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Clin Plast Surg ; 48(3): 391-405, 2021 Jul.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051893

Distraction osteogenesis is a viable treatment option for patients with a cleft associated with severe maxillary retrusion. A rigid external distraction device and a hybrid internal maxillary distractor have been used to advance the maxilla allowing for predictable and stable results. These techniques can be applied by itself or as an adjunct to traditional orthognathic procedures. The technical aspects are presented. These procedures tend to be simpler and demonstrate great stability compared to traditional surgical methods. The reasons for stability are discussed.

Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Palate/surgery , Maxilla/surgery , Osteogenesis, Distraction/instrumentation , Osteotomy, Le Fort/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Male , Maxilla/abnormalities , Osteogenesis, Distraction/methods , Osteotomy, Le Fort/methods
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(3): 407-417, 2021 Jul.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051894

Maxillary hypoplasia is a commonly seen dentofacial anomaly in patients with cleft lip and palate after surgical repair of the cleft anomaly. To facilitate large horizontal movements of the maxilla, distraction osteogenesis is used to slowly stretch the soft tissue envelope with the skeletal advancement preventing tissue recoil and skeletal relapse. Internal distraction devices have the advantage of reducing the amount of physical and psychological stress placed on patients, families, and caregivers. The technique has been successful in producing stable results for large advancements of the facial skeleton when compared with conventional Le Fort I advancement and fixation of the maxilla.

Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Palate/surgery , Maxilla/surgery , Osteogenesis, Distraction/instrumentation , Osteotomy, Le Fort/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Male , Maxilla/abnormalities , Osteogenesis, Distraction/methods , Osteotomy, Le Fort/methods
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24012, 2021 Feb 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578517

INTRODUCTION: Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a widely used for cleft and palate related maxillary hypoplasia. There has been little research on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation after maxillary DO. We present these 3 cases and analyze the possible causes for reference by other clinicians. PATIENT CONCERNS: In the late stages of maxillary DO, the patients gradually felt a decrease in mandibular mobility and suffered from limited mouth opening. Case 2 and 3 could open their mouth up to 1 and 2 fingers and Case 1 barely able to open her mouth at the completion of distraction. DIAGNOSIS: Case 1 and Case 3 were diagnosed as right TMJ dislocation and Case 2 had a TMJ dislocation on her left side. INTERVENTIONS: Patients with TMJ dislocation were repositioned with manipulation as soon as detected. OUTCOMES: There was no recurrence in all three cases during the postoperative follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Maxillary DO can sufficiently advance the maxilla in cleft lip and palate patients. Clinicians should be mindful of the TMJ dislocations that maxillary DO can exert on patients.

Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Palate/surgery , Joint Dislocations/etiology , Maxilla/surgery , Osteogenesis, Distraction/adverse effects , Adolescent , Child , Cleft Lip/complications , Cleft Palate/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Internal Fixators/standards , Joint Dislocations/surgery , Male , Maxilla/abnormalities , Osteogenesis, Distraction/instrumentation , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(6): 1001-1008, 2021 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386930

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the palatal bone and soft tissue thicknesses using a miniscrew-supported maxillary skeletal expander (MSE) in Class III malocclusion. METHODS: The thicknesses of the palatal bone and soft tissue were measured in cone-beam computed tomography images obtained from 58 patients. All 20 points were crossing points between five levels, which were defined at 3 mm intervals relative to the line connecting the central fossae of the first molar (Level 0), and 2 mm and 4 mm lateral to the anteroposterior reference line (AP line). RESULTS: The palatal bone was significantly thicker in males than females in the anterior palate up to Level 0, while there was no significant sex-related difference in the posterior palate. There was a tendency for the thickness to decrease in the posterior direction, except in females at 2 mm lateral to the AP line. The palatal soft tissue was significantly thicker in males than females in all positions. At 2 mm lateral to the AP line, the palatal soft tissue thickness decreased in the posterior direction. A 4 mm lateral to the AP line, it initially decreased in the posterior direction, and then increasing again at Level - 6 (6 mm posterior of Level 0). As the lateral distance from the AP line increased, the palatal bone thickness decreased while the palatal soft tissue thickness increased. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide quantitative data on the palatal bone and soft tissue thicknesses for the miniscrew-supported MSE in the posterior palate.

Malocclusion, Angle Class III/surgery , Maxilla/abnormalities , Palatal Expansion Technique/instrumentation , Palate, Hard/anatomy & histology , Palate, Soft/anatomy & histology , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Screws , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Male , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/surgery , Palate, Hard/diagnostic imaging , Palate, Hard/surgery , Palate, Soft/diagnostic imaging , Palate, Soft/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(6): 997-1000, 2021 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388946

Multiple roots in anterior teeth are very rarely reported in the literature. The occurrence of multi-rooted canine in primary dentition is an infrequent entity. This unusual abnormality is an accidental finding on routine examination. Radiographic examination plays a significant role in the identification of this anomaly. This rare anomaly has been reported very infrequently reported and has not been published in a Saudi Arabia population. Therefore, the purpose of the present case report is to describe a case of an 8-year old Saudi boy presented with the bimaxillary occurrence of bi-rooted primary canine. This report discusses this unique occurrence in the context of the published literature.

