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Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 44-50, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677151

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an urgent need for investigating potential treatments. Traditional medicine offers many potential remedies that have been historically used and have the advantage of bypassing the cultural obstacles in the practice of medicine. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of Zufa syrup in the treatment of suspected patients with mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19. This triple-blind randomized controlled trial recruited patients with evidence of COVID-19 on chest computed tomography without an indication of hospital admission from March 2020 until April 2020. Participants were assessed by a physician and completed a pre-specified form to assess the duration and severity of symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive Zufa syrup (a combination of herbal medicines: Nepetabracteata, Ziziphus jujube, Glycyrrhizaglabra, Ficuscarica, Cordia myxa, Papaver somniferum, Fennel, Adiantumcapillus-veneris, Viola, Viper's-buglosses, Lavender, Iris, and sugar) or identical-looking placebo syrup at a dose of 7.5 mL (one tablespoon) every 4 hours for 10 days. After applying the eligibility criteria, 116 patients (49.1% male) were randomized to trial arms with a mean age of 44.3. During the follow-up, Cough, dyspnea, headache, myalgia, anorexia, anxiety, and insomnia improved gradually in both groups, and showed no difference between Zufa syrup and placebo. Oxygen saturation and pulse rate had stable trends throughout the follow-up and were similar between study arms. No patient required hospital admission or supplemental oxygen therapy during the study period. To conclude, in patients with mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19, Zufa syrup did not show any difference in symptomatology over a 10 days' period when compared with placebo. Due to potential effects of medicinal plants in the treatment of respiratory infections, further studies are warranted to clarify their role in COVID-19. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Qom University of Medical Science (Ethics committee reference number IR.MUQ.REC.1398.165) on March 10, 2020 and was registered in Iranian Clinical Trial Center (approval ID: IRCT20200404046934N1) on April 13, 2020.

COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Oxygen , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 67-68, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677155

A 76-year-old female received a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine (CoronaVac, Sinovac®, Beijing, China) and subsequently experienced chest discomfort. A computed tomography performed 1 day after vaccination showed multiple infiltrations in both lungs and ground-glass shadows in both lung fields. Her fingertip oxygen saturation was 81% and there was widespread wheezing on physical examination. Based on these findings, the patient was hospitalized with a preliminary diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonitis and acute asthma exacerbation due to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. During her hospitalization, 40 mg/d systemic steroid, 4 times a day salbutamol nebulized, 2 L/min inhaled oxygen therapy and 400 mg/d moxifloxacin intravenous were administered for 5 days. One month later, the thorax computed tomography scan revealed that the previous findings were almost completely regressed.

Asthma , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(1): 101-109, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735086

INTRODUCTION: It has been more than a year since the first case of Covid-19 was diagnosed in Brazil, and its most problematic feature is the oversaturation of the healthcare system capacity. Urolithiasis is a disease that requires timely and appropriate management. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pandemic in hospital admissions for urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, hospital admissions were obtained from the Brazilian Public Health Information system. All hospital admissions associated with urolithiasis diagnosis (ICD-10 N20) between March 2017 and February 2021 were analyzed. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, there was a significant decrease in hospital admissions (p<0.0001). More than 20.000 patients probably did not have the opportunity to undergo their surgeries. The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on women's admissions was significantly more intense than for men, reducing from 48.91% to 48.36% of the total (p=0.0281). The extremes of age seemed to be more affected, with patients younger than 20 years and older than 60 years having a significant reduction in access to hospital services (p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we have noticed a considerable reduction in overall admissions for the treatment of urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Women and individuals older than 60 years were especially affected. In contrast, we noted a rise in urgent procedures, comparing with the average of the corresponding period of the three previous years. Recovery plans will be needed while returning to activities to handle the impounded surgical volume.

