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Methods Mol Biol ; 2451: 81-90, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505012

Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models of tumors are gaining interest as versatile platforms for treatment screening. In this context, heterocellular cultures in which various cell types are co-cultured are being explored to investigate whether partner cells can influence the treatment efficacies. However, when the cells are co-cultured, it is challenging to distinguish them and it becomes impossible to identify whether the treatment affects each cell line in a similar way or if there is a certain selectivity. Here, we propose a protocol in which different cell types are pre-labeled with fluorescent reporters prior to 3D culture initiation. Subsequently, the internal architecture of the 3D cancer models can be longitudinally monitored for model characterization, and to potentially detect architectural and treatment selectivity in response to therapy. This protocol employs quantum dots as non-photobleaching dyes and two-photon excited microscopy as a widely accessible imaging modality. In combination with an appropriate image analysis workflow, this protocol will help to investigate the architectural development of heterotypic microtumor/spheroid/organoid models and possibly identify treatment efficacies on individual cell populations represented within the models.

Neoplasms , Photochemotherapy , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Organoids/pathology
Development ; 149(8)2022 Apr 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502785

The traditional view of immune cells is that their role within the body is to combat infections; however, it is becoming increasingly clear that they also perform tasks that are not classically associated with inflammation and pathogen clearance. These functions are executed deep within tissues, which are often poorly accessible and subject to environmental variability, especially in humans. Here, we discuss how multicellular 3D systems in a dish - organoids - are transitioning from a proof-of-principle approach to a timely, robust and reliable tool. Although we primarily focus on recent findings enabled by intestinal organoids co-cultured with lymphocytes, we posit that organoid co-culture systems will support future efforts to disentangle the interactions between a plethora of different cell types throughout development, homeostasis, regeneration and disease.

Intestines , Organoids , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Stem Cells
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 3156245, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450413

The osteoarthritis caused by trauma or inflammation is associated with severe patient morbidity and economic burden. Accumulating studies are focusing on the repair of articular cartilage defects by constructing tissue-engineered cartilage. Recent evidence suggests that optimizing the source and quality of seed cells is one of the key points of cartilage tissue engineering. In this study, we demonstrated that Kindlin-2 and its activated PI3K/AKT signaling played an essential role in promoting extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and ameliorating IL-1beta-induced inflammation in chondrocytes cocultured with bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). In vivo experiments revealed that coculture significantly promoted hyaline cartilage regeneration. In vitro studies further uncovered that chondrocytes cocultured with BMSCs in the direct contact coculture system upregulated Kindlin-2 expression and subsequently activated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which not only increases Sox9 and Col2 expression but also restores mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces ROS levels and apoptosis under inflammatory conditions. Overall, our findings indicated that direct contact BMSC-chondrocyte coculture system could promote chondrogenesis, and identified Kindlin-2 represents a key regulator in this process.

Cartilage, Articular , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Chondrogenesis , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Membrane Proteins , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
Biomaterials ; 284: 121527, 2022 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483200

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer worldwide. Despite approvals of several therapeutics to treat advanced HCC in the past few years, the impact of anti-angiogenic treatment on HCC patient overall survival remains limited. This suggests there may be alternative, perfusion-independent roles of endothelial cells that support tumor progression. Thus, we leveraged a well-defined hydrogel system to establish co-culture models to mimic and characterize the angiocrine crosstalk between HCC and endothelial cells in vitro. Co-cultures of HCC cell lines or patient-derived xenograft organoids with endothelial cells exhibited the upregulation of MCP-1, IL-8 and CXCL16, suggesting that the HCC-endothelial interactions established in our models recapitulate known angiocrine signaling. Additionally, by subjecting co-cultures and mono-cultures to RNA sequencing, transcriptomic analysis revealed an upregulation in the expression of genes associated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, such as that of chemokines, suggesting that endothelial cells induce HCC cells to generate an inflammatory microenvironment by recruiting immune cells. Finally, HCC-endothelial angiocrine crosstalk in the co-culture models polarized macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic phenotype, paralleling a tumor-associated macrophage subset previously reported in HCC. Together, these findings suggest that these HCC-endothelial co-culture models may serve as important models to understand and target the interplay between angiogenesis and the immune milieu.

