among under 5 children, especially in Yemen. As a consequence of war and collapse of the health system, a fatal epidemic occurred at the end of 2017. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of diphtheria by time, place, and person and vaccination status of affected children. METHODS: A study was conducted in Sada'a governorate by using accumulative line list of diphtheria from November 2017 to September 2020 at electronic Integrated Disease Early Warning System (eIDEWS). The case definition of WHO was adopted. Data was analyzed by Microsoft Excel and Epi info- version 7.2 and multivariable logistic analysis used for identifying significant associated factors. RESULTS: 747 cases were met of WHO case definition. The annual peak of cases started during week 31 and weak 49. Males were slightly more than females (51% vs 49%) and about 35% of cases involved children aged 10 to < 15 years. The overall incidence of diphtheria and case fatality rate (CFR) were 69/ 100,000 and 6.4%, respectively. The highest CFR was among age groups under 5 years 11% (P < 0.001) and among females was 8%. Dysphagia and swollen lymph nodes were the predominant symptoms 98%, 92%, respectively. Based on the Vaccination status, the percentage of unvaccinated and unknown were 53% and 41% respectively, with CFR 11% among cases who received one dose. Furthermore, the most case were from Sahar 40% with case fatality rate 8% and the highest CFR was significantly higher among cases in border and ongoing conflict district (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight that diphtheria is still an ongoing cause of morbidity and mortality among under 5 children in Sada'a that is rising with the low diphtheria immunization coverage. Therefore, concomitant efforts should now focus on improving and monitoring routine immunization across all age groups and healthcare services, especially in borders and continuing conflict districts.

Diphtheria , Child , Child, Preschool , Diphtheria/epidemiology , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , Yemen
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 23, 2022 Jan 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016719

BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick is a rare metabolic disease distinguished by lysosomal storage defects. This disease is characterized by sphingomyelinase acid deficiency, causing its accumulation in various organs such as the kidneys, spleen, liver, brain, and nerves. Niemann-Pick disease is categorized into four groups: A, B, C, and D. Peripheral neuropathy is an extremely rare complication in patients with Niemann-Pick type C, which certainly leads to neurologic deterioration. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Niemann-Pick type C disease in a 3-year-old Iranian Azeri female patient who was hospitalized twice. The first time was at 1 month of age with symptoms of splenomegaly, jaundice, and elevated liver enzymes, and the second time was at around age 2 for loss of mental and physical abilities. The patient presented with failure to thrive. According to paraclinical examinations, mildly delayed myelination along with a nonspecific periventricular hypersignal intensity was seen. Interestingly, the patient's Niemann-Pick type C enzymatic function was evaluated twice and was negative on both occasions, while she was positive for NPC1 and NPC2 gene examinations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, despite the enzymatic study being negative, Niemann-Pick type C disease was finally confirmed, revealing the importance of mutations in Niemann-Pick type C pathogenesis. Besides, peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed in this patient as a very rare symptom of Niemann-Pick type C.

Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Iran , Mutation , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A/complications , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A/diagnosis , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A/genetics , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C/complications , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C/diagnosis
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 11, 2022 Jan 13.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022064

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic medium-sized vasculitis that occurs primarily in infants and children younger than 5 years of age. Atypical Kawasaki disease applies to patients who do not fulfill the complete criteria of fever of 5 days or more with at least four of five features: bilateral conjunctival injection, changes in the lips and oral cavity, cervical lymphadenopathy, extremity changes, and polymorphous rash. Acute kidney injury is defined as a sudden decline in kidney function within hours, including structural injuries and loss of function. Acute kidney injury is extremely common in hospitalized pediatric patients. However, it is rarely documented in Kawasaki disease. Acute kidney injury is underestimated in Kawasaki disease due to the lack of a clear definition of age-specific normal serum creatinine levels and routine renal functions. This report describes a case who presented with clinical features suggestive of atypical Kawasaki disease and developed acute kidney injury. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old Saudi girl had a history of high-grade fever for 5 days, moderate dehydration, dry cracked lips, poor appetite, and generalized erythematous rash; therefore, she was diagnosed to have incomplete Kawasaki disease. Laboratory investigations revealed normochromic normocytic anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, high inflammatory markers, and acute kidney injury stage III. An echocardiogram showed a 4-mm dilatation on the left main coronary artery and a 3-mm dilatation on the right. A renal biopsy was not performed to identify the cause of the injury as it showed improvements after the start of the specific therapy for Kawasaki disease; intravenous immune globulin at a dose of 2 g/kg, aspirin at a high dosage of 80 mg/kg/day, and prednisolone at 2 mg/kg. In addition to the acute kidney injury management, normal saline boluses were followed by furosemide at a 2 mg/kg dose. Her urine output increased, and her renal functions normalized. She was discharged in good condition after 10 days. CONCLUSIONS: It is valuable to check renal function tests in a confirmed case of Kawasaki disease to reduce the negative consequences of late acute kidney injury discovery. Early detection and intervention make a substantial difference in acute kidney injury management.

Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Echocardiography , Female , Fever , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy
JAMA ; 327(1): 59-66, 2022 01 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982120

Importance: The incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children appears to be increasing, yet few risk factors are established. There is limited information regarding whether maternal hormonal contraception use increases this risk. Objective: To examine the association between maternal hormonal contraception use and CNS tumors in children (<20 years). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this nationwide cohort study based on population-based registry data, 1 185 063 children born in Denmark between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2014, were followed up for a diagnosis of a CNS tumor (final follow-up on December 31, 2018). Exposures: Maternal hormonal contraception use was analyzed according to any use, regimen (combined/progestin only), and route of administration (oral/nonoral), categorized as recent use (≤3 months before start and during pregnancy), previous use (>3 months before start of pregnancy), and no use. For injections, implants, and intrauterine devices that are used for a different time period, the categorization was appropriately altered. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratio (HR) and incidence rate difference (IRD) of CNS tumors diagnosed at younger than 20 years. Results: After 15 335 990 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up, 12.9 years), 725 children were diagnosed with a CNS tumor. The mean age at diagnosis was 7 years, and 342 (47.2%) of the diagnosed children were female. The adjusted incidence rate of CNS tumors per 100 000 person-years was 5.0 for children born to mothers with recent hormonal contraception use (n = 136 022), 4.5 for children born to mothers with previous use (n = 778 843), and 5.3 for children born to mothers with no use (n = 270 198). The corresponding HRs were 0.95 ([95% CI, 0.74-1.23]; 84 children with CNS tumors; IRD, -0.3 [95% CI, -1.6 to 1.0]) for recent use and 0.86 ([95% CI, 0.72-1.02]; 421 children with CNS tumors; IRD, -0.8 [95% CI, -1.7 to 0.0]) for previous use, compared with no use. No statistically significant associations were found for recent or previous use of oral combined, nonoral combined, oral progestin only, or nonoral products compared with no use of hormonal contraception. Conclusions and Relevance: Among Danish children, there was no statistically significant association between any maternal hormonal contraception use and CNS tumor risk.

Central Nervous System Neoplasms/chemically induced , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Progestins/adverse effects , Registries , Risk Factors
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142057, 2022 01 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982157

