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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246463, 2024. tab
Article En | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355899

Abstract Quilombola communities are present in many Brazilian states living in precarious health conditions. This is due to geographic isolation, limitations to the access of the area in which they live in, and the lack of quality in the service when it is needed to be provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life of women from a quilombola community in northeastern Brazil. It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. 160 adult women were first interviewed through a form to collect a profile and then it was applied the WHOQOL Quality of Life questionnaire - bref. It was observed that the women were on average 40.7 years old (±17.25), married, self-declared black, who did not finish elementary school, housewife, had no income, with their own masonry house, with up to 6 rooms, supplied by a box of community treated water. Quality of Life had median scores in the domains: physical (3.18), psychological (3.4), social relationships (3.45) and environment (2.59). With this research, it was possible to characterize the quilombola community of Santa Luzia do Norte-AL regarding the difficulties of access to health and income generation, issues that affect their health condition. The problems described in this study can contribute to health actions being planned and carried out in order to improve socioeconomic and health conditions in this community, considering the social, political and environmental context, valuing their traditional knowledge and practices.


Resumo As comunidades quilombolas, estão presentes em diversos estados brasileiros, vivendo em condições de saúde mais precárias. Isto ocorre por conta do isolamento geográfico, das limitações de acesso e da falta de qualidade no serviço quando este é prestado. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida de mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola do nordeste brasileiro. Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo. Foram entrevistadas 160 mulheres adultas, através de um formulário para a coleta de perfil e do questionário de Qualidade de Vida WHOQOL - bref. Foi observado que as mulheres tinham em média 40,7 anos (±17,25), casadas, autodeclaradas negras, com fundamental incompleto, do lar, sem renda, com moradia de alvenaria, própria, com até 6 cômodos, abastecidas por caixa de água comunitária, tratada. A Qualidade de Vida, apresentou escores medianos nos domínios: físico (3,18), psicológico (3,4), relações sociais (3,45) e meio ambiente (2,59). Com a realização desta pesquisa foi possível caracterizar a comunidade quilombola de Santa Luzia do Norte-AL quanto as dificuldades de acesso a saúde e geração de renda, fatos que repercutem na sua condição de saúde. Os problemas descritos neste estudo podem contribuir para que ações de saúde sejam planejadas e efetivadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições socioeconômicas e de saúde nessa comunidade, considerando-se o contexto social, político e ambiental, valorizando seus saberes e práticas tradicionais.


Humans , Female , Adult , Quality of Life , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248778, 2023. tab, graf
Article En | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339371

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the socio-environmental characteristics, executive and nutritional functions in children aged 6 to 7 years, from public schools in Alagoas, Brazil. A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed involving 64 children of the mentioned age group, from public schools located in Alagoas: Maceió, on the coast; Major Isidoro, in the hinterland and Palmeira dos Índios, in the country. Such analyzes were made through the application of neuropsychological tests and anthropometric assessment with children and food and socio-environmental surveys with their parents. As for the type of housing, 100% were made of masonry, with a bathroom present in 98.4%. All children reported with the habit of bathing in the river / lagoon, presented some pathology. There was no significant difference between cities in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics evaluated, with the same result occurring with the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases in children. The subtests of WISC-IV, were below the average in all municipalities, and the TAC and SCC were classified within the average. However, even though the ranking were divided between below average and average, it is possible to identify from the subtests of WISC-IV, that the general IQ showed a cognitive level below the average. There was also no significant difference in the anthropometric assessment (weight, height, BMI and IMCI) between the evaluated students. The average weight was 23.3 kg to 25 kg, the height between 1.23 m to 1.24 m, the BMI between 16.4 to 17; the IMCI from 2.8 to 3.0. Children were classified within the average. Regarding micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na, and vitamins A, C, D, B1, B9 and B12) and calories, there was also no significant difference between the cities evaluated. The same occurred with macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids). This study showed that in general there was no difference between the students of the three municipalities. Probably, even though they are all public schools and from different cities, children have similar social conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características socioambientais, funções executivas e nutricionais de crianças de 6 a 7 anos, de escolas públicas de Alagoas, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo envolvendo 64 crianças, na referida faixa etária, de escolas públicas localizadas em Alagoas: Maceió, no litoral; Major Isidoro, no sertão e Palmeira dos Índios, no país. Tais análises foram feitas por meio da aplicação de testes neuropsicológicos e avaliação antropométrica com crianças e inquéritos alimentares e socioambientais com seus pais. Quanto ao tipo de habitação, 100% eram de alvenaria, com banheiro presente em 98,4%. Todas as crianças relataram o hábito de tomar banho no rio / lagoa, apresentavam alguma patologia. Não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios quanto às características sociodemográficas avaliadas, ocorrendo o mesmo resultado com os fatores associados à ocorrência de doenças em crianças. Os subtestes do WISC-IV, ficaram abaixo da média em todos os municípios, e o TAC e SCC foram classificados dentro da média. Porém, mesmo que a classificação tenha sido dividida entre abaixo da média e média, é possível identificar a partir dos subtestes do WISC-IV, que o QI geral apresentou um nível cognitivo abaixo da média. Também não houve diferença significativa na avaliação antropométrica (peso, altura, IMC e AIDPI) entre os alunos avaliados. O peso médio foi de 23,3 kg a 25 kg, a altura entre 1,23 ma 1,24 m, o IMC entre 16,4 a 17; A AIDPI de 2.8 a 3.0. As crianças foram classificadas dentro da média. Em relação aos micronutrientes (Ca, Fe, K, Mg e Na e vitaminas A, C, D, B1, B9 e B12) e calorias, também não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios avaliados. O mesmo ocorreu com os macronutrientes (proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios). Este estudo mostrou que de maneira geral não houve diferença entre os alunos dos três municípios. Provavelmente, mesmo sendo todas escolas públicas e de diferentes cidades, as crianças têm condições sociais semelhantes.


