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BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 196, 2024 Feb 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321454

BACKGROUND: Oral thrush is the most common occurring fungal infection in the oral cavity in uncontrolled diabetic patients, it is treated by various antifungal drugs according to each case. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical application of miconazole and miconazole-loaded chitosan nanoparticles in treatment of diabetic patients with oral candidiasis. METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 80 diabetic patients presenting with symptomatic oral candidiasis were randomly assigned into two treatment groups: miconazole and miconazole-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The patients were treated for 28 days, and clinical assessments were conducted at baseline, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Clinical parameters, including signs and symptoms of oral candidiasis were evaluated and microbiological analysis was performed to determine the Candida species and assess their susceptibility to the antifungal agents. Statistical analysis was done to the categorical and numerical data using chi-square test and Kruskal Wallis test. RESULTS: The antifungal efficacy between the miconazole and miconazole-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CS-MCZ) groups insignificant difference (P >  0.05) was observed. Both treatment modalities exhibited comparable effectiveness in controlling oral candidiasis symptoms and reducing Candida colonization as miconazole-loaded chitosan nanoparticles group showed a significant difference in the clinical improvement in respect of both signs and symptoms from baseline (70%) until the end of study at 28 days (5%) (P <  0.05) Moreover, miconazole-loaded chitosan nanoparticles, there was a significant reduction in the number of colonies forming units of Candida albicans from baseline until the end of the study at 28-day with P value <  0.000. CONCLUSIONS: This randomized controlled clinical trial and microbiological analysis demonstrate that both miconazole and miconazole-loaded chitosan nanoparticles are effective in the treatment of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients with no adverse reactions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT06072716 with first registration first registration in 10/10/2023.

Candidiasis, Oral , Chitosan , Diabetes Mellitus , Nanoparticles , Humans , Miconazole/pharmacology , Miconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Candida , Gels/therapeutic use
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 81-86, 2024 Jan 20.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322517

Objective: To construct type Ⅰ collagen gels with different stiffness and to investigate the effects of three-dimensional (3D) culture environments of the gels on the morphology, free migration ability, and cell killing function of natural killer (NK) cells. Methods: Type Ⅰ collagen was isolated from the tails of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and collagen gels with different levels of stiffnesses were prepared accordingly. The microstructure of the collagen gels was observed by laser confocal microscopy. The stiffness of the collagen gels was assessed by measuring the plateau modulus with a rheometer. NK-92MI cells were cultured in collagen gels with different levels of stiffness. The morphology of NK-92MI cells was observed by inverted microscope. High content imaging system was used to record the free migration process of NK-92MI cells and analyze the migration speed and distance. NK-92MI cells were cultured with type Ⅰ collagen gels with different levels of stiffness for 24 h and 48 h and, then, co-cultured with human colorectal DLD-1, a human adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line. CCK8 assay was performed to determine the proliferation rate of DLD-1 cells and analyze the cell killing ability of NK-92MI cells. Results: Low-stiffness type Ⅰ collagen gel and high-stiffness type Ⅰ collagen gel with the respective stiffness of (10.970±2.10) Pa and (114.50±3.40) Pa were successfully prepared. Compared with those cultured with the low-stiffness type Ⅰ collagen gel, the NK-92MI cells in the high-stiffness type Ⅰ collagen gel showed a more elongated shape (P<0.05), the mean area of the cells was reduced ([69.88±26.97] µm2 vs. [46.59±21.62] µm2, P<0.05), the roundness of the cells decreased (0.82±0.12 vs. 0.78±0.18, P<0.05), cell migration speed decreased ([2.50±0.91] µm/min vs. [1.70±0.72] µm/min, P<0.001) and the migration distance was shortened ([147.10±53.74] µm vs. [98.03± 40.95] µm, P<0.0001), with all the differences being statistically significant. Compared with those cultured with the low-stiffness type Ⅰ collagen gel, NK-92MI cells cultured with high-stiffness type Ⅰ collagen gel for 24 h could promote DLD-1 cell proliferation, with the proliferation rate being (46.39±12.79)% vs. (65.87±4.45)% (P<0.05) and reduce the cell killing ability. Comparison of the cells cultured for 48 h led to similar results, with the proliferation rates being (31.36±2.88)% vs. (74.57±2.16)% (P<0.05), and the differences were all statistically significant. Conclusion: The 3D culture environment of type Ⅰ collagen gels with different levels of stiffness alters the morphology, migration ability, and killing function of NK-92MI cells. This study provides the research basis for exploring and understanding the mechanisms by which the biomechanical microenvironment affects the immune response of NK cells, as well as laying the theoretical foundation for optimizing immunotherapy protocols.