Cuspid/abnormalities , Maxilla/abnormalities , Tooth Root/abnormalities , Tooth, Deciduous/abnormalities , Toothache/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Incidental Findings , Male , Radiography, Dental , Saudi Arabia , Tooth Extraction , Toothache/etiology , Toothache/surgery
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(8): 2204-2207, 2020.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136855

In hemifacial microsomia (HFM), the correlations between mandibular dysplasia and maxillary deformities in HFM patients have not yet been assessed. The objective of the present study was to examine the association of maxillary volumetric and linear measurements with mandibular ramus height or corpus length on the affected side in children with unilateral HFM.In this retrospective research, a total of 70 children with unilateral HFM were enrolled at our department from 2010 to 2019. Demographic information was recorded, and computed tomographic scan were reconstructed and analyzed by segmentation, volumetric, and cephalometric measurements. Analyses involved independent sample t-test, univariable, and multivariable linear regression.In the overall population, mandibular ramus height (MRH) was positively associated with the maxillary bone volume (MBV) (r = 0.484, P < 0.001) and maxillary total volume (MTV) (r = 0.520, P < 0.001). Similarly, mandibular corpus length (MCL) was significantly associated with the MBV (r = 0.467, P < 0.001) and MTV (r = 0.520, P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the MRH or MCL were significantly and independently associated with MBV or MTV (MRH/MBV ß = 0.420, P < 0.001; MRH/MTV ß = 0.391, P < 0.001; MCL/MBV ß = 0.403, P < 0.001; MCL/MTV ß = 0.307, P < 0.01).These results demonstrated that the MBV and MTV are independently associated with MRH or MCL on the affected side in children with unilateral HFM, suggesting a potential interaction between mandibular dysplasia and maxillary deformities.

Goldenhar Syndrome/surgery , Mandible/surgery , Maxilla/surgery , Adolescent , Cephalometry/methods , Child , Facial Asymmetry , Goldenhar Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Mandible/abnormalities , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/abnormalities , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Tooth
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 14.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928834

A 52-year male patient reported with loosening of right upper jaw. He has no pain or discharge, or any acute symptoms and systemic disease. Intraoral examination reveals necrosed maxillary bone. He also has no sickle cell disease, hepatitis, HIV or tuberculosis. 3D CT scan reveals destruction of maxilla, maxillary sinus, lateral nasal wall, superior and inferior orbital wall, zygoma and frontal bone(outer table). The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis was made. Under general anaesthesia, sequestrectomy was done with the help of Weber-Ferguson incision with infraorbital extension for maxilla, maxillary sinus, zygomatic bone, lateral nasal wall and infraorbital and medial wall of orbit. Frontal sinus region sequestrectomy was done via bicoronal flap. The patient was completely diseased free after 4 years follow-up.

Frontal Sinus/abnormalities , Maxilla/abnormalities , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Zygoma/abnormalities , Frontal Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Frontal Sinus/surgery , Humans , Male , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/surgery , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Zygoma/diagnostic imaging , Zygoma/surgery
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21631, 2020 Aug 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769927

RATIONALE: Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is an uncommon histopathologic variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity. Though ASCC showed poor prognosis, the exact diagnosis is challenging. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 59-year-old female patient with 1-month long symptoms of pain and burning sensation in the right maxilla. DIAGNOSES: Incisional biopsy in the maxilla established the pathologic diagnosis of SCC. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent mass resection with near total maxillectomy. OUTCOMES: The final diagnosis through the microscopic examination was ASCC. Palliative chemotherapy was done to relive the symptoms after the recurrence, however, the patient died of the disease at 8 months after her initial presentation. LESSONS: Special attention should be paid to this variant of SCC because most patients with ASCC have a very poor prognosis.

Acantholysis/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis , Maxilla/abnormalities , Acantholysis/complications , Biopsy/methods , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Maxilla/radiation effects , Middle Aged , Radiotherapy/methods
Av. odontoestomatol ; 36(2): 63-70, mayo-ago. 2020. ilus
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-194687

Se presenta un caso clínico en el que se rehabilita a una paciente con maxilar superior atrófico mediante una combinación de implantes cigomáticos, colocados mediante una aproximación exteriorizada, e implantes anteriores convencionales palatinizados. Se realizó un procedimiento de regeneración ósea guiada alrededor de los implantes cigomáticos para obtener un mayor grosor de la cortical vestibular y palatina alrededor de los implantes del maxilar superior y mejorar el pronóstico. A un año de la carga protésica, el hueso periimplantario se mantiene estable

A clinical case is presented in which a patient with atrophic upper jaw is rehabilitated by a combination of zygomatic implants, placed using an exteriorized approach, and conventional palatalized anterior implants. A guided bone regeneration procedure is performed around the zygomatic implants to obtain a greater thickness of the facial bone and improve the prognosis. One year after loading, the peri-implant bone remains stable

