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1.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 29(Pt 1): 224-229, 2022 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985439

Coherent X-ray imaging techniques, such as in-line holography, exploit the high brilliance provided by diffraction-limited storage rings to perform imaging sensitive to the electron density through contrast due to the phase shift, rather than conventional attenuation contrast. Thus, coherent X-ray imaging techniques enable high-sensitivity and low-dose imaging, especially for low-atomic-number (Z) chemical elements and materials with similar attenuation contrast. Here, the first implementation of in-line holography at the NanoMAX beamline is presented, which benefits from the exceptional focusing capabilities and the high brilliance provided by MAX IV, the first operational diffraction-limited storage ring up to approximately 300 eV. It is demonstrated that in-line holography at NanoMAX can provide 2D diffraction-limited images, where the achievable resolution is only limited by the 70 nm focal spot at 13 keV X-ray energy. Also, the 3D capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated by performing holotomography on a chalk sample at a mesoscale resolution of around 155 nm. It is foreseen that in-line holography will broaden the spectra of capabilities of MAX IV by providing fast 2D and 3D electron density images from mesoscale down to nanoscale resolution.


Holography , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Radiography , Synchrotrons , X-Rays
2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 22, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980054

BACKGROUND: Whole body standing alignment (WBSA) in terms of biomechanics can be evaluated accurately only by referring the gravity line (GL) which lies on the gravity center (GC). Here, we introduce a method for estimating GL and simultaneous WBSA measurement using the EOS® imaging system and report on the reproducibility and reliability of the method. METHODS: A 3-dimensional (3D) avatar to estimate GC was created following three steps: 3D reconstruction of the bone based on EOS images; deformation into a generic morphotype (MakeHuman statistical model) before density integration with 3D rasterization of the full body into 1-mm3 voxels (the content of each voxel is considered homogeneous); computation of the density of all the voxels provides the center of mass, which can be projected onto the floor as the GC of the full body, providing the GL in relation to the WBSA. The repeatability, reproducibility, and accuracy of the estimated GC and body weight of the avatar were compared with clinical estimation using a force plate in healthy volunteers and patients with degenerative and deformative diseases. RESULTS: Statistical analyses of the data revealed that the repeatability and reproducibility of the estimation was high with intra-rater and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient. ≥0.999. The coordinate values of the GC and body weight estimation did not differ significantly between the avatar and force plate measurements, demonstrating the high accuracy of the method. CONCLUSION: This new method of estimating GC and WBSA is reliable and accurate. Application of this method could allow clinicians to quickly and qualitatively evaluate WBSA with GL with various spinal malalignment pathologies.


Spine , Standing Position , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Radiography , Radionuclide Imaging , Reproducibility of Results
3.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(1): 22, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981210

The three-dimensional configuration of the genome ensures cell type-specific gene expression profiles by placing genes and regulatory elements in close spatial proximity. Here, we used in situ high-throughput chromosome conformation (in situ Hi-C), RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to characterize the high-order chromatin structure signature of female germline stem cells (FGSCs) and identify its regulating key factor based on the data-driven of multiple omics data. By comparison with pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), adult stem cells (ASCs), and somatic cells at three major levels of chromatin architecture, A/B compartments, topologically associating domains, and chromatin loops, the chromatin architecture of FGSCs was most similar to that of other ASCs and largely different from that of PSCs and somatic cells. After integrative analysis of the three-dimensional chromatin structure, active compartment-associating loops (aCALs) were identified as a signature of high-order chromatin organization in FGSCs, which revealed that CCCTC-binding factor was a major factor to maintain the properties of FGSCs through regulation of aCALs. We found FGSCs belong to ASCs at chromatin structure level and characterized aCALs as the high-order chromatin structure signature of FGSCs. Furthermore, CTCF was identified to play a key role in regulating aCALS to maintain the biological functions of FGSCs. These data provide a valuable resource for future studies of the features of chromatin organization in mammalian stem cells and further understanding of the fundamental characteristics of FGSCs.