Collagen Type I , Killer Cells, Natural , Rats , Animals , Humans , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Collagen/chemistry , Gels
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(2): 42-49, 2024 Feb 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306147

BACKGROUND: Topical acne trials often are confounded by high vehicle response rates and differing outcome measures, making it difficult to compare treatments. Number needed to treat (NNT) can be a simple, clinically meaningful way to indirectly compare treatment options without head-to-head data. NNT is the number of patients who need to be treated with an intervention to observe one additional patient successfully achieving a desired outcome versus vehicle/placebo. While treatment attributes such as adverse events may not be captured, lower NNT is a good indicator of a more effective treatment. METHODS: Following a search of combination topical treatments for acne vulgaris, all treatments that reported pivotal trial efficacy data consistent with the 2018 FDA definition of success were included in NNT analyses.  Results: Of 13 treatments, 7 reported 12-week treatment success rates in 11 phase 3 trials, with similar baseline demographics/disease severity. Treatment success ranged from 26.8% with tretinoin 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 3% cream to 50% with triple-combination clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/adapalene 0.15%/BPO 3.1% gel. NNTs for the triple-combination gel were 4 and 5 (from 2 pivotal trials). Adapalene 0.3%/BPO 2.5% gel had an NNT of 5. Tretinoin/BPO had the largest range between trials, with NNTs of 4 and 9. The other 4 treatments had NNTs ranging from 6 to 8. CONCLUSION: A comparison of combination topical acne treatment trial data, using the same treatment outcome and similar patient populations, resulted in triple-combination clindamycin phosphate/adapalene/BPO gel and adapalene/BPO gel having the most favorable NNTs.J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(2):42-49.  doi:10.36849/JDD.7927.

Acne Vulgaris , Dermatologic Agents , Humans , Drug Combinations , Acne Vulgaris/diagnosis , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Acne Vulgaris/chemically induced , Benzoyl Peroxide , Adapalene , Tretinoin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Gels/therapeutic use
Food Res Int ; 178: 113955, 2024 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309874

Developing prospective plant-animal binary protein systems with desirable nutritional and rheological properties stands as a significant and challenging pursuit within the food industry. Our understanding of the effect of adding salt on the aggregation behavior of food proteins is currently based on single model protein systems, however, this knowledge is rather limited following binary protein systems. Herein, various ionic strength settings are used to mitigate the repulsive forces between pea-cod mixed proteins during the thermal process, which further benefits the construction of a strengthened gel network. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) collectively demonstrated that larger heat-induced protein aggregates were formed, which increased in size with higher ionic strength. In the presence of 2.5 mM CaCl2 and 50 mM NaCl, the disulfide bonds significantly increased from 19.3 to 27.53 and 30.5 µM/g, respectively. Notably, similar aggregation behavior could be found when introducing 2.5 mM CaCl2 or 25 mM NaCl, due to the enhanced aggregation tendency by specific binding of Ca2+ to proteins. With relevance to the strengthened cross-links between protein molecules, salt endowed composite gels with preferable gelling properties, evidenced by increased storage modulus. Additionally, the gelling temperature of mixed proteins decreased below 50 °C at elevated ionic strength. Simultaneously, the proportion of network proteins in composite gels increased remarkably from 82.05 % to 93.61 % and 92.31 % upon adding 5.0 mM CaCl2 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively. The findings provide a valuable foundation for designing economically viable and health-oriented plant-animal binary protein systems.