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Coculture Techniques , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Organoids/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
J Hazard Mater ; 433: 128764, 2022 07 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390620

Lindane and other 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers are persistent organic pollutants highly hydrophobic, which hampers their availability and biodegradation. This work aimed at (i) investigating genes encoding enzymes involved in HCH degradation in the bacterium Sphingobium sp. D4, (ii) selecting strains, from a collection of environmental isolates, able to mobilize HCHs from contaminated soil, and (iii) analysing the biodegradation of HCHs by strain D4 in co-culture with HCH-mobilizing strains or when cultivated with root exudates. Fragments of the same size and similar sequence to linA and linB genes were successfully amplified. Two isolates, Streptomyces sp. M7 and Rhodococcus erythropolis ET54b able to produce emulsifiers and to mobilize HCH isomers from soil were selected. Biodegradation of HCH isomers by strain D4 was enhanced when co-inoculated with HCH mobilizing strains or when cultivated with root exudates. The degrader strain D4 was able to decompose very efficiently HCHs isomers, reducing their concentration in soil slurries by more than 95% (from an average initial amount of 50 ± 8 mg HCH kg-1 soil) in 9 days. The combination of HCH-degrading and HCH-mobilizing strains can be considered a promising inoculum for future soil bioremediation studies using bioaugmentation techniques or in combination with plants in rhizodegradation assays.

Soil Pollutants , Sphingomonadaceae , Biodegradation, Environmental , Coculture Techniques , Exudates and Transudates/chemistry , Exudates and Transudates/metabolism , Hexachlorocyclohexane/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Sphingomonadaceae/genetics , Sphingomonadaceae/metabolism
Sci Adv ; 8(17): eabo6094, 2022 04 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476435

Microbial communication has attracted notable attention as an indicator of microbial interactions that lead to marked alterations of secondary metabolites (SMs) in varied environments. However, the mechanisms responsible for SM regulation are not fully understood, especially in fungal-fungal interactions. Here, cocultivation of an endophytic fungus Epicoccum dendrobii with the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and several other filamentous fungi triggered widespread alteration of SMs. Multiple silent biosynthetic gene clusters in A. nidulans were activated by transcriptome and metabolome analysis. Unprecedentedly, gene deletion and replacement proved that a partial loss-of-function VeA1 protein, but not VeA, was associated with the widespread SM changes in both A. nidulans and A. fumigatus during cocultivation. VeA1 regulation required the transcription factor SclB and the velvet complex members LaeA and VelB for producing aspernidines as representative formation of SMs in A. nidulans. This study provides new insights into the mechanism that trigger metabolic changes during fungal-fungal interactions.

Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus nidulans/genetics , Aspergillus nidulans/metabolism , Coculture Techniques , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Multigene Family
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 607: 28-35, 2022 06 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366540

Neuronal activity is closely associated with energy metabolism. In addition to glucose, astrocyte-derived lactate serves as an energy source for neurons. Chronic inflammation is a common pathological event that is associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying inflammation-induced neuronal injury are not fully understood. Both microglia and astrocytes participate in the regulation of neuronal functions; therefore, we used astrocyte-neuron co-cultures to investigate the effects of chronic microglial activation on neuronal lactate metabolism. Chronic low-grade inflammation was induced by repeated stimulation of primary rat microglia with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng/mL). The medium from the LPS-activated microglia was collected and used to mimic the inflammatory environment in primary cultures. In monocultures exposed to an inflammatory environment, intracellular lactate decreased in neurons but increased in astrocytes. However, astrocyte-neuron co-cultures exhibited increased lactate levels in neurons and decreased lactate levels in astrocytes when exposed to an inflammatory environment. Inhibition of lactate transporters expressed on neurons or astrocytes reduced the intracellular lactate in co-cultured neurons exposed to inflammation, but not in those exposed to physiological conditions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production was reduced in both mono-cultured and co-cultured neurons. These results indicate that a chronic inflammatory environment increases neuronal lactate supply by promoting the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle, but it impairs lactate oxidation in neurons. Additionally, chronic inflammation disrupts the neuronal cytoskeleton. This study highlights the importance of glial cells in regulating neuroenergetics and neuronal function and provides a comprehensive explanation for the neurotoxic effects of neuroinflammation.