CCCTC-Binding Factor/metabolism , Genome , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Oogonial Stem Cells/metabolism , Adult Stem Cells/metabolism , Animals , Base Sequence , Cell Shape , Chromatin/metabolism , Chromosomes, Mammalian/metabolism , Female , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oogonial Stem Cells/cytology
4.
Gen Dent ; 70(1): 51-55, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978991

The objectives of the present study were to compare measurements of pharyngeal airway subregions on lateral cephalometric (LC) and cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in relation to skeletal classes and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging formats for this type of assessment. The CBCT images were assessed via both multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The LC and CBCT images from 107 patients were classified according to skeletal class: I, n = 35; II, n = 35; and III, n = 37. Linear measurements of the subdivisions of the upper airway were performed on the LC, MPR, and 3D images. In addition, area and volumetric measurements were performed on the MPR images. The relationships among imaging methods, skeletal class, and pharyngeal thirds were assessed by means of a 1-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). No statistically significant differences in the linear, area, or volumetric measurements of the upper airway subregions were found among the skeletal classes (P > 0.05). For the linear measurements in the oropharynx and hypopharynx, greater values were observed for the LC images than for the MPR and 3D images (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the study findings, MPR images should be preferred for visualization of the pharyngeal airway subregions. However, LC imaging is preferable to 3D reconstruction.


Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Cephalometry , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Oropharynx/diagnostic imaging , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging
5.
Ultrasonics ; 119: 106599, 2022 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624584

In this paper recent advances in vascular ultrasound imaging technology are discussed, including three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and strain- (SE) and shear-wave-elastography (SWE). 3DUS imaging allows visualisation of the actual 3D anatomy and more recently of flow, and assessment of geometrical, morphological and mechanical features in the carotid artery and the aorta. CEUS involves the use of microbubble contrast agents to estimate sensitive blood flow and neovascularisation (formation of new microvessels). Recent developments include the implementation of computerised tools for automated analysis and quantification of CEUS images, and the possibility to measure blood flow velocity in the aorta. SE, which yields anatomical maps of tissue strain, is increasingly being used to investigate the vulnerability of the carotid plaque, but is also promising for the coronary artery and the aorta. SWE relies on the generation of a shear wave by remote acoustic palpation and its acquisition by ultrafast imaging, and is useful for measuring arterial stiffness. Such advances in vascular ultrasound technology, with appropriate validation in clinical trials, could positively change current management of patients with vascular disease, and improve stratification of cardiovascular risk.


Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/trends , Acoustics , Aorta/diagnostic imaging , Blood Flow Velocity , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Vascular Stiffness
6.
Micron ; 152: 103173, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785434

Microscopy, which is listed among the major in-situ imaging applications, allows to derive information from a biological sample on the existing architectural structures of cells and tissues and their changes over time. Large biological samples such as tumor spheroids cannot be imaged within one field of view, regional imaging in different areas and subsequent stitching are required to attain the full picture. Microscopy is not typically used to produce full-size visualization of tumor spheroids measuring a few millimeters in size. In this study, we propose a 3D volume imaging technique for tracing the growth of an entire tumor spheroid measuring up to 10 mm using a miniaturized optical (mini-Opto) tomography platform. We performed a primary analysis of the 3D imaging for the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic tumoroid employing its 2D images produced with the mini-Opto tomography from different angles ranging from -25 ° to +25 ° at six different three-day-apart time points of consecutive image acquisition. These 2D images were reconstructed by using a 3D image reconstruction algorithm that we developed based on the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). We were able to reconstruct the 3D images of the tumoroid to achieve 800 × 800-pixel 50-layer images at resolutions of 5-25 µm. We also created its 3D visuals to understand more clearly how its volume changed and how it looked over weeks. The volume of the tumor was calculated to be 6.761 mm3 at the first imaging time point and 46.899 mm3 15 days after the first (at the sixth time point), which is 6.94 times larger in volume. The mini-Opto tomography can be considered more advantageous than commercial microscopy because it is portable, more cost-effective, and easier to use, and enables full-size visualization of biological samples measuring a few millimeters in size.


Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Neoplasms , Algorithms , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Tomography
7.
Micron ; 152: 103180, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798356

In Brazil, the Trypanosoma sp. 858 was isolated from a toad (Anura: Bufonidae: Rhinella ictericus) and successfully maintained in cultures. We previously demonstrated that this trypanosome is different but tightly clustered phylogenetically with other trypanosomes from anurans. In this study, we addressed the ultrastructural features of cultured epimastigotes of this new trypanosome. Our results showed very long and thin free motile forms exhibiting a long flagellum and remarkable large and loose K-DNA network. In addition, the anterior portion contained many acidocalcisomes and a well-developed spongiome tubules-contractile vacuole system. One of the main morphological features of this anuran trypanosome was the presence of a complex cytostome-cytopharynx with a specialized membrane coating at the entrance, which is often hidden by the flagellum. Other conspicuous features are the presence of lipid-like droplets, lamellar membrane limited inclusions, and one very large reservosome, all at the posterior portion of the cell body. This new trypanosome may constitute an excellent model for organelles studies related to endocytosis and lipid storage, as demonstrated herein using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional models obtained by either electron microscopy tomography or dual-beam slice and view series.


Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Trypanosoma , Animals , Bufonidae , Cell Membrane , Vacuoles
8.
Micron ; 152: 103182, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801960

In the last decades, the advancements of microscopes technology, together with the development of new imaging approaches, are trying to address some biological questions that have been unresolved in the past: the need to combine in the same analysis temporal, functional and morphological information on the biological sample has become pressing. For this reason, the use of correlative microscopy, in which two or more imaging techniques are combined in the same analysis, is getting increasingly widespread. In fact, correlative microscopy can overcome limitations of a single imaging method, giving access to a larger amount of information from the same specimen. However, correlative microscopy can be challenging, and appropriate protocols for sample preparation and imaging methods must be selected. Here we review the state of the art of correlating electron microscopy with different imaging methods, focusing on sample preparation, tools, and labeling methods, with the aim to provide a comprehensive guide for those scientists who are approaching the field of correlative methods.


Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Microscopy, Electron , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
9.
Opt Lett ; 47(1): 90-93, 2022 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951888

X-ray-induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT) has shown great potential as a hybrid imaging modality for real-time non-invasive x-ray dosimetry and low-dose three-dimensional (3D) imaging. While promising, one drawback of the XACT system is the underlying low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), limiting its in vivo clinical use. In this Letter, we propose the first use of a conventional x-ray computed tomography contrast agent, Gastrografin, for improving the SNR of in situ XACT imaging. We obtained 3D volumetric XACT images of a mouse's stomach with orally injected Gastrografin establishing the proposal's feasibility. Thus, we believe, in the future, our proposed technique will allow in vivo imaging and expand or complement conventional x-ray modalities, such as radiotherapy and accelerators.


Contrast Media , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Acoustics , Animals , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mice , Phantoms, Imaging , X-Rays
11.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 31: 405-418, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874858

Tubular structure tracking is a crucial task in the fields of computer vision and medical image analysis. The minimal paths-based approaches have exhibited their strong ability in tracing tubular structures, by which a tubular structure can be naturally modeled as a minimal geodesic path computed with a suitable geodesic metric. However, existing minimal paths-based tracing approaches still suffer from difficulties such as the shortcuts and short branches combination problems, especially when dealing with the images involving complicated tubular tree structures or background. In this paper, we introduce a new minimal paths-based model for minimally interactive tubular structure centerline extraction in conjunction with a perceptual grouping scheme. Basically, we take into account the prescribed tubular trajectories and curvature-penalized geodesic paths to seek suitable shortest paths. The proposed approach can benefit from the local smoothness prior on tubular structures and the global optimality of the used graph-based path searching scheme. Experimental results on both synthetic and real images prove that the proposed model indeed obtains outperformance comparing with the state-of-the-art minimal paths-based tubular structure tracing algorithms.