Pea Proteins , Animals , Calcium Chloride , Sodium Chloride , Plant Proteins , Gels/chemistry
Food Res Int ; 178: 113987, 2024 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309923

This work aimed to understand the role of lupin protein or mixed lupin-whey protein stabilized oil droplets on the texture and microstructure of a heat-induced whey protein gel. Protein-stabilized emulsions were compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions to investigate the potential of their interfacial interactions to impart unique structures in the filled gels. The structure development was followed in situ using rheology and the final heat-induced gels were characterized by small and large amplitude oscillatory rheology and confocal microscopy. The development of the gel modulus as well as the final gel properties were linked to the type of interactions between the whey protein matrix and the protein adsorbed at the oil interface. The final gels were selectively dissolved in various buffers, and the results showed that replacing interfacial whey protein with lupin protein resulted in a reduced amount of disulfide bridges, explaining the softer gel in the lupin containing gels compared to those with whey protein. Non-covalent interactions were the main forces involved in the formation of actively filled droplets in the gel network. This work demonstrated that by modulating the interfacial composition of the oil droplets, differing gel structures could be achieved due to differences in the protein-protein interactions between the continuous and the interfacial phase. There is therefore potential for the development of innovative products using lupin-whey protein mixtures, by careful control of the processing steps and the matrix composition.

Proteins , Surface-Active Agents , Whey Proteins/chemistry , Emulsions/chemistry , Gels/chemistry
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3676, 2024 02 14.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355970

Continuous intra-jejunal infusion of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is a long-term proven and effective treatment in advanced Parkinson's Disease (APD). Efficacy and safety of 16-h administration of LCIG has already been established. Additional benefits of 24-h LCIG administration have been reported in several case series and small clinical studies. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the characteristics of patients who needed 24-h LCIG from the beginning of the DAT (device-aided treatment) with those who remained with the standard 16-h LCIG treatment and to identify particular motives if any. We initiated LCIG in 150 patients out of which in case of 62 patients (41,3%) due to unsatisfactory initial clinical benefits continuous 24-h LCIG was deemed necessary. Despite the subjective complaints and more severe clinical condition, at baseline evaluation we found statistically significant differences between 16-h LCIG cohort and 24-h LCIG cohort only in case of incidence of freezing (47% vs 65%, p = 0.03) and sudden off (32% vs 48%, p = 0.04). Wake hours/daytime LCIG does not always sufficiently improve the patient's quality of life in some patients due to persistent nighttime troublesome symptoms. Instead of labeling the patient as a non-responder, it is worth trying the 24-h LCIG dosage in a carefully selected group of patients, as there is currently no consensus on reliable criteria that serve the decision in these patients.

Carbidopa , Parkinson Disease , Humans , Carbidopa/therapeutic use , Levodopa/therapeutic use , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Antiparkinson Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Gels/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations
Food Res Int ; 179: 114035, 2024 Mar.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342515

This study evaluated the influence of starch-protein interactions on the chemical properties and digestibility of a 3D-printed gel based on salmon by-product protein. Changes in the starch-protein interactions of the stable cornstarch (CS, 15%) and salmon protein isolate (SPI, 4%-12%) printable gels during the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process were studied by principal component analysis. Protein-rich printed gels increased resistant starch content by 18.05%. Changes in chemical properties and the starch-protein concentration of the gels during the digestion process were highly correlated. The CS-SPI gels in the gastric and intestinal phases exhibited lower α-helix/ß-sheet ratio and fluorescence intensity values, whereas surface hydrophobicity increased. This resulted in more ordered structures with a high level of molecular interaction that inhibited enzymatic hydrolysis. This study provides crucial information about the transformations of starch-protein interactions during the digestibility of 3D-printed food matrices as an alternative source of nutrients with a high nutritional quality.

Salmon , Starch , Animals , Starch/chemistry , Salmon/metabolism , Proteins/chemistry , Gels/chemistry , Seafood/analysis , Printing, Three-Dimensional
Int J Nanomedicine ; 19: 1225-1248, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348173

Purpose: Acne vulgaris is one of the most prevalent dermal disorders affecting skin health and appearance. To date, there is no effective cure for this pathology, and the majority of marketed formulations eliminate both healthy and pathological microbiota. Therefore, hereby we propose the encapsulation of an antimicrobial natural compound (thymol) loaded into lipid nanostructured systems to be topically used against acne. Methods: To address this issue, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) capable of encapsulating thymol, a natural compound used for the treatment of acne vulgaris, were developed either using ultrasonication probe or high-pressure homogenization and optimized using 22-star factorial design by analyzing the effect of NLC composition on their physicochemical parameters. These NLC were optimized using a design of experiments approach and were characterized using different physicochemical techniques. Moreover, short-term stability and cell viability using HaCat cells were assessed. Antimicrobial efficacy of the developed NLC was assessed in vitro and ex vivo. Results: NLC encapsulating thymol were developed and optimized and demonstrated a prolonged thymol release. The formulation was dispersed in gels and a screening of several gels was carried out by studying their rheological properties and their skin retention abilities. From them, carbomer demonstrated the capacity to be highly retained in skin tissues, specifically in the epidermis and dermis layers. Moreover, antimicrobial assays against healthy and pathological skin pathogens demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of thymol-loaded NLC gelling systems since NLC are more efficient in slowly reducing C. acnes viability, but they possess lower antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis, compared to free thymol. Conclusion: Thymol was successfully loaded into NLC and dispersed in gelling systems, demonstrating that it is a suitable candidate for topical administration against acne vulgaris by eradicating pathogenic bacteria while preserving the healthy skin microbiome.

Acne Vulgaris , Anti-Infective Agents , Nanostructures , Humans , Thymol/pharmacology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Gels/chemistry , Particle Size
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(1): 1332-1336, 2024 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206143

BACKGROUND: With a wide range of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler products available, knowledge of gel characteristics is a key part of tailoring treatments to each patient's aesthetic goals. This paper presents 2 main gel characteristics - strength/firmness and flexibility - for HA fillers produced using NASHA® and OBT™ and their clinical significance for tissue performance. METHODS: Three NASHA gels (Restylane®; Restylane Silk; Restylane Lyft) and 4 OBT gels (Restylane Refyne; Restylane Kysse; Restylane Volyme; Restylane Defyne) were studied in dynamic mode using a PP25 rheometric measuring system at 25 degrees C. Gel strength/firmness was measured using frequency sweep, with G prime evaluated at 0.1 Hz. Flexibility assessments used amplitude sweep measurements between 0.1% and 10,000% strain at 1 Hz, with xStrain being the strain value at the crossover point where G prime and G double prime have the same value.  Results: Restylane, Restylane Silk, and Restylane Lyft had G primes of 701, 416, and 799 Pa, respectively. OBT G primes for Restylane Refyne, Restylane Kysse, Restylane Volyme, and Restylane Defyne were 70, 160, 171, and 271 Pa, respectively. The xStrain values were 1,442% (Restylane Refyne), 908% (Restylane Kysse), 930% (Restylane Volyme), 761% (Restylane Defyne), 7% (Restylane), 19% (Restylane Silk), and 17% (Restylane Lyft).  Conclusions: OBT products had high flexibility (tolerance to deformation) and low to intermediate strength/firmness, which make them appropriate for dynamic facial areas. NASHA products showed greater strength/firmness, with the potential to create lift and projection. Altogether, NASHA and OBT HA gels covered a wide range of strength and flexibility. J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(1):1332-1336.     doi:10.36849/JDD.7648.

Hyaluronic Acid , Esthetics , Gels , Hyaluronic Acid/chemistry , Silk
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1359, 2024 01 16.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228631

In our pursuit of enhancing acne treatment while minimizing side effects, we developed tailored Adapalene microsponges (MS) optimized using a Box-Behnken design 33. The independent variables, Eudragit RS100 percentage in the polymer mixture, organic phase volume, and drug to polymer percentage, were explored. The optimized formulation exhibited remarkable characteristics, with a 98.3% ± 1.6 production yield, 97.3% ± 1.64 entrapment efficiency, and a particle size of 31.8 ± 1.1 µm. Notably, it achieved a 24 h cumulative drug release of 75.1% ± 1.4. To delve deeper into its efficacy, we evaluated the optimized microspongeal-gel in vitro, in vivo, and clinically. It demonstrated impressive retention in the pilosebaceous unit, a target for acne treatment. Comparative studies between our optimized Adapalene microspongeal gel and marketed Adapalene revealed superior performance. In vivo studies on Propionibacterium acnes-infected mice ears showed a remarkable 97% reduction in ear thickness, accompanied by a significant decrease in inflammatory signs and NF-κB levels, as confirmed by histopathological and histochemical examination. Moreover, in preliminary clinical evaluation, it demonstrated outstanding effectiveness in reducing comedonal lesions while causing fewer irritations. This not only indicates its potential for clinical application but also underscores its ability to enhance patient satisfaction, paving the way for future commercialization.

Acne Vulgaris , Dermatologic Agents , Humans , Mice , Animals , Adapalene , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Acne Vulgaris/pathology , Skin/pathology , Polymers/therapeutic use , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Gels/therapeutic use
N Engl J Med ; 390(3): 203-211, 2024 Jan 18.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231621

BACKGROUND: Testosterone treatment in men with hypogonadism improves bone density and quality, but trials with a sufficiently large sample and a sufficiently long duration to determine the effect of testosterone on the incidence of fractures are needed. METHODS: In a subtrial of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that assessed the cardiovascular safety of testosterone treatment in middle-aged and older men with hypogonadism, we examined the risk of clinical fracture in a time-to-event analysis. Eligible men were 45 to 80 years of age with preexisting, or high risk of, cardiovascular disease; one or more symptoms of hypogonadism; and two morning testosterone concentrations of less than 300 ng per deciliter (10.4 nmol per liter), in fasting plasma samples obtained at least 48 hours apart. Participants were randomly assigned to apply a testosterone or placebo gel daily. At every visit, participants were asked if they had had a fracture since the previous visit. If they had, medical records were obtained and adjudicated. RESULTS: The full-analysis population included 5204 participants (2601 in the testosterone group and 2603 in the placebo group). After a median follow-up of 3.19 years, a clinical fracture had occurred in 91 participants (3.50%) in the testosterone group and 64 participants (2.46%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.97). The fracture incidence also appeared to be higher in the testosterone group for all other fracture end points. CONCLUSIONS: Among middle-aged and older men with hypogonadism, testosterone treatment did not result in a lower incidence of clinical fracture than placebo. The fracture incidence was numerically higher among men who received testosterone than among those who received placebo. (Funded by AbbVie and others; TRAVERSE number, NCT03518034.).

Fractures, Bone , Hypogonadism , Testosterone , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Density/drug effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Double-Blind Method , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Hypogonadism/blood , Hypogonadism/complications , Hypogonadism/drug therapy , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Testosterone/adverse effects , Testosterone/blood , Testosterone/pharmacology , Gels , Administration, Topical
Mar Pollut Bull ; 199: 116011, 2024 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183836

Silica aerogels are attractive oil-absorbing agents due to their low density, high porosity. However, how to discharge the oil which adsorbed by silica aerogels is a difficult issue. To address this challenge, new separation strategies with high efficiency are needed. In this study, we prepared the temperature and pH dual response flexible silica aerogel have temperature response and pH response effect, which can change its wettability by adjusting temperature or pH. On the one hand, the temperature and pH responsive flexible silica aerogel can be used to adsorb water at the temperature below 34.73 °C or pH > 7. On the other hand, it can adsorb oil at a temperature above 34.73 °C or pH < 7. The automatic desorption of oil can be achieved without consuming additional energy and damaging the pore structure. Therefore, the sample could continuously adsorb and filtrate efficiently and realize the recovery of oil and adsorption materials.

Silicon Dioxide , Wettability , Temperature , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Gels/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Food Chem ; 441: 138348, 2024 May 30.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199106

In this study, the effects of CaCl2 (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM) on the gelling and digestive properties of the myofibrillar protein (MP) in Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. The results showed that increasing CaCl2 concentration led to changes in the tertiary structure of MP. Specifically, compared with the control group, a 64.31 % increase in surface hydrophobicity and a 45.90 % decrease in the sulfhydryl group were observed after 100 mM CaCl2 treatment. Correspondingly, the water holding capacity and strength of the MP gel increased by 24.46 % and 55.99 %, respectively. These changes were positively correlated with the rheological properties, microstructure pore size, and content of non-flowable water. The mechanical properties of MP gel were improved, and the microstructure became more compact with the increase in CaCl2 concentration. Furthermore, the particle size of the digested MP gels decreased in the presence of CaCl2, which improved the digestion characteristics of MP gels.