Astrocytes , Microglia , Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/metabolism , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Microglia/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Rats
J Vis Exp ; (181)2022 03 23.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404347

Complex co-cultures of organoids with immune cells provide a versatile tool for interrogating the bi-directional interactions that underpin the delicate balance of mucosal homeostasis. These 3D, multi-cellular systems offer a reductionist model for addressing multi-factorial diseases and resolving technical difficulties that arise when studying rare cell types such as tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). This article describes a murine system that combines small intestine organoids and small intestine lamina propria derived helper-like type-1 ILCs (ILC1s), which can be readily extended to other ILC or immune populations. ILCs are a tissue-resident population that is particularly enriched in the mucosa, where they promote homeostasis and rapidly respond to damage or infection. Organoid co-cultures with ILCs have already begun shedding light on new epithelial-immune signaling modules in the gut, revealing how different ILC subsets impact intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and regeneration. This protocol will enable further investigations into reciprocal interactions between epithelial and immune cells, which hold the potential to provide new insights into the mechanisms of mucosal homeostasis and inflammation.

Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes , Animals , Coculture Techniques , Intestine, Small , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Mice , Organoids
J Vis Exp ; (181)2022 03 30.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435909

Invasion and metastatic spread of cancer cells are the major cause of death from cancer. Assays developed early on to measure the invasive potential of cancer cell populations typically generate a single endpoint measurement that does not distinguish between cancer cell subpopulations with different invasive potential. Also, the tumor microenvironment consists of different resident stromal and immune cells that alter and participate in the invasive behavior of cancer cells. Invasion into tissues also plays a role in immune cell subpopulations fending off microorganisms or eliminating diseased cells from the parenchyma and endothelial cells during tissue remodeling and angiogenesis. Real-Time Cellular Analysis (RTCA) that utilizes impedance biosensors to monitor cell invasion was a major step forward beyond endpoint measurement of invasion: this provides continuous measurements over time and thus can reveal differences in invasion rates that are lost in the endpoint assay. Using current RTCA technology, we expanded dual-chamber arrays by adding a further chamber that can contain stromal and/or immune cells and allows measuring the rate of invasion under the influence of secreted factors from co-cultured stromal or immune cells over time. Beyond this, the unique design allows for detaching chambers at any time and isolating of the most invasive cancer cell, or other cell subpopulations that are present in heterogeneous mixes of tumor isolates tested. These most invasive cancer cells and other cell subpopulations drive malignant progression to metastatic disease, and their molecular characteristics are important for in-depth mechanistic studies, the development of diagnostic probes for their detection, and the assessment of vulnerabilities. Thus, the inclusion of small- or large-molecule drugs can be used to test the potential of therapies that target cancer and/or stromal cell subpopulations with the goal of inhibiting (e.g., cancer cells) or enhancing (e.g., immune cells) invasive behavior.

Endothelial Cells , Stromal Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Stromal Cells/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(6): 101, 2022 Apr 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486223

The objective of the present study was to evaluate possible interactions between two potential plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB): Azospirillum oryzae strain NBT506 and Bacillus velezensis strain UTB96. To do this, the growth kinetic, biofilm formation, motility, surfactin production, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization and enzyme activities of the strains were measured in monoculture and co-culture. The maximum biomass production for the strains in monoculture and co-culture was about 1011 CFU/ml, confirming that these two strains have the potential to grow in co-culture without reduction of biomass efficiency. The co-culture system showed more stable biofilm formation until the end of day 3. Azospirillum showed the maximum IAA production (41.5 mg/l) in a monoculture compared to other treatments. Surfactin promoted both swimming and swarming motility in all treatments. The Bacillus strain in the monoculture and co-culture showed high phosphate solubilizing capability, which increased continuously in the co-culture system after 6 days. The strains showed protease, amylase and cellulase activities in both monoculture and co-culture forms. Chitinase and lipase activities were observed in both the monoculture of the Bacillus strain and the co-culture. Overall, our findings highlight the promotion of biological and beneficial effects of these bacteria when growing together in co-culture.

Azospirillum , Bacillus , Bacteria , Coculture Techniques , Phosphates
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(7)2022 Jul.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418473

Neuronal networks derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells have been exploited widely for modeling neuronal circuits, neurological diseases, and drug screening. As these networks require extended culturing periods to functionally mature in vitro, most studies are based on immature networks. To obtain insights on long-term functional features, we improved a glia-neuron co-culture protocol within multi-electrode arrays, facilitating continuous assessment of electrical features in weekly intervals. By full-field optogenetic stimulation, we detected an earlier onset of neuronal firing and burst activity compared with spontaneous activity. Full-field stimulation enhanced the number of active neurons and their firing rates. Compared with full-field stimulation, which evoked synchronized activity across all neurons, holographic stimulation of individual neurons resulted in local activity. Single-cell holographic stimulation facilitated to trace propagating evoked activities of 400 individually stimulated neurons per multi-electrode array. Thereby, we revealed precise functional neuronal connectivity motifs. Holographic stimulation data over time showed increasing connection numbers and strength with culture age. This holographic stimulation setup has the potential to establish a profound functional testbed for in-depth analysis of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal networks.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Optogenetics , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Neurons
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5868, 2022 Apr 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393460

Cancer cell heterogeneity (CCH) is crucial in understanding cancer progression and metastasis. The CCH is one of the stumbling blocks in modern medicine's therapeutics and diagnostics . An in-vitro model of co-culture systems of MCF-7, HeLa, HEK-293, with THP-1 cells showed the occurrence of EpCAM positive (EpCAM+) and EpCAM negative (EpCAM-) heterogenetic cancer cell types labeled with the Quantum Dot antibody conjugates (QDAb). This in-vitro model study could provide insights into the role of rare cancer cells manifestation and their heterogeneity in metastatic progression and risk for severe infections in these patients. We successfully report the presence of CCH based on the fluorescence ratios of the co-cultured cancer cells when treated with the QDAb. These short-term mimic co-cultures give a compelling and quite associated model for assessing early treatment responses in various cancers.

Immunoconjugates , Neoplasms , Quantum Dots , Coculture Techniques , Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 38(4): 1421-1431, 2022 Apr 25.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470616

Traditional methods of microbial synthesis usually rely on a single engineered strain to synthesize the target product through metabolic engineering. The key cofactors, precursors and energy are produced by the introduced complex synthetic pathways. This would increase the physiological burden of engineering strains, resulting in a decrease in the yield of target products. The modular co-culture engineering has become an attractive solution for effective heterologous biosynthesis, where product yield can be greatly improved. In the modular co-culture engineering, the coordination between the population of different modules is essential for increasing the production efficiency. This article summarized recent advances in the application of modular co-culture engineering and population control strategies.

Metabolic Engineering , Population Control , Coculture Techniques
Biomolecules ; 12(4)2022 03 31.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454123

Intercellular communication between monocytes/macrophages and cells involved in tissue regeneration, such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and primary tissue cells, is essential for tissue regeneration and recovery of homeostasis. Typically, in the final phase of the inflammation-resolving process, this intercellular communication drives an anti-inflammatory immunomodulatory response. To obtain a safe and effective treatment to counteract the cytokine storm associated with a disproportionate immune response to severe infections, including that associated with COVID-19, by means of naturally balanced immunomodulation, our group has standardized the production under GMP-like conditions of a secretome by coculture of macrophages and MSCs. To characterize this proteome, we determined the expression of molecules related to cellular immune response and tissue regeneration, as well as its possible toxicity and anti-inflammatory potency. The results show a specific molecular pattern of interaction between the two cell types studied, with an anti-inflammatory and regenerative profile. In addition, the secretome is not toxic by itself on human PBMC or on THP-1 monocytes and prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced growth effects on those cell types. Finally, PRS CK STORM prevents LPS-induced TNF-A and IL-1Β secretion from PBMC and from THP-1 cells at the same level as hydrocortisone, demonstrating its anti-inflammatory potency.

COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Coculture Techniques , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Monocytes
Methods Mol Biol ; 2431: 145-161, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412275

The molecular communication mechanisms within the Motor Neurons (MN) distant axon and its soma, as well as between MN and their neighboring cells and extracellular environment are of keen interest for our understanding of neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative diseases. One tool that has significantly improved our ability to study such processes with high spatiotemporal resolution is microfluidic devices. Here we describe a step-by-step guide to the neuromuscular co-culturing procedure and demonstrate how to track trophic factors transmission from muscle-to-neuron and their transport along the axons.