Humans , Child , Energy Intake , Executive Function , Sodium , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Article En | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Karyotyping
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249209, 2023.
Article En | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339360

Abstract Alo vera is a centenary remedy use for minor wounds and burns, but its mechanism of wound healing has not been know since. This article will evaluate and gather evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the use of aloe vera in the treatment of burns. A systematic review was carried out on the databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, in the last 7 years, with the descriptors: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". 16 articles were found. After using the exclusion criteria; research in non-humans and literature review; 5 articles were selected. The article Teplick et al. (2018) performed an in vitro clinical experiment in A. Vera solution, and demonstrated that there was proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in addition to being protective in the death of keratonocytes. That is, it accelerates the healing of wounds. Muangman et al. (2016), evaluated 50 patients with 20% of the total body surface area burned with second-degree burns, between 18-60 years old, with half of the group receiving gauze dressings with soft paraffin containing 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate and the other half receiving polyester dressings containing extracts of medicinal plants mainly Aloe Vera. It had positive results, a higher healing speed and shorter hospital stay compared to the control group. Hwang et al. (2015) investigated the antioxidant effects of different extracts from 2,4,6,8,12 months of Aloe Vera. And the 6-month concentrated extract of 0.25 mg / mL had a higher content of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent / g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent / g extract) and the greater ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM equivalent ferrous sulfate / mg extract), that is, greater potential for free radical scavenging and also a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), suggesting evidence of a bioactive potential of A. vera . However, in the article Kolacz et al. (2014) suggested as an alternative treatment the use of Aloe Vera dressing in combination with honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, glycerin vegetable oil, beeswax and myrrh, without obtaining significant and conclusive results that would allow the conventional treatment of burns to be subsidized. Finally, in the article by Zurita and Gallegos (2017), it carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with 321 people, both sexes between 17-76 years of age, of an inductive nature, exploring the experience of this population and their behavioral attitudes regarding the treatment of dermatoses. Aloe vera had 13.8% cited by individuals in the treatment of acne and 33.6% in the treatment of burns. Even with evidence that suggests the efficacy in the treatment of burns with the use of Aloe Vera extract, further clinical trials with larger sample space on the use of Aloe vera dressings in medium burns are suggested for further conclusions.