Muscle Proteins , Water , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Muscle Proteins/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Gels/chemistry , Water/chemistry
Food Chem ; 441: 138366, 2024 May 30.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199110

The effect of adding apple high-methoxy pectin (HMP) (0-3 mg∙mL-1) on heat-induced gel characteristics of low concentration silver carp myofibrillar protein (MP) (15 mg∙mL-1) was studied. It was found that the hardness of gel increased by 20.6 times with adding 2 mg∙mL-1 HMP. Besides, HMP aided in the development of disulfide bonds and the aggregation of hydrophobic groups. During gel formation, the maximal storage modulus (G') of samples supplemented with 2 mg·mL-1 HMP was raised by a factor of 2.7. Of note, the images of SEM showed that protein and water were tightly combined with a proper amount of HMP and made its pores more uniform and dense. Meantime, the addition of moderate amounts of HMP enabled the formation of gels with favorable texture and performance at low concentration of MP was identified, which could provide a theoretical reference for the design and production of flesh low-calorie food gel.

Carps , Malus , Animals , Hot Temperature , Pectins/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Gels/chemistry , Rheology/methods
J Ethnopharmacol ; 324: 117762, 2024 Apr 24.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219883

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kaempferia galanga L. is one of the important medicinal plants and has been used in Thailand for treating inflammation and wound. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the compound from K. galanga on wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities and develop a new product in gel form to maximize the benefits of this plant. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The mouth gel containing kaempulchraol K (KG2) was prepared by using 1.5% carbopol 934 as a gelling agent. Formulations of mouth gel containing KG2 at 0.10%, 0.25%, and 0.50% w/w were evaluated for color, smell, pH values, viscosity, and separation. Also, the chemical and biological stabilities of mouth gel containing KG2 were evaluated by heating-cooling test. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested against RAW 264.7 cells nitric oxide (NO) production and wound healing assay was performed using human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). RESULTS: Compound KG2 exhibited anti-NO production with an IC50 value of 66.8 µM and the wound healing activity of compound KG2 showed cell viability in the range of 90.9-111.4%. In addition, compound KG2 at a concentration of 3 µM induced the highest proportion of cell migration on day 3 at 90.2 ± 2.4%. The mouth gel containing KG2 both before and after the heating-cooling test exhibited good consistency, with pH values in the range of 6.64-6.71 (before) and 6.63-6.68 (after). Meanwhile, the viscosity was 81,700-96,700 cP (before) and 78,300-93,300 cP (after). For the chemical stability test of the active ingredient of mouth gel, the compound showed good stability after mixing with the gel base. The mouth gel exhibited anti-inflammation with IC50 values > 1000 µg/ml both before and after accelerating conditions. The wound healing activity of mouth gel containing KG2 (0.50% w/w) showed the highest % cell viability at 128.6% (before) and 123.8% (after). For cell migration, the result suggested that the mouth gel containing KG2 at 0.10%, 0.25%, and 0.50% w/w (3 µg/ml) on day 3 enhanced cell migration higher than that of the positive controls both before (85.0-96.8%) and after (and 84.4-94.3%) the accelerating conditions. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that mouth gel containing 0.50% KG2 is the most appropriate with good physical, chemical, and biological stabilities and might be one of the alternative sources for treatment of mouth ulcers (oral stomatitis) derived from aphthous ulcers, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy treatments.

Alpinia , Zingiberaceae , Humans , Rhizome/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Wound Healing , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Gels/pharmacology , Mouth
Food Chem ; 442: 138414, 2024 Jun 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237299

Based on the findings of our previous studies, a comprehensive comparative investigation of the quality and formation mechanism of gels obtained from protein self-assemblies induced by different methods is necessary. Self-assembled heat-induced gels had higher gel mechanical strength, and hydrophobic interactions played a greater role. Whether or not heat treatment was used to induce gel formation may play a more important role than the effect of divalent cations on gel formation. Hydrogen bonds played an important role in all gels formed using different gelation methods. Furthermore, Self-assembled cold-induced gels were considered to can load bioactive substances with different hydrophilicity properties due to the high water-holding capacity and the smooth, dense microstructure. Therefore, ß-lactoglobulin fibrous and worm-like self-assembled cold-induced gels as a delivery material for hydrophilic bioactive substances (epigallocatechin gallate, vitamin B2) and amphiphilic bioactive substance (naringenin), with good encapsulation efficiency (91.92 %, 97.08 %, 96.72 %, 96.52 %, 98.94 %, 97.41 %, respectively) and slow-release performance.