Algorithms , Imaging, Three-Dimensional
12.
Eur Radiol ; 32(1): 517-523, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132877

PURPOSE: This study evaluates the performance of a mobile and compact hybrid C-arm scanner (referred to as IXSI) that is capable of simultaneous acquisition of 2D fluoroscopic and nuclear projections and 3D image reconstruction in the intervention room. RESULTS: The impact of slightly misaligning the IXSI modalities (in an off-focus geometry) was investigated for the reduction of the fluoroscopic and nuclear interference. The 2D and 3D nuclear image quality of IXSI was compared with a clinical SPECT/CT scanner by determining the spatial resolution and sensitivity of point sources and by performing a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed NEMA image quality phantom. The 2D and 3D fluoroscopic image of IXSI was compared with a clinical CBCT scanner by visualizing the Fluorad A+D image quality phantom and by visualizing a reconstructed liver nodule phantom. Finally, the feasibility of dynamic simultaneous nuclear and fluoroscopic imaging was demonstrated by injecting an anthropomorphic phantom with a mixture of iodinated contrast and 99mTc. CONCLUSION: Due to the divergent innovative hybrid design of IXSI, concessions were made to the nuclear and fluoroscopic image qualities. Nevertheless, IXSI realizes unique image guidance that may be beneficial for several types of procedures. KEY POINTS: • IXSI can perform time-resolved planar (2D) simultaneous fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging. • IXSI can perform SPECT/CBCT imaging (3D) inside the intervention room.


Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Phantoms, Imaging
13.
Eur Radiol ; 32(1): 442-447, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327574

OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of breathing state on the accuracy of a 3D camera for body contour detection and patient positioning in thoracic CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent CT of the thorax with both an inspiratory and expiratory scan were prospectively included for analysis of differences in the ideal table height at different breathing states. For a subgroup, an ideal table height suggestion based on 3D camera images at both breathing states was available to assess their influence on patient positioning accuracy. Ideal patient positioning was defined as the table height at which the scanner isocenter coincides with the patient's isocenter. RESULTS: The mean (SD) difference of the ideal table height between the inspiratory and the expiratory breathing state among the 64 included patients was 10.6 mm (4.5) (p < 0.05). The mean (SD) positioning accuracy, i.e., absolute deviation from the ideal table height, within the subgroup (n = 43) was 4.6 mm (7.0) for inspiratory scans and 7.1 mm (7.7) for expiratory scans (p < 0.05) when using corresponding 3D camera images. The mean (SD) accuracy was 14.7 mm (7.4) (p < 0.05) when using inspiratory camera images on expiratory scans; vice versa, the accuracy was 3.1 mm (9.5) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A 3D camera allows for accurate and precise patient positioning if the camera image and the subsequent CT scan are acquired in the same breathing state. It is recommended to perform an expiratory planning image when acquiring a thoracic CT scan in both the inspiratory and expiratory breathing state. KEY POINTS: • A 3D camera for body contour detection allows for accurate and precise patient positioning if the camera image and the subsequent CT scan are acquired in the same breathing state. • It is recommended to perform an expiratory planning image when acquiring a thoracic CT scan in both the inspiratory and expiratory breathing state.


Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Patient Positioning , Retrospective Studies
14.
Clin Anat ; 35(1): 79-86, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591338

Realistic two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) applications for anatomical studies are being developed from true-colored sectioned images. We generated advanced-sectioned images of the entire male body and verified that anatomical structures of both normal and abnormal shapes could be visualized in them. The cadaver was serially sectioned at constant intervals using a cryomacrotome. The sectioned surfaces were photographed using a digital camera to generate horizontal advanced-sectioned images in which normal and abnormal structures were classified. Advanced-sectioned images of the entire male body were generated. The image resolution was 3.3 × 3.3 fold better than that of the first sectioned images obtained in 2002. In the advanced-sectioned images, normal and abnormal structures ranging from microscopic (≥0.06 mm × 0.06 mm; pixel size) to macroscopic (≤473.1 mm × 202 mm; body size) could be identified. Furthermore, the real shapes and actual sites of lung cancer and lymph node enlargement were ascertained in them. Such images will be useful because of their true color and high resolution in digital 2D and 3D applications for gross anatomy and clinical anatomy. In future, we plan to generate new advanced-sectioned images of abnormal cadavers with different diseases for clinical anatomy studies.


Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Cadaver , Histological Techniques , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Male
15.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 213: 106534, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839271

OBJECTIVE: Image segmentation is a crucial and fundamental step in many medical image analysis tasks, such as tumor measurement, surgery planning, disease diagnosis, etc. To ensure the quality of image segmentation, most of the current solutions require labor-intensive manual processes by tracing the boundaries of the objects. The workload increases tremendously for the case of three dimensional (3D) image with multiple objects to be segmented. METHOD: In this paper, we introduce our developed interactive image segmentation tool that provides efficient segmentation of multiple labels for both 2D and 3D medical images. The core segmentation method is based on a fast implementation of the fully connected conditional random field. The software also enables automatic recommendation of the next slice to be annotated in 3D, leading to a higher efficiency. RESULTS: We have evaluated the tool on many 2D and 3D medical image modalities (e.g. CT, MRI, ultrasound, X-ray, etc.) and different objects of interest (abdominal organs, tumor, bones, etc.), in terms of segmentation accuracy, repeatability and computational time. CONCLUSION: In contrast to other interactive image segmentation tools, our software produces high quality image segmentation results without the requirement of parameter tuning for each application. Both the software and source code are freely available for research purpose1. 1Software and source code download: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JIzWkT3M-X7jeB8tTwVcEw240TGbJAvj/view?usp=sharing.


Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Software , Ultrasonography
16.
J Craniofac Surg ; 33(1): 151-155, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967521

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing and augmented reality (AR) have expanded anatomical modeling possibilities for caregiver craniosynostosis education. The purpose of this study is to characterize caregiver preferences regarding these visual models and determine the impact of these models on caregiver understanding of craniosynostosis. METHODS: The authors constructed 3D-printed and AR craniosynostosis models, which were randomly presented in a cross-sectional survey. Caregivers rated each model's utility in learning about craniosynostosis, learning about skull anatomy, viewing an abnormal head shape, easing anxiety, and increasing trust in the surgeon in comparison to a two-dimensional (2D) diagram. Furthermore, caregivers were asked to identify the fused suture on each model and indicate their preference for generic versus patient-specific models. RESULTS: A total of 412 craniosynostosis caregivers completed the survey (mean age 33 years, 56% Caucasian, 51% male). Caregivers preferred interactive, patient-specific 3D-printed or AR models over 2D diagrams (mean score difference 3D-printed to 2D: 0.16, P < 0.05; mean score difference AR to 2D: 0.17, P < 0.01) for learning about craniosynostosis, with no significant difference in preference between 3D-printed and AR models. Caregiver detection accuracy of the fused suture on the sagittal model was 19% higher with the 3D-printed model than with the AR model (P < 0.05) and 17% higher with the 3D-printed model than with the 2D diagram (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that craniosynostosis caregivers prefer 3D-printed or AR models over 2D diagrams in learning about craniosynostosis. Future craniosynostosis skull models with increased user interactivity and patient-specific components can better suit caregiver preferences.


Augmented Reality , Craniosynostoses , Adult , Caregivers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Male , Models, Anatomic , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Skull
17.
J Craniofac Surg ; 33(1): e78-e80, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967530

ABSTRACT: The forehead flap is the gold standard procedure for nasal reconstruction to address a partial or complete rhinectomy. Traditionally, the three-dimensional (3D) nasal defect is manually templated intraoperatively to design the two-dimensional (2D) flap shape on intact morphology. In this clinical study, digital preoperative planning is used to template with computer-assisted design and manufacturing. Preoperative digital templates were implemented for 3 representative patients (1 in Supplementary Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/SCS/D60). This includes designs for a hemi-rhinectomy case from 3D mirroring, a partial total rhinectomy case generated from a 3D scan, and a total rhinectomy case generated from a 3D morphable model based on a prepathology 2D photo. Digital unwrapping flattened the patient's 3D nasal geometry designs to 2D skin flap shapes. Finally, the 2D designs were printed as traceable intraoperative templates at a 1:1 scale. This clinical study demonstrates the application of digital 3D preoperative templating to improve workflow for nasal reconstruction.