Resumo Alo vera é um remédio centenário usado para pequenas feridas e queimaduras, mas seu mecanismo de cicatrização de feridas não foi conhecido desde então. Este artigo avaliará e reunirá evidências da eficácia e segurança do uso de aloe vera no tratamento de queimaduras. Realizada revisão Sistemática nas bases de dados: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, nos últimos 7 anos, com os descritores: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". Foram encontrados 16 trabalhos. Após utilizarmos os critérios de exclusão; pesquisa em nao humanos e revisão da literatura ; foram selecionados 5 artigos. O artigo Teplick et al. (2018) realizou um experimento clinico in vitro em solução de A. Vera, e demonstrou que houve proliferação e migração celular de fibroblastos e queratinócitos de pele humana, além de ser protetor na morte de queratonócitos. Ou seja, acelera a cicatrização das feridas. Já Muangman et al. (2016), avaliou 50 pacientes com 20% do total da área superficial corporal queimada com queimaduras de segundo grau, entre 18-60 anos, tendo metade do grupo como controle recebendo curativos de gaze com parafina mole contendo 0,5% acetado de clorexidina e a outra metade recebendo curativos com poliéster contendo extratos de plantas medicinais principalmente Aloe Vera. Teve resultados positivos, uma maior velocidade de cicatrização e menor tempo de internação comparado ao grupo controle. Já Hwang et al. (2015) investigou os efeitos antioxidante de diferentes extratos de 2,4,6,8,12 meses da Aloe Vera. E o extrato com 6 meses concentrado de 0,25 mg/mL teve maior teor de flavanóides (9,750 mg equivalente catequina / g extrato) e polifenóis (23,375 mg equivalente ácido gálico / g extrato) e o maior poder antioxidante redutor férrico (0,047 mM de sulfato ferroso equivalente / extrato mg), ou seja, maior potencial de eliminação de radicais livres e também efeito proteror contra o estresse oxidativo induzido por hidroperóxido de terc-butila (t-BHP), sugerindo indícios de um potencial bioativo da A. vera. Porém, no artigo Kolacz et al. (2014) sugeriu como tratamento alternativo o uso do curativo com Aloe Vera em conjunto de mel, lanolina, azeite de oliva, óleo de gérmen de trigo, raiz de marshmallow, absinto, raiz de confrei, casca de carvalho branco, lobelia inflata, glicerina vegetal, cera de abelha e mirra, não obtendo resultados significativos e conclusivos que permitam subsidiar o tratamento convencional das queimaduras. Por fim, no artigo de Zurita and Gallegos (2017), realizou um estudo descritivo transversal com 321 pessoas, ambos os sexos entre 17-76 anos, de natureza indutiva, explorando a vivência dessa população e suas atitudes comportamentais quanto ao tratamento de dermatoses. Aloe vera teve 13,8% citada pelos indivíduos no tratamento de acne e 33,6% no tratamento de queimaduras. Mesmo tendo evidências que sugerem a eficácia no tratamento de queimaduras com o uso do extrato da Aloe Vera, sugere-se mais ensaios clínicos com espaço amostral maior sobre o uso de curativos de Aloe vera em médio queimados para maiores conclusões.


Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Burns/drug therapy , Aloe , Wound Healing , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Article En | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.


Animals , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poultry , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
J Biomech ; 134: 111002, 2022 Mar.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202964

Whether muscle properties gradually change with age and how muscle properties are affected by sex remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of age and sex on the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of arm muscles in middle-aged and older adults. In this cross-sectional study, 80 healthy participants were divided by sex (male and female), and each sex group, by 10-year age ranges (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years). Muscle properties, including tone, stiffness, elasticity, and mechanical stress relaxation time, were measured with the MyotonPRO. Our results showed that the muscle tone and elasticity of the deltoid and flexor carpi radialis, and the muscle tone of the flexor carpi ulnaris, were significantly greater in men than in women, whereas the stress relaxation time of the triceps was significantly greater in women than in men. Significantly greater muscle stiffness in the biceps brachii was found in the participants over 50 years old. Less muscle elasticity was found in the deltoid, triceps, and flexor carpi ulnaris in those over 70 years old. In conclusion, age and sex have considerable impacts on upper-limb muscle properties in middle-aged and older adults, which should be taken into consideration when planning health promotion projects.


Sex Characteristics , Upper Extremity , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Pilot Projects
7.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta/genetics , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/diagnosis , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/genetics , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Young Adult
8.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 104-112, 2022 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130571

Some studies have suggested that diabetes may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, whether prediabetes is also associated with osteoarthritis has not been comprehensively examined. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and osteoarthritis. This meta-analysis included relevant observational studies from Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. A random-effect model after incorporation of the intra-study heterogeneity was selected to pool the results. Ten datasets from six observational studies were included, which involved 41 226 general adults and 10 785 (26.2%) of them were prediabetic. Pooled results showed that prediabetes was not independently associated with osteoarthritis [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.14, p=0.06, I2=0%]. Sensitivity limited to studies with adjustment of age and body mass index showed consistent result (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.14, p=0.09, I2=0%). Results of subgroup analyses showed that prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in cross-sectional or cohort studies, in studies including Asian or non-Asian population, or in studies with different quality scores (p for subgroup difference>0.10). Besides, prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in men or in women, in studies with prediabetes defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or HbA1c (approximately 39-46 mmol/mol). Moreover, prediabetes was not associated with overall osteoarthritis, and knee or hip osteoarthritis. Current evidence does not support that prediabetes is independently associated with osteoarthritis in adult population.


Glucose Intolerance , Osteoarthritis , Prediabetic State , Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Osteoarthritis/complications , Osteoarthritis/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/complications , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Risk Factors
9.
AIDS Care ; 34(3): 301-309, 2022 Mar.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615903

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is not yet included in India's national AIDS program, with demonstration projects for MSM in planning stages. In order to support PrEP roll-out for MSM, we assessed: (1) associations between guideline-informed PrEP eligibility, HIV risk perception, and perceived PrEP benefits and costs, with willingness to use PrEP (WTUP); and (2) correlates of non-WTUP among PrEP-eligible MSM. Data were collected from MSM (n = 197) sampled from cruising sites in Mumbai and Chennai. More than half (58.4%) reported inconsistent condom use with male partners, 88.3% >1 male partner, and 48.6% engaging in sex work (all past month). Overall, 76.6% reported they would "definitely use" PrEP. Among 92.9% deemed PrEP-eligible, 79.2% reported WTUP. In adjusted analyses, PrEP eligibility (aOR = 5.31, 95% CI 1.11, 25.45), medium (aOR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.03, 5.63) or high (aOR = 13.08, 95% CI 1.29, 132.27) perceived HIV risk, and greater perceived benefits (aOR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24) were associated with higher odds of WTUP. Among PrEP-eligible MSM, non-WTUP was associated with low HIV risk perception and lower perceived benefits. Facilitating accurate risk assessment and promoting awareness of PrEP benefits and eligibility criteria may increase PrEP uptake among MSM in India.


HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , India , Male , Perception
10.
Trop Med Int Health ; 27(4): 454-462, 2022 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189005

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of prophylactic antimicrobial use in clean and clean-contaminated surgical procedures and assessed the efficacy of a prophylactic antimicrobial stewardship intervention at Thong Nhat Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 354 patients who underwent either clean or clean-contaminated surgical procedures at Thong Nhat Hospital. Eligible patients were classified with respect to three periods of intervention from 2017 to 2020. Data collection included surgical procedures, patient characteristics, and prophylactic antimicrobial usage. We determined the efficacy of antimicrobial stewardship intervention based on comparisons among the primary outcome (the appropriateness of prophylactic antimicrobials) and secondary outcomes (postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) prolongation, length of postoperative hospital stay, and cost of antimicrobials). RESULTS: The mean age of patients in periods 1, 2, and 3 was 54.5 ± 16.6, 50.2 ± 16.5, and 52.8 ± 17.3 years, respectively, with an overall male/female ratio of 1.1/1. No significant differences were detected in basic patient characteristics during the three periods. Majority of the surgical procedures were clean (56%-59%) and scheduled (85%-86%). Prophylactic antimicrobial stewardship intervention enhanced AP appropriateness (by 12.7%, 12.7%, and 39.0% in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively, p < 0.001), decreased postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial duration [3.0 (0-6), 1.5 (0-5), and 0.0 (0-1) days, respectively, p < 0.001], and reduced average antimicrobial expenses (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prophylactic antimicrobial stewardship interventions introduced at Thong Nhat Hospital had several positive impacts on the appropriateness of prophylactic antimicrobial use and treatment costs.


Antimicrobial Stewardship , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Vietnam
11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497375

Purpose: The presence of pain can be associated with an exaggerated negative cognitive and emotional response, leading to worsening of existing symptoms. This study aimed to describe the multifaceted impact of chronic pain on cognition, emotional and physical health in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and to explore the clinical impact of pain. Patients and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 68 people with COPD (COPD group) and 65 community-dwelling age-matched participants (control group). Participants were assessed for the presence of chronic pain, pain location, intensity and catastrophizing, pain-related fear (kinesiophobia), anxiety and depression, physical activity, and sleep duration. The COPD group also completed assessments of dyspnea, exercise tolerance (6-minute walk distance [6MWD]), and activities of daily living (ADL). Results: The prevalence of pain was higher in the COPD group (85% vs 51%, p<0.001). The COPD group reported pain located in neck/shoulder, upper back, thorax and upper limbs, while the control group had more pain in the lower back. Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia were reported by 28% and 67% vs 9% and 42%, in the COPD and control groups respectively (both p<0.05). People with COPD and pain (n=58) reported greater dyspnea (p<0.001), and impairment in ADL (p<0.05), and lower 6MWD and physical activity (both p<0.01) compared to COPD participants without pain (n=10). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that, compared to community-dwelling participants, there is a higher prevalence of chronic pain in people with COPD. Pain combined with dyspnea may impact adversely on cognitive function and lead to anxiety and depression, as well as greater impairment in exercise tolerance, physical activity, and ADL. These results suggested that it is necessary to assess the symptoms of chronic pain and inflect in chronic pain coping strategies.