Lactoglobulins , Water , Lactoglobulins/chemistry , Water/chemistry , Gels/chemistry , Hot Temperature
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 10(2): 863-874, 2024 Feb 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240580

The exploration of short peptide-based assembly is vital for understanding protein-misfolding-associated diseases and seeking strategies to attenuate aggregate formation. While, the molecular mechanism of their structural evolution remains poorly studied in view of the dynamic and unpredictable assembly process. Herein, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, which serves as an in situ and real-time analytical technique, was intelligently employed to investigate the mechanism of phase transition and aggregate formation during the dynamic assembly process of diphenylalanine. Combined with other spectroscopy and electron microscopy technologies, three stages of gel formation and the main driving forces in different stages were revealed. A variety of stoichiometric methods such as continuous wavelet transform, principal component analysis, and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques were conducted to analyze the original time-dependent IR spectra to obtain detailed information on the changes in the amide bands and hydration layer. The microenvironment of hydrogen bonding among amide bands was significantly changed with the addition of pyridine derivatives, resulting in great differences in the properties of co-assembled gels. This work not only provides a universal analytical way to reveal the dynamic assembly process of dipeptide-based supramolecular gel but also expands their applications in supramolecular regulation and high-throughput screens in situ.

Dipeptides , Peptides , Dipeptides/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Gels/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Amides
Carbohydr Polym ; 329: 121794, 2024 Apr 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286531

Cellulose acetate (CA)-based electrospun nanofiber aerogel (ENA) has drawn extensive attention for wastewater remediation due to its unique separation, inherent porosity and biodegradability. However, the low mechanical strength, poor durability, and limited adsorption ability hinder its further applications. We herein propose using silane-modified ENA, namely T-CA@Si@ZIF-67 (T-ENA), with enhanced resilience, hydrophobicity, durability and hetero-catalysis to remediate a complex wastewater containing oil and drug residues. The robust T-ENA was fabricated by pre-doping tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ligand in its spinning precursors, followed by in-situ anchoring of porous ZIF-67 on the electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) via seeding method before freeze-drying and thermal curing (T). Results show that the T-ENA displays enhanced mechanical stability/resilience and hydrophobicity without compromise of its high porosity (>98 %) and low density (10 mg/cm3) due to the silane cross-linking. As a result, the hydrophobic T-ENA shows over 99 % separation efficiency towards different oil-water solutions. Meanwhile, thanks to the enhanced adsorption-catalytic ability and the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) from the porous ZIF-67, fast degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) residue in the wastewater can be achieved within 20 min. This work might provide a novel strategy for developing CA aerogels to remove organic pollutants.

Cellulose/analogs & derivatives , Drug Residues , Nanofibers , Resilience, Psychological , Nanofibers/chemistry , Gels/chemistry , Wastewater , Silanes , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Soft Matter ; 20(5): 1018-1024, 2024 Jan 31.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38197458

Enzyme-loaded spherical microgels with diameters of several micrometers have been explored for use in therapeutic microreactors and biosensors. Conventional preparation strategies for enzyme-loaded microgels utilized water-in-oil emulsions or flow chemistry techniques. The former damage enzyme activity using organic solvents and the latter are expensive and difficult to expand because of the complex system. In this study, we present a simple strategy for creating multiple enzyme-loaded gelatin-based microgels with tunable diameters in a single flask. This strategy was based on our finding that enzymes spontaneously partitioned in a dispersed methacryloyl gelatin aqueous solution in a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (WGelMA/WPVP) aqueous solution. The method achieved an encapsulation efficiency of over 70% even with four types of enzymes and retained their activity owing to the full aqueous system. Additionally, the encapsulated ß-galactosidase activity was maintained for 24 hours at pH 6, although naked ß-galactosidase lost approximately 60% of its activity, which was superior to that of previous enzyme-loaded gelatin gels. Moreover, this simple method enabled the production of 10 g-scale or more microgels in one batch. We also demonstrated that multiple enzyme-loaded gelatin microgels functioned as cascade microreactors for lactose and glucose sensing. This versatile strategy enables the production of enzyme-loaded microgels while maintaining the enzyme activity using very low technologies. This result contributes to the easy preparation of enzyme-loaded microgels and their applications in the biomedical and green catalytic fields.

Microgels , Emulsions , Water , Gelatin , Gels , beta-Galactosidase