Forehead , Nose , Computer-Aided Design , Forehead/diagnostic imaging , Forehead/surgery , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Nose/diagnostic imaging , Nose/surgery , Surgical Flaps
18.
Dentomaxillofac Radiol ; 51(1): 20210165, 2022 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324382

OBJECTIVES: This retrospective observational study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional radiographs on canine-induced root resorption (CIRR) in lateral incisors and identify predictors of CIRR in patients with impacted maxillary canines (IMC). METHODS: Ninety-nine patients aged 9-17 years, with 156 IMCs, were included in the study. All had CBCT-volumes and two-dimensional radiographs consisting of at least one panoramic radiograph. Two radiologists jointly viewed all cases twice. First, radiographic features related to the IMC and possible CIRR were recorded from two-dimensional radiographs. Then, CIRR was determined from CBCT and according to position and extension classified as mild, moderate and severe. RESULTS: CIRRs was detected in 80% of lateral incisors (mild: 45%; moderate: 44%; severe: 11%). The sensitivity was generally low at mild and moderate cut-offs (29 and 29%), and somewhat higher for severe (50%). Corresponding specificities were 48%, 63% and 68%. Canine cusp-tip superimposing the lateral incisor's middle third and root/crown ratio >1 was positively associated with mild CIRR, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.8 and 6.7, respectively. In addition, the root development stage was positively associated with moderate/severe CIRR when the canine root was nearly or fully developed (OR = 3.1). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional radiographs was inadequate for detecting CIRR amongst patients referred for CBCT examinations. Based on our results, none of the suggested two-dimensional radiographic features could predict moderate/severe CIRR except for root development stage. IMC in a later stage of root development seems to be associated with a higher risk of moderate/severe CIRR.


Root Resorption , Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Tooth, Impacted , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Cuspid/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Maxilla , Root Resorption/diagnostic imaging , Tooth, Impacted/diagnostic imaging
19.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 52(1): 221-234, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838251

Virtual surgical planning and three-dimensional (3D) printing are preoperative processes requiring the acquisition of high-quality imaging data. A surgical treatment plan is created and rehearsed virtually as the operator manipulates the 3D images of the patient within the software. When the operator is satisfied with the plan, including anticipated osteotomies, tumor excision margins, and reconstruction options, physical 3D prints can be produced. This article introduces the reader to the basic concepts involved in virtual surgical planning and 3D printing as well as their implementation in veterinary oromaxillofacial surgery.


Computer-Aided Design , Surgery, Computer-Assisted , Animals , Dentistry , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/veterinary , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/veterinary
20.
Eur Radiol ; 32(1): 223-233, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156555

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of post-contrast 3D compressed sensing volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (CS-VIBE) and 3D T1 magnetization-prepared rapid-acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) in detecting facial neuritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2019 and September 2019, 60 patients (30 facial palsy patients and 30 controls) who underwent contrast-enhanced cranial nerve MRI with both conventional MPRAGE and CS-VIBE (scan time: 6 min 8 s vs. 2 min 48 s) were included in this retrospective study. All images were independently reviewed by three radiologists for the presence of facial neuritis. In patients with facial palsy, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pons, enhancement degree and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRnerve-CSF) of the facial nerve were measured. The overall image quality, artifacts, and facial nerve discrimination were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of both sequences were calculated with the clinical diagnosis as a reference. RESULTS: CS-VIBE had comparable performance in the detection of facial neuritis to that of MPRAGE (sensitivity and specificity, 97.8% and 99.4% vs. 100.0% and 99.4% in pooled analysis; 97.8% and 98.9% vs. 100.0% and 98.9% in patents with facial palsy, p value > 0.05 for all). CS-VIBE showed significantly lower SNR (p value < 0.001 for all), but significantly higher CNRnerve-CSF (p value < 0.05 for all) than MPRAGE. CS-VIBE also performed better in the overall image quality, artifacts, and facial nerve discrimination than MPRAGE (p value < 0.001 for all). CONCLUSION: CS-VIBE achieved comparable diagnostic performance for facial neuritis compared to the conventional MPRAGE, with the scan time being half of that of MPRAGE. KEY POINTS: • Post-contrast 3D CS-VIBE MRI is a reliable method for the diagnosis of facial neuritis. • CS-VIBE reduces the scan time of cranial nerve MRI by more than half compared to conventional T1-weighted image. • CS-VIBE had better performance in contrast-to-noise ratio and favorable image quality compared with conventional T1-weighted image.


Facial Nerve Diseases , Image Enhancement , Artifacts , Contrast Media , Facial Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies
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