Importance: Closure of day care centers has been implemented globally to contain the COVID-19 pandemic but has negative effects on children's health and psychosocial well-being. Objective: To investigate the feasibility of surveillance among children and childcare workers and to model the efficacy of surveillance on viral spread prevention. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted at 9 day care centers in Wuerzburg, Germany, from October 2020 to March 2021. Participants included children attending day care, childcare workers, and household members. Participating day care centers were assigned to different surveillance modules in a nonrandomized feasibility study. A mathematical model for SARS-CoV-2 spread in day care centers was developed to identify optimal surveillance. Interventions: Modules 1, 2, and 3 involved continuous surveillance of asymptomatic children and childcare workers by SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction testing of either midturbinate nasal swabs twice weekly (module 1) or once weekly (module 2) or self-sampled saliva samples twice weekly (module 3). Module 4 involved symptom-based, on-demand testing of children, childcare workers, and their household members by oropharyngeal swabs. All participants underwent SARS-CoV-2 antibody status testing before and after the sampling period. Questionnaires on attitudes and perception of the pandemic were administered in weeks 1, 6, and 12. Mathematical modeling was used to estimate SARS-CoV-2 spread in day care centers. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were acceptance of the respective surveillance protocols (feasibility study) and the estimated number of secondary infections (mathematical modeling). Results: Of 954 eligible individuals (772 children and 182 childcare workers), 592 (62%), including 442 children (median [IQR] age, 3 [2-4] years; 214 [48.6%] female) and 150 childcare workers (median [IQR] age, 29 [25-44] years; 129 [90.8%] female) participated in the surveillance. In total, 4755 tests for SARS-CoV-2 detected 2 infections (1 childcare worker and 1 adult household member). Acceptance for continuous surveillance was highest for biweekly saliva testing (150 of 221 eligible individuals [67.9%; 95% CI, 61.5%-73.7%]) compared with biweekly (51 of 117 individuals [43.6%; 95% CI, 35.0%-52.6%]) and weekly (44 of 128 individuals [34.4%; 95% CI, 26.7%-43.0%]) midturbinate swabbing (P < .001). Dropout rates were higher for midturbinate swabbing (biweekly, 11 of 62 participants [18%]; once weekly, 11 of 55 participants [20%]) than for saliva testing (6 of 156 participants [4%]). Mathematical modeling based on study and literature data identified biweekly testing of at least 50% of children and childcare workers as minimal requirements to limit secondary infections. Conclusions and Relevance: In this nonrandomized controlled trial, surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 in 9 German day care centers was feasible and well accepted. Mathematical modeling estimated that testing can minimize the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in day care centers. These findings enable setup of surveillance programs to maintain institutional childcare. Trial Registration: German Registry for Clinical Trials Identifier: DRKS00023721.

COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caregivers , Child Care , Child Day Care Centers , Child Health , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Feasibility Studies , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Specimen Handling
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e055490, 2022 01 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996797

PURPOSE: Obesity prevention is increasingly focused on early childhood, but toddlers have not been well-studied, and children born preterm are frequently excluded. The Play & Grow Cohort was established to investigate child growth in relation to parent-child interactions in mealtime and non-mealtime settings. PARTICIPANTS: Between December 2017 and May 2019, 300 toddlers and primary caregivers were recruited from records of a large paediatric care provider in Columbus, Ohio, USA. This report describes recruitment of the cohort and outlines the data collection protocols for two toddler and two preschool-age visits. The first study visit coincided with enrolment and occurred when children (57% boys) were a mean (SD) calendar age of 18.2 (0.7) months. FINDINGS TO DATE: Children in the cohort are diverse relative to gestational age at birth (16%, 28-31 completed weeks' gestation; 21%, 32-36 weeks' gestation; 63%, ≥37 weeks' gestation) and race/ethnicity (8%, Hispanic; 35%, non-Hispanic black; 46%, non-Hispanic white). Caregivers enrolled in the cohort are primarily the child's biological mother (93%) and are diverse in age (range 18-54 years), education (23%, high school or less; 20% graduate degree) and annual household income (27%,

COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity , Ohio , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 108-110, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983160

Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the brain that results in difficult-to-control seizures (mostly focal: epilepsia partialis continua), cognitive decline and progressive loss of neurological function including speech, motor skills with eventual paralysis of one half of the body (hemiparesis) and encephalitis. It is a disease that usually affects a single hemisphere and presents commonly at an early age. It poses a lot of challenges, both in diagnosis as well as treatment. We report a case consistent with the findings of RE in a 4.5-year male child, who presented with status epilepticus; and was diagnosed as a case of RE on clinical and radiological findings. Key Words: Rasmussen's encephalitis, Inflammatory disease, Seizures, Cognitive decline, Hemiparesis.

