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Nutrition ; 93: 111497, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689035

OBJECTIVES: Estimating caloric intake and choosing route of administration are fundamental in the nutritional support of patients being supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of this study was to review the nutritional intervention carried out in a pediatric cohort in a third-level hospital. METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive study. Age, sex, underlying pathology, Pediatric Risk of Mortality score, ECMO indication, type of care, duration of ECMO support, and prognosis were collected. Type of nutritional support, route of administration, kcal/kg achieved, estimated energy requirements, and percentage of caloric objective (%CO) reached on days 3 and 5 after cannulation were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-four venoarterial ECMO runs in 23 patients over a period of 2 y were recorded. Of the 23 patients, 15 were <1 y of age. The underlying pathology in 56.5% was cardiac disease. Three groups were identified: parenteral nutrition (group 0, n = 7), enteral nutrition (group 1, n = 8), and mixed nutrition (group 2, n = 7). The median of the %CO was 33.34 (0-84) on day 3 and 87.75% (78.4-100) on day 5 of ECMO, respectively for group 0; 75.5 (42.25-98.5) and 85% (24.4-107.7) in group 1 and 68.7 (44.4-82.2) and 91.2% (35.5-92) in group 2 (P > 0.05). Children <12 mo of age and cardiac patients represented 85.71% and 71.43% of total patients in group 0. Among the eight episodes of exclusive enteral nutrition, no complications were identified. CONCLUSION: Enteral nutrition appears to be safe in the setting of hemodynamic stability and absence of contraindications and is equivalent to other nutritional interventions in terms of compliance with estimated energy requirements.

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Child , Critical Illness , Enteral Nutrition , Goals , Humans , Prospective Studies
Am Fam Physician ; 104(6): 580-588, 2021 12 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913658

Nutrition support therapy is the delivery of formulated enteral or parenteral nutrients to restore nutritional status. Family physicians can provide nutrition support therapy to patients at risk of malnutrition when it would improve quality of life. The evidence for when to use nutrition support therapy is inconsistent and based mostly on low-quality studies. Family physicians should work with registered dietitian nutritionists to complete a comprehensive nutritional assessment for patients with acute or chronic conditions that put them at risk of malnutrition. When nutrition support therapy is required, enteral nutrition is preferred for a patient with a functioning gastrointestinal tract, even in patients who are critically ill. Parenteral nutrition has an increased risk of complications and should be administered only when enteral nutrition is contraindicated. Family physicians can use the Mifflin-St Jeor equation to calculate the resting metabolic rate, and they should consult with a registered dietitian nutritionist to determine total energy needs and select a nutritional formula. Patients receiving nutrition support therapy should be monitored for complications, including refeeding syndrome. Nutrition support therapy does not improve quality of life in patients with dementia. Clinicians should engage in shared decision-making with patients and caregivers about nutrition support in palliative and end-of-life care.

Malnutrition/diet therapy , Nutritional Support/trends , Referral and Consultation/trends , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Mass Screening/methods , Nutritional Support/methods , Parenteral Nutrition/methods
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 30.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969812

Adequate nutrition is necessary in head and neck surgery. Enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube is often required due to the altered anatomy and to allow sufficient intraoral healing. Insertion of a nasogastric tube is commonly performed without complication and confirmation of its position by a number of different methods. Incorrect positioning can cause significant morbidity with associated mortality. This case report describes the inadvertent placement of a nasogastric tube in a patient with a mandibular squamous cell carcinoma, into the abdominal cavity following a failed traumatic nasal tube intubation. Chest radiography and auscultation failed to identify the abnormal position with subsequent commencement of feeds for a number of days. Following a laporotomy and insertion of abdominal drains, the patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. To prevent recurrence, it is suggested that direct laryngoscopy or direct visualisation of the upper aspect be performed.