COVID-19 , Urolithiasis , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Urolithiasis/epidemiology , Young Adult
Talanta ; 237: 122916, 2022 Jan 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736654

Herein, we show differences in blood serum of asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women infected with COVID-19 and correlate them with laboratory indexes, ATR FTIR and multivariate machine learning methods. We collected the sera of COVID-19 diagnosed pregnant women, in the second trimester (n = 12), third-trimester (n = 7), and second-trimester with severe symptoms (n = 7) compared to the healthy pregnant (n = 11) women, which makes a total of 37 participants. To assign the accuracy of FTIR spectra regions where peak shifts occurred, the Random Forest algorithm, traditional C5.0 single decision tree algorithm and deep neural network approach were used. We verified the correspondence between the FTIR results and the laboratory indexes such as: the count of peripheral blood cells, biochemical parameters, and coagulation indicators of pregnant women. CH2 scissoring, amide II, amide I vibrations could be used to differentiate the groups. The accuracy calculated by machine learning methods was higher than 90%. We also developed a method based on the dynamics of the absorbance spectra allowing to determine the differences between the spectra of healthy and COVID-19 patients. Laboratory indexes of biochemical parameters associated with COVID-19 validate changes in the total amount of proteins, albumin and lipase.

COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Machine Learning , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum , Spectrum Analysis , Vibration
Talanta ; 237: 122919, 2022 Jan 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736655

Diazepam (DZP) was routinely prescribed to a large population troubled with anxiety disorders. However, due to the overuse and misuse, DZP and its chlorination disinfection byproduct 2-methylamino-5-chlorobenzophenone (MACB) caused environmental pollution and can be detected ubiquitously in drinking water in Beijing, China. However, little information is known about the metabolic dynamics of MACB. Here, we established desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging method to visually and quantitatively assess the distribution and metabolism of MACB in zebrafish. The results showed that MACB specifically accumulated in spinal cord particularly in female zebrafish. Meanwhile, the accumulation of MACB could pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and induced microglial phagocytosis of neurons. Therefore, the intervention strategies should be explored to restrict the release of such substances, eliminating the potential risks for both human beings and the eco-environment.

Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Zebrafish , Animals , Diazepam , Disinfection , Female , Halogenation , Humans
Talanta ; 237: 122958, 2022 Jan 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736683

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a significant ingredient of immunological activity in milk and colostrum, the activity and content of which is easily disturbed by potentially conditional variant during sterilization. Therefore, developing robust methods for the detection of IgG levels in milk is especially important. Herein, protein A from the Staphylococcus aureus functionalized silica colloidal crystalline film (SCC@SPA) sensing unit combined with ordered porous layer interferometry (OPLI) for IgG detection in untreated bovine milk was developed. Calibration curves in milk and buffer were set up by the variations of the optical thickness (OT) of the sensing unit after the IgG association and dissociation phases. The influence of temperature on the level of IgG was evaluated. Furthermore, the identification of IgG levels with pasteurized milk and ultrahigh temperature (UHT) sterilized milk from the market randomly was successfully carried out without any sample pretreatment. More importantly, compared with other methods, this novel method has the advantages of convenient operation, low cost, and suitability for point-of-care (POC) testing.

Colostrum , Milk , Animals , Cattle , Female , Immunoglobulin G , Interferometry , Porosity , Pregnancy
Addict Behav ; 124: 107093, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500234

OBJECTIVE: Harmful drinkers represent an important Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) group in public health terms, accounting for significant health and social costs. However, harmful drinkers are characterized by low problem recognition; they tend to construct their drinking identity as positive and problem-free, actively setting themselves apart from the stigmatised 'alcoholic other'. As such, harmful drinkers rarely engage in treatment and represent an important opportunity for lower threshold interventions and self-change. The present study sought to explore AUD problem framing and stigma effects on problem recognition. METHODS: Harmful drinkers without perceived addiction experience recruited online (n = 244, 54% male, 46% female, 96% British) were randomised to one of six conditions comprising beliefs about alcohol problems (control, continuum, binary disease model) and stigma (stigma, non-stigma), and completed measures relating to problem recognition. RESULTS: As predicted, results found that harmful drinkers exposed to binary disease model beliefs and stigmatising language had significantly lower problem recognition than those in other conditions. However, no support was found for the prediction that continuum beliefs would be associated with higher problem recognition. Results suggest that the interaction of binary disease model beliefs and stigma prompted alcoholic label avoidance. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that problem framing has important consequences for harmful drinkers. Implications for behaviour change amongst harmful drinkers through mechanisms of problem framing and identity are discussed.