Encephalitis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain , Child, Preschool , Encephalitis/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Seizures/etiology
Trials ; 23(1): 17, 2022 Jan 06.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991701

BACKGROUND: Early childhood caries is a highly prevalent disease affecting young children. Parental brushing of children's teeth is recommended during preschool years. Interventions to promote parental brushing of children's teeth are assessed as a package in randomized clinical trials and the efficacy of separate components is not known. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The aim of this study is to develop an optimized behavior modification intervention to increase parents' brushing of their pre-school children's teeth using the multi-phase optimization strategy (MOST) guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. Behavior change will be assessed by the percent reduction in children's dental plaque index after 6 months and parents reporting of toothbrushing frequency. Two phases of MOST will be carried out. First, the preparation phase comprises the development of a conceptual framework, identifying candidate components, conducting a feasibility pilot study to assess the acceptability and the design features of three intervention components (motivational interviewing (MI), and two mobile health (mHealth) components: oral health promotion messages and storytelling videos delivered using WhatsApp messenger) in addition to setting an optimization objective. Second, the optimization phase constitutes a factorial trial assessing the three intervention components and developing the intervention by selecting the most effective components within the optimization constraint. Each component will be set at two levels: yes (the intervention is applied) and no (the intervention is not applied). A linear regression model will be used to assess the effect of the intervention components on the percent reduction in dental plaque index (primary outcome measure). The secondary outcome measure is the change in the frequency of parents' brushing of the child's teeth. The combination of components making up the new optimized intervention will be selected. DISCUSSION: This will be the first study to apply the MOST framework in the field of dentistry. The results of this study can guide the development of an optimized behavior modification interventions using mHealth and MI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT04923581, Registered 11 June 2021.

Dental Caries , Telemedicine , Child , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Humans , Parents , Pilot Projects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Schools , Toothbrushing
Parasitol Res ; 121(1): 1-10, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993634

Trichuriasis is one of the most common soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, affecting populations globally. The condition is particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas with low levels of sanitation and poor living conditions. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura infection in Asia at the country and region level. Multiple databases/academic search engines (Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were searched for literature on T. trichiura prevalence in Asia published through January 2021. Pooled prevalence was determined using the meta-package in R (version 3.6.1). Out of 13,836 articles, 226 studies (5,439,500 individuals) from 26 countries met the inclusion criteria. Of the 226 studies, 151 were community-based studies that included individuals across the age spectrum, while 75 studies focused on school children (typically in the 5-16 years age range). The overall T. trichiura pooled prevalence was 15.3% (95% CI: 12.4-19.1%), with a pooled prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 10.0-17.1%) for the community studies and 20.9% (95% CI: 14.7-27.9%) for the studies only including school children. For studies including all age groups, individuals in the 1-15 years age group had the highest pooled prevalence at 23.4% (95% CI: 1.7-49.4%). There was a significant difference found in overall pooled prevalence by sex (p < 0.001) and community type (rural versus urban) (p < 0.001). Although prevalence appears to be decreasing, study findings suggest that T. trichiura infection continues to be a public health problem in Asia. Therefore, control programs focused on at-risk individuals in endemic areas are needed.

Ascariasis , Helminthiasis , Trichuriasis , Adolescent , Animals , Ascariasis/epidemiology , Ascaris lumbricoides , Asia , Child , Child, Preschool , Feces , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Prevalence , Sanitation , Soil , Trichuriasis/epidemiology , Trichuris
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 42, 2022 Jan 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998394

BACKGROUND: The costs associated with the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD) are understudied in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We evaluated the cost of treating SCD-related acute complications and the potential cost-savings of hydroxyurea in a specialized hematology center in Brazil. METHODS: The costs (US dollars) of emergency department (ED) and hospitalizations from SCD-related complications between 01.01.2018 and 06.30.2018 were ascertained using absorption and micro-costing approaches. The reasons for acute hospital visits were grouped as: 1) vaso-occlusive (VOC) pain, 2) infection, 3) anemia exacerbation, and 4) chronic organ damage complications. Hydroxyurea adherence was estimated by medication possession ratio (MPR) during the study period. RESULTS: In total, 1144 patients, median age 17 years (range 0-70), 903 (78.9%) with HbSS/HbSß0-thalassemia, 441 (38.5%) prescribed hydroxyurea, visited the ED, of whom 381 (33%) were admitted. VOC accounted for 64% of all ED visits and 60% of all admissions. Anemia exacerbation was the most expensive reason for ED visit ($321.87/visit), while chronic organ damage carried the highest admission cost ($2176.40/visit). Compared with other genotypes, individuals with HbSS/HbSß0-thalassemia were admitted more often (79% versus 21%, p < 0.0001), and their admission costs were higher ($1677.18 versus $1224.47/visit, p = 0.0001). Antibiotics and analgesics accounted for 43% and 42% of the total ED costs, respectively, while housing accounted for 46% of the total admission costs. Costs of ED visits not resulting in admissions were lower among HbSS/HbSß0-thalassemia individuals with hydroxyurea MPR ≥65% compared with visits by patients with MPR <65% ($98.16/visit versus $182.46/visit, p = 0.0007). No difference in admission costs were observed relative to hydroxyurea use. DISCUSSION: In a LMIC hematology-specialized center, VOCs accounted for most acute visits from patients with SCD, but costs were highest due to anemia exacerbation. Analgesics, antibiotics, and housing drove most expenses. Hydroxyurea may reduce ED costs among individuals with HbSS/HbSß0-thalassemia but is dependent on adherence level.

Anemia, Sickle Cell , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Costs and Cost Analysis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Young Adult
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20210252, 2022.
Article En, Pt | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007314

OBJECTIVE: To identify the main nursing diagnoses and interventions in children in the immediate postoperative period of palatoplasty. METHOD: Documentary and retrospective study, developed in a Brazilian public and tertiary hospital, between August and September 2020. Children who underwent only palatoplasty, between January and December 2019, aged between 10 and 24 months, were included. Those with medical syndromes and/or comorbidities were excluded. The Theoretical Framework of Basic Human Needs and the NANDA International and Nursing Interventions Classification Taxonomies were used. Data underwent descriptive statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 126 children. Psychobiological needs such as oxygenation, hydration, nutrition, elimination, cutaneous-mucosal and physical integrity, pain and environmental perception predominated. Based on them, nine nursing diagnoses, with four focusing on the problem and five on risk, as well as 17 interventions, were identified. CONCLUSION: The use of standardized languages to identify affected human needs and, based on them, diagnoses and interventions, favored clinical reasoning for the construction and organization of clinical nursing practice.

Nursing Diagnosis , Standardized Nursing Terminology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Vocabulary, Controlled
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 55-60, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999680

The most common malignant neoplasm in Childhood is Leukemia which is about 41% of all malignancies. Incidence of CNS involvement is less than 5% in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and 6-29% in Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia at Diagnosis. For Successful treatment of childhood leukemia it is mandatory, to give sufficient therapy directed to the CNS to treat sub clinical or overt CNS Leukemia. Without Central Nervous System- Directed therapy, relapses originating from the CNS in up to 75% cases. For this purpose it is crucial to find out the CNS involvement in acute leukemia at diagnosis. This study was conducted to find proportion and pattern of central nervous system involvement (central nervous system manifestation and/or cerebrospinal fluid findings) in acute leukemia at diagnosis in Bangladesh. A cross sectional study was conducted from May 2012 to November 2012 in the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 50 samples were included those having age <15 years newly diagnosed with acute leukemia by purposive sampling. Common age group 1-5 years (48%), 32 patients (64%) were male and 18 patients (36%) were female. Out of 32 male patients 4 patients presented with CNS manifestation and among 18 female patients 2 patients presented with CNS manifestation. There is no association between sex and CNS presentation (P value 0.89). 25 (50%) patients had total leukocyte count >11,000-1,00,000. Twelve (24%) patients had total leukocyte count <4,000. Eight (16%) patients had total leukocyte count 4,000-11,000, and rest 05(10%) patients had leukocyte count >1,00,000. Proportion of CNS manifestation was found 6/50 patients. Eight (8) patients were suffering from AML and 42 patients were suffering form ALL. Among 8 AML patients 1 (11.1%) patient had CNS manifestation and Among 42 ALL patients 5(11.1%) patients had CNS manifestation. Out of 6 patients with CNS manifestation, 2 (04%) patients presented with clinical manifestation, and 5(10%) had positive CSF findings. Pattern of CSF finding of 50 leukemic children CNS-1 90%, CNS-2 02%, CNS-3 08%, and no patients had traumatic lumber puncture with concomitant presence of blasts cells. There is significant association was found between hyper leukocytosis and CNS manifestation (p=0.138) but there is no statistically significant association between positive CSF findings and neurological findings (p=0.082). At conclusion, CNS manifestation is not uncommon (6/50 patients) was found in acute leukemia at diagnosis. So, every patient of acute leukemia should be examined carefully for CNS involvement along with CSF cytospin.

Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Adolescent , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Central Nervous System , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/epidemiology , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/epidemiology
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 112-116, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999689

Rotavirus is responsible for acute severe watery diarrhoea in young children. Early and rapid detection of Rotavirus infection can help to reduce inappropriate administration of antibiotics and has future positive impact on prevention of drug resistance. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the role of Rotaviral antigen detection by ICT from stool sample of acute diarrhoeal children below five years admitted in Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet and was carried out in the Department of Microbiology in collaboration with the Department of Paediatrics during the period from 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2018. Total 184 children of under five years of age with acute watery diarrhoea were enrolled in this study. Rotaviral antigen was detected by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and ICT (Immunochromatographic test) from stool samples. Out of 184 stool samples, Rotaviral antigen was found positive in 84 and 86 cases by ICT and ELISA methods, respectively. ICT showed sensitivity of 90.70% and specificity of 93.88% when compared with ELISA. The Rotavirus infection was found highest in male children (61.90%) and in age group of 7 to 12 months (51.89%). Considering the importance of Rotaviral diarrhoea, rapid detection of Rotavirus infection by ICT is essentially needed and might be practiced routinely as it is relatively reliable, easy to perform and cost-effective. It is particularly important in Bangladesh, where diarrhoea is still contributing a significant proportion of morbidity and mortality in under five children.

Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Feces , Humans , Infant , Male , Rotavirus Infections/diagnosis , Tertiary Care Centers
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 30, 2022 Jan 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986786

BACKGROUND: Vaccination efforts to eradicate polio currently focus on children under 5 years of age, among whom most cases of poliomyelitis still occur. However, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 occurred in 2010-2011 in which 16% of cases occurred among adults; in a related outbreak in the neighboring Republic of Congo, 75% of cases occurred among the same adult age-group. Given that infected adults may transmit poliovirus, this study was designed to assess adult immunity against polioviruses. METHODS: We assessed poliovirus seroprevalence using dried blood spots from 5,526 adults aged 15-59 years from the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the DRC. RESULTS: Among adults in the DRC, 74%, 72%, and 57% were seropositive for neutralizing antibodies for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For all three serotypes, seroprevalence tended to be higher among older age groups, those living in households with more children, and among women. CONCLUSIONS: Protection against poliovirus is generally low among adults in the DRC, particularly for type 3 poliovirus. The lack of acquired immunity in adults suggests a potentially limited poliovirus circulation over the lifetime of those surveyed (spanning 1954 through 2014) and transmission of vaccine-derived poliovirus in this age group while underscoring the risk of these outbreaks among adults in the DRC.

Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Seroepidemiologic Studies
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 36, 2022 Jan 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986817

BACKGROUND: Glenohumeral dislocation combined with fracture of the proximal humerus is extremely rare in children, and this study aims to investigate its incidence in the pediatric population and review the treatment strategy for this condition. METHODS: Between Jan 2014 and Jan 2019, 280 patients with unilateral proximal humeral fractures were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging and follow-up notes were reviewed for patients with a predilection for glenohumeral joint dislocation. Six (2.14%) patients between the ages of 5 and 10 years were confirmed as glenohumeral joint dislocation and included in the study. All these patients underwent closed reduction and external fixation under general anesthesia. RESULTS: Out of 280 patients with proximal humeral fractures, only 6 patients, including 4 males and 2 females, were confirmed as glenohumeral joint dislocation. ROM was normal compared with the contralateral shoulder in every patient at the last follow-up. There was no case of radiological abnormality, including avascular necrosis or devascularization of the humeral head. CONCLUSIONS: Glenohumeral dislocation is a rare entity associated with the proximal humerus fracture in children, with an overall incidence in our case series was 2.14%. Reduction and stabilization of such injury using an external fixator is a suitable choice for pediatric patients that failed closed reduction.