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Intubation, Gastrointestinal , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Humans , Intubation, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Nutritional Status
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 25.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959782

Children with medical complexities, such as multi-system disorders and/or neurological impairments, often experience feeding difficulties and need enteral nutrition. They frequently have impaired motility and digestive-absorbing functions related to their underlying condition. If a cow's milk allergy (CMA) occurs as a comorbidity, it is often misdiagnosed, due to the symptoms' overlap. Many of the commercialized mixtures intended for enteral nutrition are composed of partially hydrolyzed cow's milk proteins, which are not suitable for the treatment of CMA; thus, the exclusion of a concomitant CMA is mandatory in these patients for obtaining symptoms relief. In this review, we focus on the use of elemental and semi-elemental formulas in children with neurological diseases and in preterm infants as clinical "models" of medical complexity. In children with neurodisabilities, when gastrointestinal symptoms persist despite the use of specific enteral formula, or in cases of respiratory and/or dermatological symptoms, CMA should always be considered. If diagnosis is confirmed, only an extensively hydrolyzed or amino-acid based formula, or, as an alternative, extensively hydrolyzed nutritionally adequate formulas derived from rice or soy, should be used. Currently, enteral formulas tailored to the specific needs of preterm infants and children with neurological impairment presenting concomitant CMA have not been marketed yet. For the proper monitoring of the health status of patients with medical complexity, multidisciplinary evaluation and involvement of the nutritional team should be promoted.

Enteral Nutrition/methods , Infant Formula/analysis , Milk Hypersensitivity/therapy , Multiple Chronic Conditions/therapy , Protein Hydrolysates/administration & dosage , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Male , Milk Hypersensitivity/complications , Milk Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Protein Hydrolysates/analysis
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 19.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960103

Most studies confirm the beneficial effects of enteral nutrition on the quality of life, but some studies indicate an inverse association and its detrimental impacts. However, there are insufficient data on the effects of enteral nutrition on the quality of life of cancer patients. This systematic review aimed to describe the influence of applied enteral nutrition on the quality of life of cancer patients, based on the results of randomized controlled trials. It was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021261226) and conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines. The searching procedure was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science databases, as well as Cochrane Library, and it included studies published until June 2021. It was conducted to select randomized controlled trials assessing the influence of enteral nutrition (compared with the other model of nutrition) on the quality of life of cancer patients. A general number of 761 records were screened and a final number of 16 studies were included in the systematic review. The studies were included and assessed by two independent researchers, while the risk of bias was analyzed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Studies compared patients treated with and without enteral nutrition, patients treated with various methods of enteral nutrition or with enteral diets of various content, as well as patients treated with enteral and parenteral nutrition. Within the included studies, the majority were conducted in patients with cancers located in various parts of the body, or diverse areas within the gastrointestinal system, while some studies were conducted in specific populations of patients with a defined cancer location-esophagus, stomach, or ovary. The duration of applied enteral nutrition within the included studies was diversified-from two weeks or less to half a year or even more. The vast majority of studies used well-known and validated tools to assess the quality of life, either developed for a specific group of head/neck, esophagus/stomach, and ovary cancer patients or developed for more general patient populations. Most studies concerning patients treated with and without enteral nutrition supported applying enteral nutrition, which was concluded in seven studies out of ten (including four studies with a low risk of bias). The other important observations to be emphasized-formulated based on the studies with a low risk of bias-presented the role of oral supportive nutrition guided by a dietitian, as well as the beneficial role of enteral and parenteral nutrition, combined. In spite of a relatively low number of randomized controlled trials assessing the influence of enteral nutrition on the quality of life of cancer patients, which should be considered as a limitation, the results were promising. Most studies supported the positive influence of enteral nutrition on the quality of life, either assessed based on the psychological measures of the quality of life or by considering the other potential determinants (e.g., malnutrition, complications, etc.). Taking this into account, enteral nutrition should be applied whenever possible, both to prevent and treat malnutrition in cancer patients. However, considering the limited number of studies conducted so far, further research conducted in homogenic populations of patients is necessary.

Enteral Nutrition/psychology , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/therapy , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Neoplasms/complications , Time Factors
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959941

Despite the increasing array of medications available for the treatment of Crohn's disease and a focus on mucosal healing, approximately 35% of patients with Crohn's disease undergo bowel surgery at some stage. The importance of nutritional optimisation before Crohn's surgery is well-highlighted by surgical, nutritional, and gastroenterological societies with the aim of reducing complications and enhancing recovery. Surgical procedures are frequently undertaken when other treatment options have been unsuccessful, and, thus, patients may have lost weight and/or required steroids, and are therefore at higher risk of post-operative complications. EEN is used extensively in the paediatric population to induce remission, but is not routinely used in the induction of remission of adult Crohn's disease or in pre-operative optimisation. Large prospective studies regarding the role of pre-operative EEN are lacking. In this review, we evaluate the current literature on the use of EEN in pre-operative settings and its impact on patient outcomes.