Chronic Pain , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Activities of Daily Living , Chronic Pain/diagnosis , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Humans , Phobic Disorders , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 843324, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498400

Objective: We aimed to determine the association between maternal characteristics and isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia (IMH). Methods: Pregnancies registered at Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital between January 2014 and September 2020 were included in this cross-sectional study. IMH was defined as free thyroxine (FT4) levels below the 10th percentile with TSH within the normal reference range. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify potential risk factors for IMH, including demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional status. Results: A total of 54586 singleton pregnancies were included, involving 6084 women with IMH and 48502 euthyroid women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the variables for women with ages ≥35 (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI:1.20-1.40), non-local residence (adjusted OR = 1.16, 95% CI:1.09-1.23), multiparas (adjusted OR = 1.11, 95% CI:1.03-1.21), pre-pregnancy overweight (adjusted OR = 1.37, 95% CI:1.27-1.49) or obesity (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI:1.18-1.54), and iron deficiency (adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI:1.20-1.35) were independent risk factors for IMH in the overall study population, which were identical to those in the first trimester subgroup. Conclusions: Maternal characteristics were associated with the onset of IMH. Maternal age, residence of origin, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and iron status should be comprehensively considered to evaluate the risk of IMH, according to which obstetricians could determine an optimal assessment time for thyroid function.


Thyroid Function Tests , Body Mass Index , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 841774, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498410

Background: Despite the growing burden of diabetes worldwide, evidence regarding the optimal models of care to improve the quality of diabetes care remains equivocal. This study aimed to identify profiles of patients with distinct ambulatory care use patterns and to examine the association of these profiles with the quality of diabetes care. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the baseline data of 550 non-institutionalized adults included in a prospective, community-based, cohort study on diabetes care conducted in Switzerland. Clusters of participants with distinct patterns of ambulatory healthcare use were identified using discrete mixture models. To measure the quality of diabetes care, we used both processes of care indicators (eye and foot examination, microalbuminuria screening, blood cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin measurement [HbA1c], influenza immunization, blood pressure measurement, physical activity and diet advice) and outcome indicators (12-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-12], Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life [ADDQoL], Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care [PACIC], Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale, HbA1c value, and blood pressure <140/90 mmHg). For each profile of ambulatory healthcare use, we calculated adjusted probabilities of receiving processes of care and estimated adjusted outcomes of care using logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results: Four profiles of ambulatory healthcare use were identified: participants with more visits to the general practitioner [GP] than to the diabetologist and receiving concomitant podiatry care ("GP & podiatrist", n=86); participants visiting almost exclusively their GP ("GP only", n=195); participants with a substantially higher use of all ambulatory services ("High users", n=96); and participants reporting more visits to the diabetologist and less visits to the GP than other profiles ("Diabetologist first", n=173). Whereas participants belonging to the "GP only" profile were less likely to report most processes related to the quality of diabetes care, outcomes of care were relatively comparable across all ambulatory healthcare use profiles. Conclusions: Slight differences in quality of diabetes care appear across the four ambulatory healthcare use profiles identified in this study. Overall, however, results suggest that room for improvement exists in all profiles, and further investigation is necessary to determine whether individual characteristics (like diabetes-related factors) and/or healthcare factors contribute to the differences observed between profiles.


Diabetes Mellitus , General Practitioners , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 855430, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498412

Background: To determine the association between serum uric acid (SUA) and the retinal capillary plexus (RCP) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated data from August 2019 to January 2020 from participants recruited from the Jidong community (Tangshan, Hebei, China). All participants completed detailed anthropometrical measurements, laboratory tests and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. We assessed the vessel density in RCP using OCTA. We used multivariable analysis to evaluate the sex-specific association between SUA and RCP after adjusting for confounders. Results: A total of 2730 participants were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 44.0 ± 11.6 years, and 1463 (53.6%) were women. The multivariable ßs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of superficial RCP vessel density in the second through fourth SUA quartiles compared with the lowest SUA quartiles were -0.27 (-0.56 - 0.03), -0.30 (-0.60 - 0.01), and -0.46 (-0.78 - -0.14) (P for trend = 0.007) in men. Conclusions: Higher SUA levels were significantly associated with lower RCP vessel density in men. Our findings provide evidence for the detrimental effect of high SUA levels on the retinal microvasculature and imply the importance of modulating SUA to prevent the microvascular alternation especially for men.