Axonal Transport , Microfluidics , Axons/metabolism , Coculture Techniques , Microfluidics/methods , Muscles/metabolism
Food Res Int ; 155: 111101, 2022 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400474

Rapeseed napin (Brassica napus) protein-derived hydrolysates (RNPHs, 1-4) are mixtures of peptides, prior to reaching liver tissue and playing their antidiabetic role, at least being absorbed and metabolized by the intestinal barrier. The study aims at screening and identifying high bioavailable rapessed napin-derived oligopeptides via simulated gastrointestinal digestion and absorption. Specifically, RNPHs were obtained using a novel ultrasound-assisted digestive device. The potential capacity of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was evaluated preliminarily via enhancing glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression and translocation. Also, absorbable rapeseed napin-derived oligopeptides were screened and identified in a Caco-2/HepG2 co-culture model using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The results involved mainly two aspects. First, absorbable oligopeptides from RNPH-1 (Molecular weight, Mw ≤ 3 kDa) with the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) were the optimal ones to enhance GLUT4 expression and translocation (P < 0.05). Secondly, oligopeptides (Thr-His-Leu-Pro-Lys (THLPK), His-Leu-Pro-Lys (HLPK), (Ile) Leu-Pro-Lys ((I)LPK), His-Leu-Lys (HLK), and Leu-His-Lys (LHK)), identified from both RNPH-1 and RNPH-2 which significantly enhanced GLUT4 expression and translocation, could be absorbed intact and reached HepG2 cells. These findings indicated that high bioavailable oligopeptides from RNPHs were the potential usefulness to treat T2DM in vitro.

Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Caco-2 Cells , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Protein Hydrolysates/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Cells ; 11(7)2022 04 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406795

Many neuromuscular disease entities possess a significant disease burden and therapeutic options remain limited. Innovative human preclinical models may help to uncover relevant disease mechanisms and enhance the translation of therapeutic findings to strengthen neuromuscular disease precision medicine. By concentrating on idiopathic inflammatory muscle disorders, we summarize the recent evolution of the novel in vitro models to study disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. A particular focus is laid on the integration and simulation of multicellular interactions of muscle tissue in disease phenotypes in vitro. Finally, the requirements of a neuromuscular disease drug development workflow are discussed with a particular emphasis on cell sources, co-culture systems (including organoids), functionality, and throughput.

Neuromuscular Diseases , Organoids , Coculture Techniques , Drug Development , Humans , Muscle Cells , Neuromuscular Diseases/drug therapy
ACS Synth Biol ; 11(3): 1361-1372, 2022 03 18.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244401

d-p-Hydroxyphenylglycine (D-HPG) is an important intermediate for the synthesis of ß-lactam antibiotics with an annual market demand of thousands of tons. Currently, the main production processes are via chemical approaches. Although enzymatic conversion has been investigated for D-HPG production, synthesis of the substrate DL-hydroxyphenylhydantoin is still chemically based, which suffers from high pollution and harsh reaction conditions. In this study, one cofactor self-sufficient route for D-HPG production from l-phenylalanine was newly designed and the artificial pathway was functionalized by selecting suitable enzymes and adjusting their expressions in strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Notably, a new R-mandelate dehydrogenase from Lactococcus lactis with relatively high activity under pH neutral conditions was successfully mined to demonstrate the biosynthetic pathway in vivo. The performance of the engineered P. putida strain was further increased by enhancing cellular NAD availability and blocking l-phenylalanine consumption. Coupled with the l-phenylalanine producer, Escherichia coli strain ATCC 31884, a stable and interactive co-culture process was also developed by engineering a "cross-link auxotrophic" system to produce D-HPG directly from glucose. Thus, this study is the first approach for the de novo biosynthesis of D-HPG by engineering a non-natural pathway and lays the foundation for further improving the efficiency of D-HPG production via a green and sustainable route.

Escherichia coli , Glycine , Coculture Techniques , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Glycine/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Phenylalanine/metabolism
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(5): 2131-2147, 2022 03 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245208

In the context of aging and age-associated diseases, Natural Killer (NK) cells have been revealed as a key cell type responsible for the immune clearance of senescent cells. Subsequently, NK cell-based therapies have emerged as promising alternatives to drug-based therapeutic interventions for the prevention and treatment of age-related disease and debility. Given the promise of NK cell-mediated immunotherapies as a safe and effective treatment strategy, we outline an improved method by which primary NK cells can be efficiently enriched from human peripheral blood across multiple donors (ages 20-42 years old), with a practical protocol that reliably enhances both CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells by 15-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Importantly, we show that our co-culture protocol can be used as an easily adaptable tool to assess highly efficient and selective killing of senescent cells by primary NK cells enriched via our method using longer co-culture durations and a low target to effector ratio, which may be more physiological than has been achieved in previous literature.

Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural , Cellular Senescence , Coculture Techniques , Humans