Crohn Disease/surgery , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Preoperative Care/methods , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , Humans , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Remission Induction/methods , Risk , Treatment Outcome
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261305, 2021.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928967

BACKGROUND: The clinical effect of enteral administration of sleep-promoting medication (SPM) in mechanically ventilated patients remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between enteral SPM administration and the intravenous sedative dose and examine the safety and cost of enteral SPM administration. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted in a Japanese tertiary hospital intensive care unit (ICU). The exposure was enteral SPM administration during mechanical ventilation. The outcome was the average daily propofol dose per body weight administered as a continuous sedative during mechanical ventilation. Patients were divided into three groups based on the timing of SPM administration at ICU admission: "administration within 48 hours (early administration [EA])," "administration after 48 hours (late administration [LA])," and "no administration (NA)." We used multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Of 123 included patients, 37, 50, and 36 patients were assigned to the EA, LA, and NA groups, respectively. The average daily propofol dose per body weight was significantly lower in the EA group than in the LA and NA groups (ß -5.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) -8.93 to -1.33] and ß -4.51 [95% CI -8.59 to -0.43], respectively). Regarding safety, enteral SPM administration did not increase adverse events, including self-extubation. The total cost of neuroactive drugs tended to be lower in the EA group than in the LA and NA groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early enteral SPM administration reduced the average daily propofol dose per body weight without increasing adverse events.

Enteral Nutrition/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Indenes/administration & dosage , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Sleep/drug effects , Administration, Intravenous , Aged , Central Nervous System Depressants/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
Crit Care ; 25(1): 424, 2021 12 14.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906215

The preferential use of the oral/enteral route in critically ill patients over gut rest is uniformly recommended and applied. This article provides practical guidance on enteral nutrition in compliance with recent American and European guidelines. Low-dose enteral nutrition can be safely started within 48 h after admission, even during treatment with small or moderate doses of vasopressor agents. A percutaneous access should be used when enteral nutrition is anticipated for ≥ 4 weeks. Energy delivery should not be calculated to match energy expenditure before day 4-7, and the use of energy-dense formulas can be restricted to cases of inability to tolerate full-volume isocaloric enteral nutrition or to patients who require fluid restriction. Low-dose protein (max 0.8 g/kg/day) can be provided during the early phase of critical illness, while a protein target of > 1.2 g/kg/day could be considered during the rehabilitation phase. The occurrence of refeeding syndrome should be assessed by daily measurement of plasma phosphate, and a phosphate drop of 30% should be managed by reduction of enteral feeding rate and high-dose thiamine. Vomiting and increased gastric residual volume may indicate gastric intolerance, while sudden abdominal pain, distension, gastrointestinal paralysis, or rising abdominal pressure may indicate lower gastrointestinal intolerance.

Enteral Nutrition , Intensive Care Units , Critical Illness , Food, Formulated , Humans , Residual Volume
Neuropeptides ; 90: 102201, 2021 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753072

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global emergency with high mortality. There are few effective treatments, and many severe patients are treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Japanese Kampo medicine ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is effective in treating ICU patients with COVID-19. Nine patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the ICU were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent respiratory management with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and enteral nutrition. Four patients received NYT (7.5 g daily) from an elemental diet tube. We retrospectively examined the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), length of IMV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, rate of tracheostomy, and mortality rate. The median age of the enrolled participants was 60.0 years (4 men and 5 women). The median body mass index was 27.6. The most common comorbidity was diabetes (4 patients, 44%), followed by hypertension (3 patients, 33%) and chronic kidney disease (2 patients, 22%). The median length of IMV, ICU stay, and hospital stay were all shorter in the NYT group than in the non-NYT group (IMV; 4.0 days vs 14.3 days, ICU; 5.3 days vs 14.5 days, hospital stay; 19.9 days vs 28.2 days). In the NYT and non-NYT groups, the median PNI at admission was 29.0 and 31.2, respectively. One week after admission, the PNI was 30.7 in the NYT group and 24.4 in non-NYT group. PNI was significantly (p = 0.032) increased in the NYT group (+13.6%) than in the non-NYT group (-22.0%). The Japanese Kampo medicine NYT might be useful for treating patients with severe COVID-19 in ICU. This study was conducted in a small number of cases, and further large clinical trials are necessary.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Medicine, Kampo , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Enteral Nutrition , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
J Int Med Res ; 49(11): 3000605211055829, 2021 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796764