Alcohol-Related Disorders , Alcoholism , Behavior, Addictive , Alcohol Drinking , Female , Humans , Male , Social Stigma
Clin Imaging ; 81: 114-117, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700173

Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of infectious disease related death worldwide with extrapulmonary tuberculosis being particularly difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of pancreatic tuberculosis (PTB) in an immunocompetent young female, which mimicked a malignant tumor diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and biopsy (EUS-FNAB). A 19-year-old Japanese female with no prior medical history presented with abdominal epigastralgia and appetite loss lasting 2 months. A solid lobular mass was observed in the pancreatic head with enhanced abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested it was a malignant pancreatic tumor. Using EUS-FNAB, granulomas with caseous necrosis and acid-fast bacilli were observed. Polymerase chain reaction results were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis but negative for Mycobacterium avium complex. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with PTB. Her symptoms and radiological findings improved with a standard antituberculosis therapy. PTB is difficult to differentiate from other pancreatic diseases with Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of T1, T2 weighted, or diffusion-weighted image (DWI) images. To investigate novel radiological diagnostics for PTB, we focused on MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, which have not been investigated in this context. The present case showed 0.52 × 10-3 mm2/s; additionally, the mean value of other mass-forming pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatic cancer was 1.592 × 10-3 mm2/s (the range: 1.015-3.025 × 10-3 mm2/s). The range does not overlap with the present PTB case or other pancreatic diseases. Therefore, ADC values may be useful as a noninvasive radiological diagnostic method for PTB.

Pancreatic Diseases , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Tuberculosis , Adult , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Female , Humans , Pancreas/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
Clin Imaging ; 81: 143-146, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717236

A pyogenic hepatic abscess is an uncommon complication after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) that can develop secondary to an infected hematoma or a staple line leak due to bacterial seeding. Appropriate screening for and management of a pyogenic hepatic abscess are essential in patients with clinical suspicion for complications after LSG. Early diagnosis is essential as pyogenic hepatic abscess can be fatal if not treated early. Only five cases have been reported in the literature so far. We present a case of pyogenic hepatic abscess that occurred two weeks after LSG in a 46-year-old female without immunosuppressive conditions or early postoperative leak. The abscess was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and was successfully treated with antibiotics and CT-guided drainage.

Laparoscopy , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic , Obesity, Morbid , Anastomotic Leak , Drainage , Female , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/diagnostic imaging , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/etiology , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications/etiology
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 335-341, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524695

Fully automated immunoassays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies that are strongly correlated with neutralization antibodies (nAbs) are clinically important because they enable the assessment of humoral immunity after infection and vaccination. Access SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) II antibody tests are semi-quantitative, fully automated immunoassays that detect anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies and might reflect nAb levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no studies have investigated the clinical utility of these tests in association with nAbs to date. To evaluate the clinical utility of Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests and their correlation with the SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) that measures nAbs in patients with COVID-19, we analyzed 54 convalescent serum samples from COVID-19 patients and 89 serum samples from non-COVID-19 patients. The presence of anti-RBD antibodies was detected using Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests, while nAbs were measured by sVNT. The sensitivity and specificity of sVNT were 94.4% and 98.9%, respectively. There were strong positive correlations between the inhibition values of sVNT and the results of the Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM (R = 0.95, R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001) and IgG II antibody tests (R = 0.96, R2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). In terms of the presence of nAbs, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.1% and 98.9% in the IgM assay and 100.0% and 100.0% in the IgG II assay, respectively. The Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of nAbs in COVID-19 patients and might be alternatives for measuring nAbs.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102469, 2022 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534656

The metacercarial infections of door snails (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) with unknown species of the genus Brachylaima (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) have recently been reported in eastern Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. A large scale snail survey was carried out to clarify their taxonomic status. From the period of 2015 to 2020, a total of 1239 land snails (768 door snails and 471 others) were collected from 32 localities in Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. The resulting trematode isolates were identified as Brachylaima sp. by mitochondrial DNA barcoding. The sporocysts were found only a few from Megalophaedusa sublunellata (Clausiliidae), Tauphaedusa subaculus (Clausiliidae), and Aegista trochula (Camaenidae), while the metacercariae were frequently detected from 14 species of Clausiliidae and 2 species of other families. Although Brachylaima sp. showed a broad range of intermediate hosts, door snails seem to be very important to drive the life cycle. The gravid adults of Brachylaima sp. was experimentally raised from metacercariae using immunosuppressed mice. Morphological, phylogenetical, and ecological considerations prompted us to propose Brachylaima phaedusae n. sp. for this unknown species. The definitive hosts of the new species are completely unknown. The wide geographic distribution and high genetic diversity of the new species suggest a possibility that the definitive host is ground-foraging birds, which prefer door snails.

Snails/parasitology , Trematoda/classification , Animals , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Female , Japan , Mice, Inbred ICR , Trematoda/anatomy & histology , Trematoda/genetics
Libyan J Med ; 17(1): 2003968, 2022 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802395

Describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the last two decades (2000-2019) in the East region of Tunisia (city of Sousse). This was a descriptive retrospective analysis of notified incident cases of tuberculosis from 2000 to 2019 in Sousse Governorate, Tunisia. The data collection was done via the regional registry of tuberculosis. Stata software was used to characterize the socio-demographic and clinical profile of tuberculosis, to calculate its incidence, mortality and fatality rates and to determine predictive factors of mortality. R software was used to analyze the chronological trend of tuberculosis incidence and mortality. A total of 2606 incident cases of tuberculosis were declared from 2000 to 2019 in Sousse. The mean age was 39 ± 19 years with a sex ratio (male/female) of 1.19. Only one case was HIV positive among the total 2606 incident cases. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis was the most recorded (1,534 cases, 58.9%). The mean annual case notification and deaths were 130 and four respectively. After adjusting for confounders, individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis were 1.9 significantly more likely to die from tuberculosis compared to those suffering from extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. There was a trend of increasing mortality with increasing age. The association was statistically significant only for those above 60 years' old who had 12.5 times higher odds of dying compared to those below 60 years. After adjusting for age and gender, with every year there was an increase in the total incidence rate (+0.35 per 100,000) with p = 0.005 and in the extra-pulmonary incidence (+0.27 per 100,000), with p = 0.001. This study demonstrated the increasing trend of tuberculosis in Sousse, Tunisia from 2000 to 2019. The national program against tuberculosis should enhance community knowledge and centralize the national and regional epidemiological information for better epidemiological surveillance.

Tuberculosis , Adult , Age Distribution , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tunisia/epidemiology , Young Adult
Theriogenology ; 177: 157-164, 2022 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710647

Long-term studies of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Southern California have documented persistent small population sizes and the lowest genetic variation of any mountain lion population, except for the Federally endangered mountain lion subspecies, the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi). There is overwhelming molecular evidence supporting inbreeding and low genetic diversity in these Southern California populations but there is a lack of phenotypical evidence of inbreeding depression. The primary goal of this study was to assess male mountain lions, in Southern California, for teratospermia (>60% abnormal sperm production), one of the first signs of inbreeding depression in mountain lions that are associated with decreased reproduction and population decline. From December 2019 to December 2020, we surveyed mountain lions during live captures, after mortality events, and in images collected from camera traps in the following populations: Santa Monica Mountains, Santa Susana Mountains, Santa Ana Mountains, and the Eastern Peninsular Range. Mountain lions were sampled for known physical abnormalities associated with inbreeding depression such as teratospermia, cryptorchidism, and distal tail kinks. For teratospermia, we extracted testes from five males post-mortem to assess sperm morphology. Epididymal sperm evaluations revealed all males were teratospermic. Across all samples, on average, 93% of observed spermatozoa were abnormal. We physically examined 32 mountain lions (males and females) for distal tail kinks, and we observed one individual affected. We examined 15 male mountain lions for cryptorchidism, and we observed one unilaterally cryptorchid male and one male with testes that differed significantly in size, likely reflecting asynchronous migration of the testes during puberty. Further, we identified three other animals in camera-trap images that had distal tail kinks, for a total of four. In conclusion, from December 2019 to December 2020, we identified nine individuals exhibiting physical signs of inbreeding depression. These reproductive and physical signs of inbreeding depression in Southern California mountain lions increase the urgency of conservation efforts in the region.