Humeral Fractures , Shoulder Dislocation , Shoulder Fractures , Shoulder Joint , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Humeral Head , Male , Retrospective Studies , Shoulder Dislocation/diagnostic imaging , Shoulder Dislocation/epidemiology , Shoulder Dislocation/surgery , Shoulder Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Shoulder Fractures/epidemiology , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986848

BACKGROUND: Multiple contraindications to combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) use exist. The impact of these factors on contraceptive choice, particularly among women living with HIV (WLWH), is not well understood. We measured and compared the prevalence of contraceptive use and contraindications among WLWH and women not living with HIV (controls). METHODS: We examined cross-sectional survey and medical chart data from 83 WLWH and 62 controls, aged 16-49 and sexually active, from 2013-2017. We compared the age-adjusted prevalence and types of contraceptives used in the last month and the proportion of women with CHC contraindications, including drug interactions, medical comorbidities, and smoking at ≥ 35 years old. All WLWH received care at an interdisciplinary, women-centred HIV clinic. RESULTS: Compared to controls, WLWH were older (median [IQR)] 39 [34-43] vs 31 [23-41] years; p = 0.003), had less post-secondary education (37% vs 73%; p < 0.001), and more often had household income < $15,000/year (49% vs 30%; p = 0.006). WLWH trended to higher contraceptive prevalence than controls (80% vs 63%; p = 0.06 adjusted for age). Overall hormonal contraceptive use was similar. However, despite controlling for age, WLWH used CHC less (4% vs 18%; p = 0.006) than controls, and had more frequently undergone tubal ligation (12% vs 2%; p = 0.03). WLWH also experienced more CHC contraindications (54% vs 13%; p = 0.0001), including smoking at ≥ 35 years old (30% vs 6%; p = 0.0003) or a CHC-related drug interaction (all antiretroviral related) (25% vs 0%; p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: WLWH attending our interdisciplinary clinic used hormonal contraception at similar rates as controls, though with different types. Differences may reflect different distributions of CHC contraindications. CHC contraindications present barriers to accessing the full range of contraceptive choices for WLWH. Guidelines and education for care providers and WLWH regarding contraceptive choices and drug interactions are needed, especially when care is provided without the benefit of an interdisciplinary women-centered healthcare team.

Contraceptive Agents , HIV Infections , Adult , Child, Preschool , Contraception , Contraceptive Devices , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 20, 2022 Jan 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986882

BACKGROUND: The recommended treatment for mild to moderate infantile idiopathic scoliosis curves involves serial casting. There are concerns, however, regarding the safety of repeated casting in very young children owing to the requirement for anesthetization during the casting process. Very little research has been conducted on the influence of bracing as an initial treatment for scoliosis in this age group. This report details the successful treatment of a large thoracic curve using a thoracolumbosacral orthosis in an infant diagnosed with infantile idiopathic scoliosis. CASE PRESENTATION: The Dutch-Australian patient presented at 11 weeks of age with a 44° thoracic scoliosis and a rib vertebral angle difference of 14°. The history and physical examination failed to reveal a cause of the curvature, and a diagnosis of infantile idiopathic scoliosis was made. The patient was prescribed a thoracolumbosacral orthosis (ScoliBrace) to be worn on a part-time basis for a period of 8 months. At the end of the bracing program, the patient's curve had been reduced to 7° and a rib-vertebral angle difference of 0°. A final follow-up of the patient at 2 years after the cessation of treatment revealed no evidence of scoliosis. The parents were compliant with the bracing protocol and reported that the treatment was tolerated by the infant. CONCLUSION: The use of an orthosis as a standalone treatment in this patient resulted in significant reduction in a large thoracic scoliosis. Based on the results witnessed in this patient, further investigation into bracing as an alternative to casting is warranted.

Scoliosis , Australia , Braces , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Orthotic Devices , Retrospective Studies , Scoliosis/therapy , Treatment Outcome