OBJECTIVE: Stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is a comorbidity of ischemic stroke related to clinical outcomes. Early enteral nutrition (EEN; within 48 hours) reduces the incidence of infection and length of intensive care unit (ICU)/hospital stay. The relationship between EEN and critical care outcomes, including SAP, in patients with ischemic stroke has been insufficiently studied. METHODS: We recruited 499 patients in this retrospective observational study. We evaluated SAP incidence within 14 days from admission. Patients were divided into an EEN group and a late EN group (LEN; start later than EEN). We compared groups regarding background and length of ICU/hospital stay. RESULTS: EN was started within 48 hours in 236 patients. SAP was diagnosed in 94 patients (18.8%), with most in the LEN group (28.1% vs. 8.5%). Median [interquartile range] lengths of hospitalization (22 [12-30] days vs. 35 [20-45] days) and ICU stay (4 [2-5] days vs. 6 [3-8] days) were longer in the LEN group. EEN reduced the incidence of SAP. By contrast, consciousness disturbance and worsening consciousness level increased the SAP incidence. Increased age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score were associated with start of prolonged EN. CONCLUSIONS: We found that EEN may reduce SAP risk.

Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Critical Care Outcomes , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Stroke/therapy
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Nov 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833454

Background and Objectives: When the human body is disabled to naturally ingest food through the mouth, enteral or parenteral nutritional support should be started. Percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) is a flexible feeding tube that is inserted into the stomach through the abdominal wall in patients who will need long-term enteral nutrient intake. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical characteristic of children at the time of PEG placement as well as to determine indications, complications and outcomes associated with PEG at the Department of Pediatrics of the University Hospital of Split. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients treated from 2010 to 2020 was performed. The following data were collected from medical records: age, gender, information about nasogastric feeding before PEG placement, indication for PEG insertion, duration of PEG, procedure-related complications and treatment outcomes. Malnutrition was determined according to the z-score range for BMI for age and sex. According to the indication for PEG placement, patients were divided into five categories: central nervous system (CNS) diseases, neuromuscular diseases, genetic disorders, metabolic diseases, and group of children with polytrauma. Results: A total of 40 patients with median age of 110 months were included in study. At the time of PEG placement, most patients had deviations in body weight and height compared to expected values for age and sex. The most common underlying diagnoses were diseases of the central nervous system. Minor complications were found in 13 (35%) of patients. One patient (2.7%) developed major complication (gastrocolic fistula) and consequently underwent reoperation. The median duration of PEG in patients with complications before the need for replacement was 27 months, and in patients without complications, 43 months. Conclusions: Negative deviations of z-score body weight, body height, and body mass index could indicate the need for possible earlier placement of PEG. PEG can be considered as a safe therapeutic option in children since PEG-related complications, mostly in minor forms, were found in a small number of patients.

Gastrostomy , Postoperative Complications , Child , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Gastrostomy/adverse effects , Humans , Nutritional Support , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10779-10788, 2021 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763439

BACKGROUND: Nutritional support is very important in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis, this study aimed to investigate the effect of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition (TEN) on the prognosis of patients with acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Ovid were searched using the keywords acute pancreatitis, enteral nutrition, and parenteral nutrition to obtain the reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published after 2000. After screening the articles according to the inclusion criteria, risk of bias of the included literatures was evaluated using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. The software RevMan 5.3.5 was used for analysis and the creation of a forest plot and funnel plot. RESULTS: A total of 488 literatures were preliminarily searched in this study, from which 10 articles were included into the final quantitative analysis, involving a total of 699 participants. A total of 6 literatures (n=329 participants) reported the infection rate indicators. The obtained statistic value [odds ratio (OR) =0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10 to 0.62] showed TEN had less infection rate that TPN (P=0.003). A total of 8 studies (654 participants) reported the incidence rate indicators of multiple organ failure rate indicator, the obtained statistic value (OR =0.50, 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.08) showed no statistical difference between TEN and TPN (P>0.05). A total of 7 studies (550 participants) reported the mortality indicators. The obtained statistic value (OR =0.59, 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.94) showed TEN had less mortality than TPN (P=0.03). A total of 3 studies reported the length of hospital stay indicators. The obtained statistic value [mean difference (MD) -4.18, 95% CI: -5.07 to -3.30] showed the length of hospital stay for TEN was shorter that TPN (P<0.001). DISCUSSION: Compared with TPN, TEN can reduce the incidence of infection, reduce the development of multiple organ failure, reduce mortality, and shorten the length of hospital stay in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). However, attention should be paid to prevent the occurrence of complications during the implementation of nutritional intervention.