Retina , Uric Acid , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Microvessels , Middle Aged , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 831793, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498422

Introduction: Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. To explore metabolic mechanisms associated with CAN we investigated associations between serum metabolites and CAN in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Materials and Methods: Cardiovascular reflex tests (CARTs) (heart rate response to: deep breathing; lying-to-standing test; and the Valsalva maneuver) were used to diagnose CAN in 302 persons with T1D. More than one pathological CARTs defined the CAN diagnosis. Serum metabolomics and lipidomic profiles were analyzed with two complementary non-targeted mass-spectrometry methods. Cross-sectional associations between metabolites and CAN were assessed by linear regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results: Participants were median (IQR) aged 55(49, 63) years, 48% males with diabetes duration 39(32, 47) years, HbA1c 63(55,69) mmol/mol and 34% had CAN. A total of 75 metabolites and 106 lipids were analyzed. In crude models, the CAN diagnosis was associated with higher levels of hydroxy fatty acids (2,4- and 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acids, 4-deoxytetronic acid), creatinine, sugar derivates (ribitol, ribonic acid, myo-inositol), citric acid, glycerol, phenols, phosphatidylcholines and lower levels of free fatty acids and the amino acid methionine (p<0.05). Upon adjustment, positive associations with the CAN diagnoses were retained for hydroxy fatty acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-based sugar derivates, citric acid, and phenols (P<0.05). Conclusion: Metabolic pathways, including the TCA cycle, hydroxy fatty acids, phosphatidylcholines and sugar derivatives are associated with the CAN diagnosis in T1D. These pathway may be part of the pathogeneses leading to CAN and may be modifiable risk factors for the complication.


Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Neuropathies , Citric Acid , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Neuropathies/complications , Diabetic Neuropathies/etiology , Fatty Acids , Female , Glucose , Humans , Male , Phenols , Phosphatidylcholines , Sugars
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 816599, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498423

Introduction: Predictive low-glucose suspend (PLGS) and hybrid closed-loop (HCL) systems may improve glucose control and quality of life in type 1 diabetic individuals. This is a cross-sectional, single-center study to compare the effect on metabolic control and glucose variability of PLGS and HCL systems as compared to standard sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 136 adults (men/women 69/67, mean age 47.3 ± 13.9 years) with T1D on insulin pump therapy, divided accordingly to type of insulin pump system (group 1: SAP, 24 subjects; group 2: PLGS, 49 subjects; group 3: HCL, 63 subjects). The groups were matched for age, gender, years of disease, years of CSII use, and CGM wear time. Results: The analysis of CGM metrics, in the three groups, showed a statistically significant different percentage of time within the target range, defined as 70-180 mg/dl, with a higher percentage in group 3 and significantly less time spent in the hypoglycemic range in groups 2 and 3. The three groups were statistically different also for the glucose management indicator and coefficient of variation percentage, which were progressively lower moving from group 1 to group 3. In the HCL group, 52.4% of subjects reached a percentage of time passed in the euglycemic range above 70%, as compared to 32.7% in those with PLGS and 20.2% in those with SAP. A positive correlation between the higher percentage of TIR and the use of auto-mode was evident in the HCL group. Finally, the three groups did not show any statistical differences regarding the quality-of-life questionnaire, but there was a significant negative correlation between CV and perceived CSII-use convenience (r = -0.207, p = 0.043). Conclusion: HCL systems were more effective in improving glucose control and in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes, thereby mitigating risk for acute and chronic complications and positively affecting diabetes technologies' acceptance.


Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Insulin , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 864008, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498438

Background: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), mainly presented as decreased heart rate variability (HRV) which often leads to cardiac death. However, HRV measurement is not convenient in most clinics. Therefore, identifying high-risk patients for CAN in diabetes with easier measurements is crucial for the early intervention and prevention of catastrophic consequences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 675 T2DM patients with normocalcemia were selected. Of these, they were divided into two groups: normal HRV group (n = 425, 100 ms≤ SDNN ≤180 ms) vs. declined HRV group (n = 250, SDNN <100 ms). All patients' clinical data were collected and the correlation of clinical variables with HRV were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression analysis. The area below the ROC curve was used to evaluate the predictive performance of serum calcium on HRV. Results: In this study, declines in HRV were present in 37.0% of T2DM patients. Significant differences in albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels (CaA) (8.86 ± 0.27 vs. 9.13 ± 0.39 mg/dl, p <0.001) and E/A (0.78 ± 0.22 vs. 0.83 ± 0.26, p = 0.029) were observed between declined HRV and normal HRV groups. Bivariate linear correlation analysis showed that CaA and E/A were positively correlated with HRV parameters including SDNN (p < 0.001), SDNN index (p < 0.001), and Triangle index (p < 0.05). The AUC in the ROC curve for the prediction of CaA on HRV was 0.730 (95% CI (0.750-0.815), p < 0.001). The cutoff value of CaA was 8.87 mg/dl (sensitivity 0.644, specificity 0.814). The T2DM patients with CaA <8.87 mg/dl had significantly lower HRV parameters (SDNN, SDNN index, rMSSD, and triangle index) than those with CaA ≥8.87 mg/dl (p < 0.01, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significantly increased risk of declined HRV in subjects with CaA level <8.87 mg/dl [OR (95% CI), 0.049 (0.024-0.099), p < 0.001]. Conclusions: Declined HRV is associated with a lower CaA level and worse cardiac function. The serum calcium level can be used for risk evaluation of declined HRV in T2DM patients even within the normocalcemic range.


Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Calcium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Heart Rate , Humans , ROC Curve
18.
West Afr J Med ; 39(4): 407-414, 2022 Apr 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490415

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NASH is frequently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its prevalence is increasing due to rising global epidemics of MetS. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors and correlates of NASH in patients with MetS in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. METHODS: We caried out a hospital based cross-sectional study of 81 subjects with MetS. The diagnosis of NASH was made by ultrasound evidence of hepatic steatosis, and exclusion of significant consumption of alcohol as well as histologic evidence of NASH on liver biopsy. Subjects gave informed consent and ethical approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the hospital. Data obtained were entered into SPSS version 20 and analyzed using simple and inferential statistics. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Total of 81 subjects with MetS were studied, males 36(44.4%), females 45(55.6%), mean age(SD) of 49.77 (12.08) years. Ten (12.3%) subjects were diagnosed with NASH. Subjects with NASH had significant association with obesity, dyslipidaemia, and poor glycemic control. Regression analysis showed that morbid obesity, low HDL and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for the development of NASH. CONCLUSION: NASH is common in Nigerian patients with MetS and its presence is significantly associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


CONTEXTE: La stéatohépatite non alcoolique (NASH) est une forme progressive de stéatose hépatique non alcoolique (NAFLD). La NASH est fréquemment associée au syndrome métabolique (MetS)et sa prévalence augmente en raison de la montée des épidémies mondialesde MetS. Cette étude visait à déterminer la prévalence, le risqué facteurs et corrélats de la NASH chez les patients atteints de MetS dans un tertiaire hôpital au Nigeria. MÉTHODES: Nous avons créé un hôpital transversal étude de 81 sujets atteints de MetS. Le diagnostic de NASH était fait par échographie des signes de stéatose hépatique et d'exclusionde consommation importante d'alcool ainsi que d'histologique signes de NASH sur biopsie du foie. Les sujets ont donné informéle consentement et l'approbation éthique ont été obtenus de l'éthique comité de l'hôpital. Les données obtenues ont été saisies dans SPSSversion 20 et analysée à l'aide de statistiques simples et inférentielles.Une valeur de p de < 0.05 a été considérée comme statistiquement significative. RÉSULTATS: Au total, 81 sujets atteints de MetS ont été étudiés, hommes36(44.4%), femmes 45(55.6%), âge moyen (ET) de 49.39 +11.67années. Dix (12.3%) sujets ont reçu un diagnostic de NASH. Les sujets atteints de NASH avaient une association significative avec l'obésité,dyslipidémie et mauvais contrôle glycémique. Analyse de regression ont montré que l'obésité morbide, un faible taux de HDL et la présence de type 2le diabète sucré était un facteur de risque indépendant pour le développement de la NASH. CONCLUSION: La NASH est fréquente chez les patients nigérians atteints deMetS et sa présence est significativement associée à l'obésité,dyslipidémie et diabète sucré de type 2. Mots-clés: NASH, Syndrome métabolique, Corrélats cliniques, Prévalence.


Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Metabolic Syndrome , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Obesity/complications
19.
West Afr J Med ; 39(4): 415-424, 2022 Apr 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490416

INTRODUCTION: The burden of HIV infection in households of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is usually high. The existence of HIV discordance and reasons for that is largely unknown. Moreover, how people in a discordant relationship can live happily together with negative partner not getting infected and/or safely have children are not well understood. This study is to determine the prevalence and factors associated with HIV sero-discordance among in-union HIV patients receiving care in a private health facility in Jos, north central Nigeria. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional design was used for the study involving HIV clients. Their records were reviewed and a proforma used to extract needed information. Questionnaire was equally used. A total of 1505 patients were studied out of which 75 were sero-discordant. They were recruited consecutively. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and presented using frequencies, percentages, and tables. RESULTS: Findings revealed that 75 (5.0%) were discordant giving a prevalence of 5%. Majority of the clients were females: [non-discordant 805(56.3%), discordant 45(60.0%)], attained secondary education [non-discordant 590(41.3%), discordant 60(80.0%)], have been in partnership for 1-10 years [non-discordant 525(36.7%). discordant 45(60.0%)], have sex with partner weekly [non-discordant 1385(96.9%), discordant 60(80.0%)], have no other sexual partner [non-discordant 1070(74.8%), discordant 75(100.0%)]. have viral load of <100 [non-discordant 1315(92.0%), discordant 75(100.0%)], have CD4 count of 200-499 [non-discordant 585(40.9%), discordant 30(40.0%)]. Most of participants knew that ART, consistent use of condom, abstinence and post exposure prophylaxis prevent HIV. There were statistical significant associations of characteristics of clients and their knowledge on HIV prevention with HIV status of partner. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of discordance is high. There was no identified predictor of HIV status of partner. For HIV prevalence and sero-discordant status to reduce, women should have a say or be at an equal platform as men in terms of control over their sexuality.