Inbreeding Depression , Lions , Puma , Animals , California , Female , Inbreeding , Male , Reproduction
Theriogenology ; 177: 165-171, 2022 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710648

Exfoliative cytology of human amniotic fluid (AF) has been extensively studied since 1940s, but no data exist in equine species. The AF compartment represents the environment in which the foetus grows and matures, and its composition changes, reflecting foetal well-being and development. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time the morphology of equine AF cells and amniotic membrane (AM) with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AF was collected at parturition within 5 min after the appearance of the AM with a 60 mL syringe from 34 mares and samples of AM were collected from a subset of 7 mares with normal pregnancy hospitalized for attended parturition. For LM observation, a sample of cytocentrifuged fresh AF was stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa and AM sections were stained with H-E. For TEM observation, AF and AM were fixed, embedded in epoxy resins, then sectioned and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate solutions. Nucleated and anucleated squamous cells with basophilic cytoplasm, intensely basophilic cornified cells, polymorphonuclear cells, and clusters of eosinophilic amorphous substance were observed. Cells presumably derived from tracheal epithelium and small round nucleated cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm presumably derived from amniotic or urinary epithelium were occasionally found. Lamellar body-like structures (LBs) were present in some epithelial cells. In AM, epithelial, basal and mesenchymal layers were clearly visible with both techniques as previously described. Epithelial cells had several cytoplasmic vacuolization and microvilli were present on apical surface. The connective tissue presented fibroblasts, mesenchymal and rare polymorphonuclear cells, surrounded by abundant extracellular matrix, with distribution of collagen fibres. This is the first report about equine amniotic compartment description by LM and TEM. As recently reported in human medicine, the AM could be a second potential source of pulmonary surfactant, given the finding of LBs inside the cells which could have the same function as in humans. Further studies in samples collected at different gestational ages could increase the knowledge of AF cells and their modification during pregnancy, as well as a better comprehension of the role of AM as a secondary source of pulmonary surfactant in the horse. The diagnostic evaluation of AF cellular composition in high-risk pregnancies may also be investigated.

Amnion , Amniotic Fluid , Animals , Epithelial Cells , Female , Gestational Age , Horses , Parturition , Pregnancy
Theriogenology ; 177: 172-182, 2022 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715542

Artificial insemination (AI) is a proven breeding technology which has been widely used in pig reproduction. Low temperature can cause very serious damage to pig sperm below 15 °C and the situation is even more serious at lower temperature. Besides, the preservation of pig sperm is mainly carried out at 17 °C because of its outstanding performance in pig reproduction. However, the accumulation of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the preservation process is the main reason for the deterioration of sperm quality. In our research, by adding different concentrations of hydroxytyrosol to the diluent during the storage of pig sperm at 17 °C, we compared them with the traditional diluent to study the sperm motility, the cumulative amount of ROS, the extent of sperm membrane damage, the sperm acrosome integrity, the sperm DNA damage and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, T-AOC, SOD, GSH-PX, MDA) to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol on the sperm quality during storage. We used proteomics sequencing technology to monitor difference in sperm protein between the control samples and the addition of 120 µmol/L hydroxytyrosol samples (optimum concentration) after three days storage. Ultimately, we selected the control samples and the addition of 120 µmol/L hydroxytyrosol samples to test the effect of AI. The results of our research showed that during storage of pig sperm at 17 °C, the sperm quality and antioxidant capacity of the hydroxytyrosol-treated samples significantly improved (HT 120 µmol/L) (P < 0.05). Proteomics sequencing analysis proved that the addition of 120 µmol/L hydroxytyrosol treatment samples had potential value in improving sperm quality. The significant increase in sow pregnancy rate and piglet birth weight proved that hydroxytyrosol had important practical value in pig reproduction. Based on our results, we demonstrated that the addition of hydroxytyrosol to the diluent could improve the quality of pig sperm and the efficiency of AI.