Enteral Nutrition , Pancreatitis , Humans , Pancreatitis/therapy , Parenteral Nutrition , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Prognosis
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 11191-11202, 2021 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763477

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to summarize the enteral nutrition (EN) management of stroke patients according to recent evidence. BACKGROUND: Stroke patients have a high incidence of dysphagia, which is the main cause of malnutrition, and stroke with malnutrition leads to high recurrence and mortality. Insufficient food intake caused by dysphagia is the main cause of malnutrition in stroke patients, which is associated with poor prognosis, increased mortality, and deteriorated outcomes in patients with stroke. Dehydration is also worthy of attention. METHODS: Non-systematic searches of the PubMed database were conducted to retrieve relevant English-language articles, and the CNKI and Wanfang database were searched for relevant Chinese-language articles. Fifteen recent guidelines or expert consensuses on the clinical nutritional management of stroke patients were published between 2013 and 2021, of which eight are from China. CONCLUSIONS: Before providing nutritional support, swallowing, hydration, and risk of malnutrition need to be screened by a dietitian or professional. Although the initiation time of nutritional support is different in each guideline, tube feeding is preferable for patients with dysphagia. The appropriate dosage, formula, and treatment of complications need to be further studied. Also, nutritional support for stroke patients at different stages needs to be further improved. The continuous improvement and details of stroke nutrition guidelines contribute to standardized clinical nutrition practices and benefit patients.

Deglutition Disorders , Malnutrition , Stroke , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Nutritional Support , Stroke/complications
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 640, 2021 11 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772343

BACKGROUND: To examine the association between teeth loss and nasogastric tube feeding dependency in older people. METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2005, 2009, and 2013 in Taiwan. Participants were selected by a multistage stratified sampling method and baseline characteristics, including socioeconomic status and health habits, were obtained by well-trained interviewers. The NHIS was linked with the National Health Insurance research database 2000-2016 and the National Deaths Dataset, which contains all the medical information of ambulatory and inpatient care. Cox regression was used to examine the association between the number of teeth lost and nasogastric tube feeding dependency. RESULTS: There were 6165 adults older than 65 years old enrolled in the analysis, with 2959 male (48%) and the mean (SD) age was 73.95(6.46) years old. The mean follow-up duration was 6.5(3.3) years. Regarding the teeth loss categories, 1660 (26.93%), 2123 (34.44%), and 2382 (38.64%) of participants were categorized as having no teeth loss, loss of 1-9 teeth, and loss of 10-28 teeth, respectively. During 39,962 person-years of follow-up, new-onset nasogastric feeding dependency was recognized in 220(13.25%), 256(12.06%), and 461(19.35%) participants who were categorized as having no teeth loss, loss of 1-9 teeth, and loss of 10-28 teeth, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated significant findings (Log-rank P < 0.01). After potential confounders were adjusted, compared with those without teeth loss, older adults who had lost 10-28 teeth had significantly increased risks of occurrence nasogastric feeding dependency (AHR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.05-1.62; p-value = 0.02). Furthermore, a significant dose-response relation between the number of teeth lost and increased risk of nasogastric feeding was found (p for trend< 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who had lost 10-28 teeth had a significantly increased risk of nasogastric tube feeding dependency. Early identification of the oral disease is crucial for the prevention of the occurrence of teeth loss and the following nutrition problems, which would reduce risk of nasogastric tube feeding dependency.

Enteral Nutrition , Intubation, Gastrointestinal , Aged , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Humans , Intubation, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Taiwan/epidemiology
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 16.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785514

We report the case of a 31-year-old man with superior mesenteric artery syndrome after reoperation due to postoperative complications from rectal cancer. Although initial total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy failed, he underwent endoscopy-assisted feeding tube placement without complications instead of surgery. After 2 weeks of dual feeding (enteral feeding and TPN), he improved, gaining 6 kg; and an oral diet was advanced.

Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome , Adult , Endoscopy , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Intubation, Gastrointestinal , Jejunum/surgery , Male , Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome/surgery
Br J Nurs ; 30(21): S12-S19, 2021 Nov 25.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839686

BACKGROUND: Severe brain attack patients demonstrate hypermetabolic state and gastrointestinal dysfunction, leading to faster onset of nutritional failure. AIM: To estimate the time point where the development of nutritional failure is more probable among patients with acute brain attacks in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Direct bedside observation for selected nutritional parameters was performed. When enteral nutrition was initiated, observation was performed at five points over 9 days. FINDINGS: 84 patients with 55% mortality risk and on mechanical ventilation were included. Over the observation period, gastric residual volume increased (144 ml vs 196 ml), body weight decreased (79.4 kg vs 74.3 kg), and serum albumin reduced (3.6 g/dl to 3.1 g/dl). Caloric attainment and malnutrition score deteriorated, and feeding-related complications increased. Nutritional failure was evidently prevalent between the third and fifth day of observation. CONCLUSION: An earlier period of enteral nutrition entails higher probability of nutritional failure among severe brain attack patients in the ICU.

Enteral Nutrition , Intensive Care Units , Brain , Critical Illness , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial
Arq Gastroenterol ; 58(3): 281-288, 2021.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705960

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an important option for enteral nutrition for both children and adults. It is considered a safe, effective, and advantageous technique in comparison to other complementary feeding routes. It allows continuous feeding, the feeding of patients with swallowing disorders due to neurological causes or others, and the administration of non-palatable diets or medications, all with low rates of complications and mortality. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the main indications and complications of PEG in pediatric patients. In addition, the impact on the nutritional status of patients undergoing PEG was also compared with weight, body mass index (BMI), and height according to references from the World Health Organization. METHODS: This observational and retrospective study included 152 children and adolescents who underwent PEG between January/2003 and December/2018. Patients up to 18 years of age at the time of the procedure were included. Complications related to the procedure were classified as minor or major. Patients with PEG indication for nutritional supplementation were evaluated for weight gain, height, and BMI, using the Z score at the day of the procedure and six months, 1 year, and 2 years after the procedure. RESULTS: Indications for PEG were: swallowing disorder of neurological cause (67.1%), need for nutritional supplementation (25%), swallowing disorder of mechanical origin (6.6%), and indication of gastric decompression (1.3%). Minor complications occurred in 57.8% of patients and major complications in 9.8% of patients. The traction technique corresponded to 92.1% and puncture to 7.9%. The death rate was 1.3%. Thirty-eight patients had an indication for nutritional supplementation. In these patients, there was a gradual increase in both BMI and weight, reaching statistically significant differences (P=0.0340 and P= 0.0105, respectively). These differences were more evident in chronic renal disease patients. Height did not vary significantly (P=0.543). CONCLUSION: PEG proved to be an advantageous option as an auxiliary feeding method in pediatric patients. Dysphagia of neurological origin was the main indication followed by the need for nutritional supplementation. PEG has low frequency of major complications and mortality. This study also showed the importance of PEG in patients who need nutritional supplementation, as it enabled patients to move from undernutrition to normal weight ranges.

Gastrostomy , Malnutrition , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Enteral Nutrition , Gastrostomy/adverse effects , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Arq Gastroenterol ; 58(3): 402-404, 2021.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705979

BACKGROUND: There is controversy about the initiation of gastric or oral feeding in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) because they could increase pancreatic stimulation and exacerbate symptoms and complications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and results of patients with SAP who underwent gastric tube or oral feeding versus parenteral or jejunal feeding. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on patients over 18 years old with SAP diagnostic, who had been treated in critical care units. We excluded patients coming from other hospitals and those with incomplete medical records. RESULTS: Thirty patients with SAP were included, fifty three percent of them tolerated the gastric tube or oral feeding, and most of them were females and older than patients who received parenteral or jejunal feeding. Other clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Gastric tube or oral feeding is no absolute contraindication for SAP.

Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Enteral Nutrition , Female , Humans , Pancreatitis/complications , Parenteral Nutrition , Retrospective Studies
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 37(9): 831-838, 2021 Sep 20.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645148

Objective: To explore the risk factors of early enteral nutrition intolerance in extremely severe burn patients. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed. From January 2018 to December 2020, seventy-six adult patients with extremely severe burns who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to Hwa Mei Hospital of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, including 55 males and 21 females, aged (45±11) years with burns of 62% (52%, 82%) total body surface area. Depending on the patient's tolerance to early enteral nutrition, they were divided into tolerance group (47 patients) and intolerance group (29 patients), and their clinical data were statistically analyzed, including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), underlying disease, total burn area, full-thickness burn area, abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) score, implementation of mechanical ventilation on the day of admission, stable shock state, vomiting before feeding. The following data were recorded including the onset time, duration length, and frequency of enteral nutrition intolerance of patients in intolerance group, and the number of operations, the length of hospitalization, the occurrence of sepsis within 2 weeks after injury, the outcome, as well as the serum hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), albumin, fasting blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) on post burn day (PBD) 1, 5, 9, and 13 of patients in the two groups. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test to screen the related factors of early enteral nutrition intolerance of the patients. Binary univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the independent risk factors of early enteral nutrition intolerance of the patients. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, BMI, and percentage of underlying disease of patients between the two groups (P>0.05). The total burn area, full-thickness burn area, ABSI score, mechanical ventilation percentage on the day of admission, percentage of unstable shock period, percentage of vomiting before feeding of patients in intolerance group were significantly higher than those in tolerance group (Z=-4.559, -3.378, -4.067, χ2=18.375, 23.319, 8.339, P<0.01). In intolerance group, the onset time of intolerance was (9±4) d after injury, and the duration length was 4 (2, 6) d, with a total of 46 times occurred. Compared with tolerance group, the percentage of sepsis and mortality of patients in intolerance group were significantly higher within 2 weeks after injury (χ2=16.571, 12.665, P<0.01). The number of operation and length of hospitalization of patients in the two groups were similar (P>0.05); however the length of hospitalization of patients in the intolerance group was significantly more than that in tolerance group after excluding the death cases (Z=-2.266, P<0.05). On PBD 1, the level of fasting blood glucose and AST of patients in intolerance group were significantly higher than those in tolerance group (t=3.070, Z=-3.070, P<0.01). On PBD 5, the levels of hs-CRP, albumin, fasting blood-glucose, ALT, AST, and γ-GT of patients in the two groups were similar (P>0.05). On PBD 9, the level of hs-CRP of patients in intolerance group was significantly higher than that in tolerance group (t=2.836, P<0.01), and the levels of ALT and γ-GT of patients in intolerance group were significantly lower than those in tolerance group (Z=-3.932, -2.052, P<0.05 or P<0.01). On PBD 13, the level of hs-CRP of patients in intolerance group was significantly higher than that in tolerance group (t=3.794, P<0.01), and the levels of fasting blood glucose, ALT, and γ-GT of patients in intolerance group were significantly lower than those in tolerance group (t=-2.176, Z=-2.945, -2.250, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Binary univariate logistic regression analysis showed that total burn area, full-thickness burn area, ABSI score, implementation of mechanical ventilation on the day of admission, unstable shock period, vomiting before feeding, and fasting blood-glucose on PBD 1 of patients were related to early enteral nutrition intolerance (odds ratio=1.086, 1.052, 1.775, 9.167, 12.797, 10.125, 1.249, 95% confidence interval=1.045-1.129, 1.019-1.085, 1.320-2.387, 3.132-26.829, 4.199-39.000, 2.003-51.172, 1.066-1.464, P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the large total burn area, unstable shock period, vomiting before feeding, and high fasting blood-glucose on PBD 1 of patients were the independent risk factors of early enteral nutrition intolerance in patients (odds ratio=1.073, 6.390, 9.004, 1.246, 95% confidence interval=1.021-1.128, 1.527-26.734, 1.134-71.496, 1.007-1.540, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions: The percentage of early enteral nutrition intolerance is very high in extremely severe burn patients, which is closely related to poor prognosis. Large total burn area, vomiting before feeding, unstable shock phase, high fasting glucose on PBD 1 of patients are the independent risk factors for early enteral nutrition intolerance in extremely severe burn patients. The benefits and risks should be carefully evaluated before starting enteral nutrition in such patients, and early enteral nutrition should not be blindly pursued.

Enteral Nutrition , Shock , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors