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Pediatr Surg Int ; 38(2): 317-323, 2022 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981147

PURPOSE: To assess the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) post-abdominal surgery in neonates. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center cohort study was conducted using patient data from 2009 to 2018. Patient characteristics and several variables were analyzed to identify independent risk factors for SSI. RESULTS: SSI occurred in 39/406 procedures (9.6%). Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of SSI was significantly higher in patients who had undergone multiple surgical procedures (P = 0.032), prolonged operations (P = 0.016), long-term hospitalization (P < 0.001), long-term antibiotic administration (P < 0.001), with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization (P = 0.044), contaminated/dirty wounds (P < 0.001), and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of 3 or 4 (P = 0.021). Multivariate analysis identified prolonged operations [odds ratio (OR): 2.91 (1.21-8.01)] and contaminated/dirty wounds [OR: 5.42 (2.41-12.1)] as independent risk factors. Patients with SSI had a higher incidence of MRSA colonization (27.8% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.044), longer antibiotic administration (24 days vs. 8 days, P = 0.049), and longer hospitalization times (98 days vs. 43 days, P = 0.007) than those without SSIs. CONCLUSIONS: Long operations exceeding 100 min and surgical procedures with contaminated/dirty wounds are independent risk factors for neonatal SSIs after abdominal surgery. SSIs were related to MRSA colonization during hospitalization, long-term antibiotic administration, and long-term hospitalization.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 77(1): 45-62, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994394

Importance: Thyroid disorders represent one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy associated with adverse obstetric, fetal, and neonatal outcomes, especially in case of delayed diagnosis and suboptimal management. Objective: The aim of this study was to review and compare the recommendations of the most recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of these common conditions. Evidence Acquisition: A descriptive review of guidelines from the Endocrine Society, the European Thyroid Association, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Thyroid Association, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists on thyroid disease in pregnancy was carried out. Results: There is an overall consensus regarding the diagnosis of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in pregnancy using the pregnancy-specific reference ranges and the definition of postpartum thyroiditis. The reviewed guidelines unanimously discourage universal screening for thyroid function abnormalities before and during pregnancy and support targeted screening of high-risk patients by measuring serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Moreover, they all highlight the need of treating overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, not only during pregnancy, but also before conception, suggesting similar management policies and treatment targets. There is also agreement regarding the management of gestational transient hyperthyroidism with hyperemesis gravidarum, suspected fetal thyrotoxicosis, postpartum thyroiditis, and thyroid malignancy. Scanning or treating with radioactive iodine is contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding. On the other hand, there is controversy on the management of subclinical thyroid disease, thyroid function surveillance protocols, and iodine nutrition recommendations. Of note, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists makes some specific recommendations on the treatment of thyroid storm and thyrotoxic heart failure in pregnant women, whereas the American Thyroid Association makes a special reference to the management of women with thyroid cancer. Conclusions: As the disorders of the thyroid gland affect a significant proportion of pregnant women, it is of paramount importance to develop uniform international evidence-based protocols for their accurate diagnosis and optimal management, in order to safely guide clinical practice and eventually improve perinatal outcomes.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum , Pregnancy Complications , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Neoplasms , Australia , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Iodine Radioisotopes , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/therapy
J Pediatr Orthop ; 42(2): e212-e217, 2022 Feb 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995263