Semen Preservation , Sperm Motility , Animals , Female , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Male , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Pregnancy , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Spermatozoa , Swine
Anal Chim Acta ; 1189: 339204, 2022 Jan 02.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815043

Electrochemical sensing methods monitor biomolecules because of their specificity, rapid response, lower cost, and automation. Hemoglobin is an abundant protein in the human body and is correlated with various physiological processes. Levels of hemoglobin in blood are associated with anemia in pregnant women. In this research, a non-enzymatic sensor based on NiTe nanorods is developed for the detection and quantification of hemoglobin (Hb) from anemic pregnant patients. NiTe nanorods are synthesized by the single-step method. After characterizing the material, sensing parameters such as the effect of scan rate, pH, concentration, and interferences are optimized using standard hemoglobin samples. Linearity, the limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for NiTe nanorods are 0.99698, 0.012 nM, and 0.04 nM, respectively. Stability is measured by cyclic chronoamperometry (12 h) and voltammetry (100 cycles). Recovery of hemoglobin from blood samples is in the range of 63-90%. NiTe nanorods quantitatively determine hemoglobin from the blood samples of anemic pregnant women.

Anemia , Nanotubes , Anemia/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753828

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are limited data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine reactogenicity in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and how reactogenicity is affected by disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to generate real-world multiple sclerosis-specific vaccine safety information, particularly in the context of specific DMTs, and provide information to mitigate specific concerns in vaccine hesitant PwMS. METHODS: Between 3/2021 and 6/2021, participants in iConquerMS, an online people-powered research network, reported SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, experiences of local (itch, pain, redness, swelling, or warmth at injection site) and systemic (fever, chills, fatigue, headache, joint pain, malaise, muscle ache, nausea, allergic, and other) reactions within 24 hours (none, mild, moderate, and severe), DMT use, and other attributes. Multivariable models characterized associations between clinical factors and reactogenicity. RESULTS: In 719 PwMS, 64% reported experiencing a reaction after their first vaccination shot, and 17% reported a severe reaction. The most common reactions were pain at injection site (54%), fatigue (34%), headache (28%), and malaise (21%). Younger age, being female, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vs BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine were associated with experiencing a reaction after the first vaccine dose. Similar relationships were observed for a severe reaction, including higher odds of reactions among PwMS with more physical impairment and lower odds of reactions for PwMS on an alpha4-integrin blocker or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator. In 442 PwMS who received their second vaccination shot, 74% reported experiencing a reaction, whereas 22% reported a severe reaction. Reaction profiles after the second shot were similar to those reported after the first shot. Younger PwMS and those who received the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vs BNT162b2 vaccine reported higher reactogenicity after the second shot, whereas those on a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator or fumarate were significantly less likely to report a reaction. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine reactogenicity profiles and the associated factors in this convenience sample of PwMS appear similar to those reported in the general population. PwMS on specific DMTs were less likely to report vaccine reactions. Overall, the short-term vaccine reactions experienced in the study population were mostly self-limiting, including pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and fever.

COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753829

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to compare COVID-19-related outcomes collected in an Italian cohort of patients with MS with the outcomes expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population. METHODS: Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death after COVID-19 diagnosis of 1,362 patients with MS were compared with the age- and sex-matched Italian population in a retrospective observational case-cohort study with population-based control. The observed vs the expected events were compared in the whole MS cohort and in different subgroups (higher risk: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score > 3 or at least 1 comorbidity, lower risk: EDSS score ≤ 3 and no comorbidities) by the χ2 test, and the risk excess was quantified by risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: The risk of severe events was about twice the risk in the age- and sex-matched Italian population: RR = 2.12 for hospitalization (p < 0.001), RR = 2.19 for ICU admission (p < 0.001), and RR = 2.43 for death (p < 0.001). The excess of risk was confined to the higher-risk group (n = 553). In lower-risk patients (n = 809), the rate of events was close to that of the Italian age- and sex-matched population (RR = 1.12 for hospitalization, RR = 1.52 for ICU admission, and RR = 1.19 for death). In the lower-risk group, an increased hospitalization risk was detected in patients on anti-CD20 (RR = 3.03, p = 0.005), whereas a decrease was detected in patients on interferon (0 observed vs 4 expected events, p = 0.04). DISCUSSION: Overall, the MS cohort had a risk of severe events that is twice the risk than the age- and sex-matched Italian population. This excess of risk is mainly explained by the EDSS score and comorbidities, whereas a residual increase of hospitalization risk was observed in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and a decrease in people on interferon.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759018

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19; (2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected; and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients; 110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Masks/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/blood