INTRODUCTION: Le fardeau de l'infection par le VIH dans les ménages de personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) est habituellement élevé. L'existence de la discordance du VIH et les raisons de cette discordance sont largement inconnues. En outré la façon dont les personnes dans une relation discordante peuvent vivre heureuses avec un partenaire négatif qui n'est pas infecté et / ou avoir des enfants en toute sécurité n'est pas bien comprise. Cette étude vise à déterminer la prévalence et les facteurs associés à la sérodiscination du VIH chez les patients syndiqués du VIH recevant des soins dans un établissement de santé privé à Jos, dans le centre-nord du Nigéria. MÉTHODES: Un plan transversal descriptif a été utilisé pour l'étude portant sur des clients séropositifs. Leurs dossiers ont été examinés et un formulaire a été utilisé pour extraire les informations nécessaires. Le questionnaire était également utilisé. Au total, 1505 patients ont été étudiés, dont 75 étaient séro-discordants. Ils ont été recrutés consécutivement. Les données ont été analysées à l'aide de la version 20 du SPSS et présentées à l'aide de fréquences,et tableaux. RÉSULTATS: Les résultats ont révélé que 75 (5.0%) étaient discordants, ce qui donne une prévalence de 5%. La majorité des clients étaient des femmes : [805 (56.3 %), 45 (60.0 %) discordants], ont fait des études secondaires [590 non discordants (41.3 %), discordants 60 (80.0 %)], sont en partenariat depuis 1 à 10 ans [non discordants 525 (36.7 %). discordants 45 (60.0 %)], ont des relations sexuelles avec un partenaire hebdomadaire [non discordant 1385 (96.9 %), discordant 60 (80.0 %)], n'ont pas d'autre partenaire sexuel [non discordant 1070 (74.8 %), discordant 75 (100.0 %)]. ont une charge virale de <100 [non discordant 1315 (92.0%), discordant 75 (100.0%)], ont un compte de CD4 de 200- 499 [non discordant 585 (40.9%), discordant30(40.0%)]. La plupart des participants savaient que le TAR, l'utilisation régulière du condom, l'abstinence et la prophylaxie post-exposition préviennent le VIH. Il y avait des associations statistiquement significatives de caractéristiques deles clients et leurs connaissances sur la prévention du VIH avec le statut VIH de partenaire. CONCLUSION: La prévalence de la discordance est élevée. Il n'y avait pas de prédicteur identifié du statut VIH du partenaire. Pour que la prévalence du VIH et le statut de sérodispondant diminuent, les femmes devraient avoir leur mot à dire ou être sur un pied d'égalité avec les hommes en termes de contrôle sur leur sexualité. Mot-clé: Séro-discordance, Immunodéficience humaine, Cohabitation Couple.


HIV Infections , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Facilities , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Prevalence
20.
Intern Med ; 61(9): 1309-1317, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491175

Objective Diabetes is recognized as an underlying disease of constipation. However, the prevalence of constipation varies according to the diagnostic criteria applied. We investigated the prevalence of constipation based on the new guideline for constipation in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and examined the relationship with the clinical background, including diabetic vascular complications. Methods Questionnaire surveys including items concerning the diagnosis and treatment status of constipation were administered to 410 patients with type 2 diabetes. Results Although 29% of the patients considered that they had experienced constipation (self-judged), only 14% had consulted a physician about constipation. The prevalence of chronic constipation based on the guideline was 26%. After including laxative users, constipation was finally found in 36%. Despite the use of laxatives (n=81), 51% of the patients were still diagnosed with chronic constipation. Patients with constipation (chronic constipation or laxative use) were significantly older and had a longer duration of diabetes than those without constipation. The body mass index (BMI) of patients with constipation (24.9±3.8 kg/m2) was significantly lower than that of those without constipation (26.3±4.6 kg/m2). Diabetic neuropathy (49% vs. 32%) and coronary heart disease (CHD) (27% vs. 13%) were significantly more frequent in the patients with constipation than in those without constipation. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that gender, BMI, diabetic neuropathy, insulin use, and CHD were significantly associated with constipation. Conclusion An accurate diagnosis of constipation is desirable in patients with type 2 diabetes because constipation is independently associated with CHD.


Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Neuropathies , Constipation/epidemiology , Constipation/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/drug therapy , Humans , Laxatives/therapeutic use
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