BACKGROUND: Pediatric musculoskeletal infection (MSKI) is a bacterial infection of the bone, joint, and/or muscle that can be difficult to diagnose. The Kocher and Caird algorithms were developed to distinguish septic arthritis (SA) from transient synovitis (TS) in the hip. These algorithms have been applied to all patients presenting with painful, swollen monoarticular joints regardless of suspicion for SA. The aim of this analysis was to assess the test performance of Kocher and Caird to distinguish MSKI among all pediatric patients presenting with monoarticular joint pain. A secondary aim was to validate the original algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study evaluating the test performance of procalcitonin for suspected SA in a pediatric emergency department. Patients aged 0 to 16 years old who presented with a painful or swollen monoarticular joint were considered for enrollment. We compared the test performance of the traditional algorithms in an expanded population of MSKI versus alternate joint pain using sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC). As a sensitivity analysis, missing data for predictors like temperature, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and inability to bear weight were multiply imputed using the Stata program, mi impute, for changed equations. RESULTS: The Caird algorithm had better test performance compared to the Kocher in all populations. Both algorithms were most discriminative in comparing SA to TS in all joints (AUC: 0.84 Caird and 0.75 Kocher). However, the Caird criteria performed almost as well discriminating MSKI from other causes of monoarticular joint pain in all joints (AUC: 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.72, 0.85) and nonhip joints (AUC: 0.80; 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.88). CONCLUSION: Based on the findings of this study, it is clinically reasonable to apply the Caird algorithm to pediatric patients presenting with monoarticular joint pain of medium and large joints such as the knee, ankle, shoulder, elbow, and wrist, in addition to the hip. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective study of novel applications of SA algorithms.

Arthritis, Infectious , Adolescent , Algorithms , Arthritis, Infectious/diagnosis , Blood Sedimentation , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 40, 2022 Jan 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996445

BACKGROUND: Childhood vaccination is an important public health intervention but there is limited information on coverage, trends, and determinants of vaccination completion in Uganda at the regional level. We examined trends in regional vaccination coverage and established the determinants of vaccination completion among children aged 12-23 months in Uganda. METHODS: We analyzed data from the women's questionnaire for the 1995-2016 Uganda Demographic Health Survey (UDHS). Vaccine completion was defined as having received a dose of Bacillus-Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine; three doses of diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) vaccine; three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) (excluding OPV given at birth); and one dose of measles vaccine. We performed Chi-square tests to compare vaccination completion by socio-demographic factors stratified by 10 sub-regions: Eastern, East Central, Central 1, Central 2, Kampala, Karamoja, North, Western, West Nile, and Southwest. We performed logistic regression analysis for each of the regions to identify factors associated with vaccination completion at 5% level of statistical significance. RESULTS: Overall vaccination completion was 48.6% (95%CI, 47.2, 50.1) and ranged from 17.3% in Central 1 to 65.9% in Southwest. Vaccination completion rates declined significantly by 10.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), - 16.1, - 4.6) between 1995 and 2000, and increased significantly by 10.0% (95% CI, 4.6, 15.4) between 2000 and 2006, and by 5.4% (95% CI, 0.2, 10.6) between 2006 and 2011. Maternal education (secondary or higher level), receipt of tetanus toxoid (TT) during pregnancy, and possession of a child health card were associated with vaccination completion across all the sub-regions. Other factors like place of residence, religious affiliation, household wealth, maternal age, childbirth order, size of child at birth, and place of delivery were associated with vaccination completion but differed between the 10 sub-regions. CONCLUSION: Besides considerable regional variations, the vaccination completion rate among children aged 12-23 months in Uganda remains suboptimal despite the availability of vaccines. Maternal education, receipt of TT, and possession of a child health card are associated with a higher likelihood of vaccination completion among children aged 12-23 months in all the regions of Uganda. Interventions to improve the utilization of vaccination services in Uganda should consider these factors.

Measles Vaccine , Vaccination , Child , Demography , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Uganda
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) ; 97(1): 17-27, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027140

The objective of this work was to collect updated information on Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, causing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and etiological agents of eye infections, to provide relevant information on this public health problem. For this, a bibliographic review was carried out using different electronic databases such as: PubMed central, google academic, Lilacs, Scopus, Science Direct and Scielo, between March 2009 and August 2019. According to the WHO, more than a million people a day contract a sexually transmitted infection. For T. pallidum, a global prevalence of 0.5% is estimated for both men and women. It is a causative agent of syphilis and ocular syphilis, which manifests as uveitis. Overall, a prevalence of 2.8% in men and 3.8% in women for C. trachomatis is estimated. It is associated with oculo-genital disease, which includes STIs, inclusion conjunctivitis in adults and neonatal ophthalmia. Among its complications is trachoma, which is the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Regarding N. gonorrhoeae, it has a global selection of 0.9% and 0.7% in women and men, respectively. It manifests with gonococcal conjunctivitis and neonatal ophthalmia. We can conclude that the information that relates T. pallidum, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae with their ocular compromise problems is insufficient, and even more so if we seek to find them related to each other, which makes it difficult to access data of clinical utility for visual health.

Chlamydia Infections , Eye Infections, Bacterial , Gonorrhea , Adult , Chlamydia trachomatis , Female , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e935247, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979531

BACKGROUND Bronchogenic cysts are foregut duplication cysts that result in congenital cysts of the tracheobronchial tree. They can be fatal especially, if they present in early infancy. Persistent respiratory distress is the most frequent reported presentation. Histologically, bronchogenic cysts are unilocular fluid-filled lesions that are composed of respiratory epithelium. This report presents the case of a 4-month-old girl with persistent respiratory distress and multiple admissions to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) due to a congenital bronchogenic cyst. CASE REPORT We describe a 4-month-old girl with persistent respiratory distress, intermittent chocking, and recurrent PICU admissions. The patient was managed as a case of bronchiolitis, which led to ineffective treatment numerous times. Radiological work-up revealed unusual findings of asymmetrical hyperinflation. Bronchoscopy, which was performed to clear the airway and retrieve a possible foreign body, showed a non-pulsatile mass compressing the entry of the main bronchi with more pressure on the left main bronchus, raising the possibility of an external compression. A bronchogenic cyst was suspected and confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Surgical intervention was performed, with no reported complications. CONCLUSIONS This report has shown that in neonates presenting with respiratory distress and no signs of infection, a broad differential diagnosis including congenital cysts should be considered. As in this case, lung and thoracic imaging are required to confirm the diagnosis. We also highlight the need to involve subspecialities to avoid potential delay in diagnosis or exposing patients to unexpected complications.

Bronchogenic Cyst , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Bronchogenic Cyst/complications , Bronchogenic Cyst/diagnosis , Bronchogenic Cyst/surgery , Child , Dyspnea , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979619

Objective:To investigate the failure in the hearing screening test among twin neonates in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to further clarify the etiology of neonatal hearing impairment, thus to provide insights into prevention and early intervention. Methods:Automated auditory brainstem response(AABR), distortion product otoacoustic emission(DPOAE) and acoustic immittance were performed on 1452 neonates(including 130 twins) admitted in NICU from January 2015 to June 2018 and the risk factors including premature birth, hyperbilirubinemia, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, etc. were analyzed retrospectively by univariate chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results:The incidence of C-section, premature birth, hyperbilirubinemia, low birth weight, very low birth weight, in-vitro fertilization, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and formula or mixed feeding among twin neonates were significantly higher than those of singleton neonates (P<0.05). The pass rates of the first-time AABR, DPOAE and acoustic immittance were significantly lower than singleton neonates. The proportion of twin neonates who failed the initial screening but recovered in the following test was as high as 72.86%. AABR pass rate was correlated with congenital heart disease, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, C-section and (very) low birth weight. The pass rate of DPOAE was correlated with low birth weight and C-section. The pass rate of acoustic immittance was correlated with preterm birth, C-section, low birth weight, gestational diabetes and gestational hypertension. The pass rate of diagnostic ABR was associated with gestational diabetes. And the pass rate of diagnostic DPOAE was associated with maternal age ≥40 years old. Conclusion:The first-time hearing screening pass rate of twin neonates in NICU is lower than that of neonatal singleton. Most twin neonates who fail in the first screening test will recover. Preterm birth, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, (very) low birth weight, congenital heart disease, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, maternal age ≥ 40 years old and C-section are associated with the first-time failure in hearing screening tests among twin neonates, thus entailing close follow-up.

Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Premature Birth , Adult , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Female , Hearing , Hearing Tests , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Screening , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 51(1): 39-43, 2022 Jan 08.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979752

Objective: To investigate the pathological characteristics of singleton placenta with abnormal shape and its influence on the outcome of maternal-fetal pregnancy. Methods: The clinicopathological data of singleton placentas with abnormal shape from January 2014 to December 2020 in the Department of Pathology, Haidian Maternal and Children Health Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There were 130 singleton placentas with abnormal shape in this cohort, including 48 succenturiate placentas, 12 bilobed placentas, 50 marginate placentas, 13 circumvallate placentas, 3 annular placentas, 2 membranous placentas and 2 fenestrated placentas. Gestational age ranged from 29+5 to 40+4 weeks. There were 51 cases of premature rupture of membranes, 11 cases of placenta previa, 5 cases of placental abruption, 15 cases of placental adhesion/implantation and 27 cases of postpartum hemorrhage. There were 46 preterm fetuses,28 fetuses with fetal growth restriction, 22 fetuses with intrauterine distress, and 1 fetus with intrauterine death. Grossly, the placental lobules of succenturiate placentas had apparent size difference, while two lobules of bilobate placenta were more consistent. The chorionic plate size was smaller than the bottom plate of circumvallate placenta, the folded fetal membrane in the rim of placenta was thickened (termed marginate placenta if there was no thickening). The membranous placenta was characterized by a thin, large membrane-like shape. Annular placenta showed characteristic hollow cylinder, ring or horseshoe-shape. Fenestrated placenta was characterized by tissue defects near central area. Microscopically, functional/morphologic changes were the main manifestations of inadequate maternal-fetal perfusion, including villous infarction, distal villous dysplasia and excessive villous maturation. Conclusions: The abnormal shaped singleton placentas showed variable extent of inadequate maternal-fetal perfusion, which may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as premature delivery, fetal growth restriction, intrauterine distress or fetal death.

Placenta Diseases , Placenta , Child , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 2, 2022 01 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980169

BACKGROUND: The effects of breastfeeding practices on children's health are undoubtedly of great interest. However, inequalities in breastfeeding practices and mother and newborn skin-to-skin contact (SSC) exist in many resource-constrained settings. This study examined the regional prevalence and socioeconomic inequalities in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), early initiation of breastfeeding and SSC in Nigeria. METHODS: Data on 2936 infants under six months were extracted from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) to determine EBF. In addition, data on 21,569 children were analysed for early initiation of breastfeeding and SSC. Concentration index and curves were used to measure socioeconomic inequalities in EBF, early initiation of breastfeeding and SSC. RESULTS: The prevalence of EBF, early initiation of breastfeeding and SSC were 31.8, 44.2 and 12.1% respectively. Furthermore, Ogun state had the highest prevalence of EBF (71.4%); while Bayelsa state had the highest prevalence of SSC (67.8%) and early initiation of breastfeeding (96.2%) respectively. Urban dwellers had higher prevalence of EBF, SSC and early initiation of breastfeeding across household wealth quintile and by levels of mothers' education in contrast to their rural counterparts. We quantified inequalities in early initiation of breastfeeding, EBF, and SSC according to household wealth and maternal education. The study outcomes had greater coverage in higher household wealth, in contrast to the lower household wealth groups; early initiation of breastfeeding (concentration index = 0.103; p = 0.002), EBF (concentration index = 0.118; p < 0.001), and SSC (concentration index = 0.152; p < 0.001) respectively. Furthermore, early initiation of breastfeeding (concentration index = 0.091; p < 0.001), EBF (concentration index = 0.157; p < 0.001) and SSC (concentration index = 0.156; p < 0.001) had greater coverage among mothers with higher educational attainment. CONCLUSION: Low prevalence and socioeconomic inequalities in early initiation of breastfeeding, EBF and SSC were identified. We recommend that health promotion programs targeted and co-designed with disadvantaged mothers are critical to meet global breastfeeding targets. Also, future researchers should conduct further studies especially clinical control trials and qualitative studies to unravel the possible reasons for differences in the indicators.

Breast Feeding , Mothers , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Nigeria , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 3, 2022 01 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991642

BACKGROUND: Donor human milk is the best alternative for preterm infants when their mother's own milk is insufficient or unavailable. The development of human milk banks in China started late, and in most of these banks, the amount of donor human milk is insufficient for clinical demand. Moreover, many mothers are reluctant to use donor human milk due to safety concerns. It is important to understand the potential supply and demand of donor human milk before establishing a new human milk bank. This study aimed to understand women's acceptance of human milk banking in Wenzhou, southeastern China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three community health centers in Wenzhou, southeast China, in December 2020. Data were collected from 305 postpartum women selected through convenience sampling. Sociodemographic, perinatal and breastfeeding characteristics, awareness and knowledge of human milk banking and willingness to donate human milk, and to accept donor human milk were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore independent predictors of willingness to donate human milk and to accept donor human milk. RESULTS: Only 17% (52/305) of our participants had heard of human milk banking prior to this survey. The prevalence of willingness to donate human milk and use donor human milk in our study was 73.4% (224/305) and 44.6% (136/305), respectively. Employment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17, 4.50) and human milk banking knowledge (AOR 1.23; 95% CI 1.12, 1.35) were independent predictors of willingness to donate human milk. Monthly household income in the previous year (AOR 2.18; 95% CI 1.17, 4.06), awareness of human milk banking (AOR 2.41; 95% CI 1.24, 4.67) and knowledge of human milk banking (AOR 1.22; 95% CI 1.11, 1.35) were significantly associated with willingness to accept donor human milk. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, awareness of human milk banks among women in the first year postpartum was low. More mothers were willing to donate human milk than to use donor human milk to feed their children. In our study, knowledge of human milk banking was a predictor of both willingness to donate human milk and willingness to use donor human milk. Programs with detailed information on human milk banking are needed to help mothers improve their knowledge and increase acceptance of human milk banking.

Breast Feeding , Milk, Human , Child , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy
Ann Med ; 54(1): 121-131, 2022 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001740

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal intensive care unit is important to save the lives of a sick neonate; however, parents are challenged by several stressful conditions during their stay. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the lived experiences of parents in neonatal intensive care units in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used a phenomenological study design. The data were collected using an in-depth interview method from purposively selected parents. In addition, we followed a thematic analysis approach and used Open Code Software Version 4.02 to process the data. RESULTS: In this study, 18 parents were interviewed. The researchers have identified six themes. Parents complained of psychological problems like anxiety, stress, worries, hopelessness, and a state of confusion. In addition, anger, crying, sadness, frustration, dissatisfaction, regret, disappointment, feeling bad, self-blaming, nervousness, disturbance, and lack of self-control were major emotional problems raised by the parents. Parents expressed that health care providers showed indiscipline, lack of commitment, and uncooperative behaviour. Likewise, shortage of medicines, money, and limited time to visit their neonates were the other concerns of many parents. At the same time, parents were provided minimal information and limited cooperation from health care providers. CONCLUSION: Parents whose infants admitted to the NICU were suffered from various psychological and emotional problems. Researchers recommend that health care providers should be supported parents with psycho-emotional problems, strengthen parents-healthcare workers' interaction, and scale up neonatal intensive care unit services to the primary health care centres.KEY MESSAGESParents whose infants admitted to the NICU were suffered from psychological and emotional problems.Poor NICU environment, shortage of equipment, long hospital stay, the presence of pandemic COVID-19, and lack of parental involvement in the care were identified barriers that affected parents' stay.

COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Ethiopia , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 15-23, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999674

There is progressive increase of Hb levels is observed during course of intrauterine development of fetus but high concentrations found at birth. In preterm neonate normal Hb is characteristically deviated from term neonate. Breast milk is the only natural ideal food for both term and preterm babies from birth up to 6 months. Preterm milk was found to contain significantly higher concentrations nutrients particularly iron than term milk. Preterm human milk is more suitable for the premature infant than term human milk. As Hb concentration varies in term and preterm babies in different counties in different feeding practices. The purpose of this longitudinal descriptive study is to find out the pattern of changes in the Hb level among exclusively breastfed preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. This study was carried in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh from September 2016 to February 2018. One hundred fifty (150) neonates both term and preterm were included in this study and followed up to 6 months of age. After admission informed written consent was taken from parents, thorough history taking and clinical examination were done. Data were collected in a pre-designed case record form. All the babies of Group A provided 2mg/kg iron supplementation from 6 weeks for 2 months for universal recommendation. Hb level was measured of all exclusively breast feed babies at admission after birth then next follow-up at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. All information regarding history, anthropometrics measurement, Hb level was recorded in structural questionnaire. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 20.0. Male were predominant in both groups. Most of the preterm (72.0%) and term babies (65.3%) were delivered by vaginal route. Mean Hb level was found significantly higher among preterm babies than term babies after birth were 16.55g/dl and 15.98g/dl respectively. Sharp fall of Hb concentration was observed after birth up to 6 weeks in both preterm and term babies but Hb level was found significantly lower in preterm in comparison to term babies (9.27gm/dl vs. 9.58gm/dl). In term babies, even after 6 weeks fall of Hb level continued to 3 months of age followed by gradual increase up to 6 months without iron supplementation. Hb level of in preterm babies gradually increased from 6 weeks up to 6 months with universal iron supplementation. Hb level fall sharply up to 6 weeks in both exclusively breastfed term and preterm babies but even after 6 weeks term babies experienced gradual fall of Hb levels up to 3 months. Hb level increases in exclusively breast-fed term babies without iron supplementation from 3 months of age. Hb level in exclusively breastfed preterm babies increase from 6 weeks onward might be effect of universal iron supplementation.

Breast Feeding , Infant, Premature , Feeding Behavior , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Male
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 129-134, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999692

Although huge improvement in neonatal mortality reduction in last two decades in Bangladesh but it is still very high compare with many other countries. High neonatal mortality also significantly contribute deaths among the under five children. Neonatal mortality reflects a nation's socio-economic status, efficiency and effectiveness of health care services. This was cross sectional study. The objective of this study was to analyse the diseases pattern and outcome of the neonates admitted in the newly established SCANU (Special care neonatal unit) of 250 bedded General Hospital of Tangail district, Bangladesh. Study period was one year from January 2017 to December 2017. Information from medical records of the SCANU was analysed. During the study period 1,379 neonates were admitted in the SCANU. The ratio between male and female was 1.5:1, 61% of the neonates admitted at first day of life. The reasons for admissions in SCANU were 31% of preterm and low birth weight, 23%birth asphyxia, 13% neonatal sepsis, 9% transient tachypnea of newborn, 5% congenital anomalies and 4% neonatal jaundice. Out of all neonates survival rate was 56% (779), while 25% (349) ended with fatality, 9% (122) were referred to tertiary level hospital and 10% (129) were left the hospital against medical advice. Among the fatal cases 63% died in first 24 hours and 88% in first week of life. Data shows that 47% deaths were due to preterm and low birth weight with its complication, other significant causes were birth asphyxia (30%), septicemia (16%) and congenital anomalies were (6%). Preterm and low birth weight, neonatal sepsis, birth asphyxia, transient tachypnea of newborn; congenital anomalies were the main reasons for admission in SCANU. Prematurity and its complication, birth asphyxia and neonatal sepsis as the major contributors to the neonatal mortality. The study findings will help researchers and policy makers to initiate further research and interventions to reduce fatality among the neonates in the SCANU.

Hospitals, District , Infant Mortality , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Male
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 263-266, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999713

Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance that prevents normal development in various parts of the body. A spontaneous mutation without any family history may also result in the condition. Noonan syndrome can affect normal growth. Birth weight may be normal, but growth slows over time. The growth spurt usually seen during the teenage years may be delayed, and bone maturity also is delayed. In this case A 13 year's male admitted inpatient Department of Endocrinology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital in April 2021 with not attaining appropriate height and delayed development of secondary sexual characteristics. His birth weight was normal; gestational and neonatal history was uneventful. He was diagnosed with severe pulmonary stenosis at four years and underwent cardiac surgery at his four and eleven years. He was noted to have growth failure from the age of 9 years onward. He had no family history of such type of disease. On examination, he was short statured, underweight, having an upper: lower segment ratio of 1.05 with an arm span of 126cm. He had craniosynostosis, high arched palate, the thick helix of ears (outer rim), small, upturned nose, depressed broad nose, deeply grooved philtrum, keratosis pilaris of the face and upper arm, slant eyes with proptosis, keloid scar over mid-chest, widely spaced nipple, shield chest, pectus excavatum and cubitus valgus. His sexual maturation score was A1, P1, B1. He had pulmonary stenosis with pulmonary hypertension. He had mild microcytic anemia with normal liver, renal, blood glucose, and calcium profile. His bone age was delayed (9 years), thyroid function was normal. The growth hormone dynamic test after clonidine stimulation was normal. His karyotype was 46XY. We have considered giving recombinant growth hormone therapy to accelerate his height.

Abnormalities, Multiple , Darier Disease , Noonan Syndrome , Adolescent , Child , Eyebrows , Growth Disorders , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Noonan Syndrome/diagnosis , Noonan Syndrome/genetics
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(2): e16, 2022 Jan 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014228

Following nonpharmaceutical intervention (NPI) to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 has led to drastic reduction in incidence of communicable disease. Intussusception is commonly preceded by infectious pathogens. Indirect effect from NPI implementation on incidence of intussusception has not been understood fully. We conducted a cohort study to estimate the impact of NPI on incidence of intussusception in Korean children. The net risk ratio of intussusception incidence for 2020 compared to 2010-2019 was 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.64) for boys and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.44-0.71) for girls (P for difference = 0.017). Our study showed an association between NPI implementation and reduction of intussusception incidence, with more profound reduction in boys compared to girls.

Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Intussusception/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Primary Prevention/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142322, 2022 01 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015063

Importance: Severe outcomes among youths with SARS-CoV-2 infections are poorly characterized. Objective: To estimate the proportion of children with severe outcomes within 14 days of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in an emergency department (ED). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study with 14-day follow-up enrolled participants between March 2020 and June 2021. Participants were youths aged younger than 18 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection at one of 41 EDs across 10 countries including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Italy, New Zealand, Paraguay, Singapore, Spain, and the United States. Statistical analysis was performed from September to October 2021. Exposures: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nucleic acid (eg, polymerase chain reaction) testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severe outcomes, a composite measure defined as intensive interventions during hospitalization (eg, inotropic support, positive pressure ventilation), diagnoses indicating severe organ impairment, or death. Results: Among 3222 enrolled youths who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3221 (>99.9%) had index visit outcome data available, 2007 (62.3%) were from the United States, 1694 (52.6%) were male, and 484 (15.0%) had a self-reported chronic illness; the median (IQR) age was 3 (0-10) years. After 14 days of follow-up, 735 children (22.8% [95% CI, 21.4%-24.3%]) were hospitalized, 107 (3.3% [95% CI, 2.7%-4.0%]) had severe outcomes, and 4 children (0.12% [95% CI, 0.03%-0.32%]) died. Characteristics associated with severe outcomes included being aged 5 to 18 years (age 5 to <10 years vs <1 year: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% CI, 1.09-2.34]; age 10 to <18 years vs <1 year: OR, 2.39 [95% CI 1.38-4.14]), having a self-reported chronic illness (OR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.59-3.44]), prior episode of pneumonia (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 1.83-5.42]), symptoms starting 4 to 7 days prior to seeking ED care (vs starting 0-3 days before seeking care: OR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.29-3.82]), and country (eg, Canada vs US: OR, 0.11 [95% CI, 0.05-0.23]; Costa Rica vs US: OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.05-2.96]; Spain vs US: OR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.27-0.98]). Among a subgroup of 2510 participants discharged home from the ED after initial testing and who had complete follow-up, 50 (2.0%; 95% CI, 1.5%-2.6%) were eventually hospitalized and 12 (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%) had severe outcomes. Compared with hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-negative youths, the risk of severe outcomes was higher among hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive youths (risk difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 1.1%-6.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, approximately 3% of SARS-CoV-2-positive youths tested in EDs experienced severe outcomes within 2 weeks of their ED visit. Among children discharged home from the ED, the risk was much lower. Risk factors such as age, underlying chronic illness, and symptom duration may be useful to consider when making clinical care decisions.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 23, 2022 Jan 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022000

BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke (PS) is the leading cause of hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP). Involvement of the corticospinal tract on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is predictive of motor outcome in patients with hemiparetic CP. However, early MRI is not available in patients with delayed presentation of PS and prediction of hemiparesis severity remains a challenge. AIMS: To evaluate the volumes of the basal ganglia, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus following perinatal ischemic stroke in relation to hand motor function in children with a history of PS and to compare the volumes of subcortical structures in children with PS and in healthy controls. METHODS: Term born PS children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) (n = 16) and with periventricular venous infarction (PVI) (n = 18) were recruited from the Estonian Pediatric Stroke Database. MRI was accuired during childhood (4-18 years) and the volumes of the basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala and hippocampus were calculated. The results of stroke patients were compared to the results of 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Affected hand function was evaluated by Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) and classified by the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS). RESULTS: Compared to the control group, children with AIS had smaller volumes of the ipsi- and contralesional thalami, ipsilesional globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus (p < 0.005). Affected hand function in children with AIS was correlated with smaller ipsilesional thalamus, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and contralesional amygdala (r > 0.5; p < 0.05) and larger volume of the contralesional putamen and hippocampus (r < - 0.5; p < 0.05). In children with PVI, size of the ipsilesional caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus (p ≤ 0.001) and hippocampus (p < 0.03) was smaller compared to controls. Smaller volume of the ipsi- and contralesional thalami and ipsilesional caudate nucleus was correlated with affected hand function (r > 0.55; p < 0.05) in children with PVI. CONCLUSIONS: Smaller volume of ipsilesional thalamus was associated with poor affected hand function regardless of the perinatal stroke subtype. The pattern of correlation between hand function and volume differences in the other subcortical structures varied between children with PVI and AIS. Evaluation of subcortical structures is important in predicting motor outcome following perinatal stroke.

Hand , Stroke , Caudate Nucleus , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pregnancy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging , Upper Extremity
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 22, 2022 Jan 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022017

BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial retinal disease, involving both environmental and genetic factors; The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical presentations and genetic variants in Chinese patients with ROP. METHODS: A total of 36 patients diagnosed with ROP were enrolled in this study, their medical and ophthalmic histories were obtained, and comprehensive clinical examinations were performed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of ROP patients, polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the associated pathogenic genes (FZD4, TSPAN12, and NDP) were performed. RESULTS: All patients exhibited the clinical manifestations of ROP. No mutations were detected in the TSPAN12 and NDP genes in all patients; Interestingly, three novel missense mutations were identified in the FZD4 gene (p.A2P, p.L79M, and p.Y378C) in four patients, for a detection rate of 11.1% (4/36). CONCLUSIONS: This study expands the genotypic spectrum of FZD4 gene in ROP patients, and our findings underscore the importance of obtaining molecular analyses and comprehensive health screening for this retinal disease.

Retinopathy of Prematurity , Frizzled Receptors/genetics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mutation , Phenotype , Retinopathy of Prematurity/genetics , Tetraspanins/genetics
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 4, 2022 Jan 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033129

Cardiothoracic surgery usually causes tissue adhesion on the operation site which increases the risk of complications in the subsequent thoracic surgery including Nuss procedure. Disorders that require cardiothoracic surgery include chest wall deformities such as pectus excavatum, congenital heart diseases, lung diseases such as congenital cystic adenomatiod malformation and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Recently, we encountered a rare case of combined pectus excavatum and carinatum in a patient with a history of congenital esophageal atresia repair surgery. Commendably, despite tissue adhesion from the previous surgery, a modified Nuss procedure was performed successfully with no complications. We agree that the Nuss procedure is feasible for thoracic deformities in patients with a surgical history of cardiothoracic surgery.

Esophageal Atresia , Funnel Chest , Thoracic Surgery , Thoracic Surgical Procedures , Thoracic Wall , Esophageal Atresia/complications , Esophageal Atresia/surgery , Funnel Chest/surgery , Humans , Infant, Newborn