Humans , Female , Aged , Bone Regeneration , Atrophy/diagnostic imaging , Dental Implants , Dental Implantation, Endosseous/methods , Jaw, Edentulous/surgery , Zygoma/surgery , Atrophy/surgery , Maxilla/abnormalities , Maxilla/surgery , Zygoma/diagnostic imaging
Rev. Soc. Odontol. La Plata ; 30(58): 13-17, jul. 2020. ilus, graf
Article Es | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119236

Las compresiones del maxilar superior son alteraciones transversales por discrepancia óseo-dentaria. .En la dentición mixta temprana puede establecerse la estrechez mediante índices que relacionan el tamaño dental con el ancho transversal del arco dentario. Se analizaron 33 modelos superiores de niños en el tercer período de desarrollo clínico según Barnett. Se estableció la estrechez realizando el análisis métrico del arco dental mediante el índice de Pont. Se describió la anomalía de posición anterior según las siguientes variables: A) Apiñamiento dentario: 1-Escalón de los dientes anterosuperiores; 2-Rotación mesial de los cuatro incisivos; 3-Rotación mesial de los incisivos centrales y rotación distal de los incisivos laterales y 4-Rotación distal de los incisivos centrales. B) Ausencia de apiñamiento: 1-Reabsorción atípica y 2- Ausencia de reabsorción atípica. Las anomalías de posición y/o reabsorciones atípicas anteriores en este período de desarrollo clínico se asocian a estrechez transversal del maxilar superior Siendo la malposición más frecuente la rotación mesial de los cuatro incisivos, siguiendo las reabsorciones atípicas y el escalón de los dientes anterosuperiores, luego la rotación mesial de los incisivos centrales y distal de los laterales y por último la rotación distal de los incisivos centrales (AU)

Inside the traverse alteration of the maxillary the compressions are described as uni or bilateral where an imbalance is settled down between the dental size and the size of the maxillary causing alterations in the position of the teeth. In the early mixed teething the narrowness of the maxillary can be settled by means of indexes that relate the dental size with the traverse width of the dental arch. Thirty models of the maxillary of children according to Barnett's third development period were analyzed. The metrical analysis of the dental arch form was carried out through Pont's index. The theoretic values were compared with the real ones establishing the deviations of the norm that is to say the narrow nest. Out of the 30 cases analyzed, 40% presented mesial rotation of the 4 incisors; 27% showed a stop of the front teeth; 27% atypical reabsorption; 20% mesial rotation of the central incisors and distal rotation of the lateral incisors and the 10% presented a distal rotation of the central incisors. With regard to the front atypical discrepancy 36.66% of the cases had a discrepancy above 6 mm and the 23.33% below 3 mm (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Dental Arch/abnormalities , Dentition, Mixed , Early Diagnosis , Jaw Abnormalities/diagnosis , Statistical Analysis , Incisor/abnormalities , Malocclusion/diagnosis , Maxilla/abnormalities
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(9): 1057-1062, 2020 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564109

PURPOSE: Incisive suture is a suture classically described on the oral face of the palate in fetuses and young children. The aim of our study was to describe the evolution of the incisive suture in human fetuses and to evaluate the incidence of this suture in a population of young children under 4 years, to determine if there is a possibility of improving the anterior growth of the maxilla, by stimulation of this suture. METHODS: One hundred and thirty CT scan images of patients aged from birth to 48 months have been studied and nine fetal palates aged from 18 to 26 weeks of development, have been scanned using high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography RESULTS: The CT scan images of patients showed that an incisive suture was present in 33/130 cases (25,4%). All the patients with a suture were under 2 years old. The fetal palate study showed that the suture was present in the inferior aspect of the palate (oral cavity) in all cases. The incisive suture increased from 18 to 24 weeks. At 26 weeks it stopped growing although the intercanine length increased. Considering the closure of the suture in a vertical plane, our study on fetuses has shown that the incisive suture is closing from its superior side (nasal side) to its inferior side. CONCLUSIONS: Considering all these results it appears to us that the incisive suture is partially ossified after birth, it cannot be stimulated by orthodontic appliances.

Cranial Sutures/abnormalities , Fetal Development , Maxilla/abnormalities , Maxillofacial Abnormalities/epidemiology , Palate, Hard/abnormalities , Child, Preschool , Cranial Sutures/diagnostic imaging , Cranial Sutures/growth & development , Female , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Gestational Age , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/growth & development , Maxillofacial Abnormalities/diagnosis , Palatal Expansion Technique , Palate, Hard/diagnostic imaging , Palate, Hard/growth & development
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(6)2020 May 27.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471305

Background and Objectives: Implant stability in vivo is contingent on multiple factors, such as bone structure, instrument positioning and implant surface modifications, implant diameter, and implant length. Resonance-frequency analysis is considered a non-invasive, reliable, predictable, and objective method by which to evaluate implant stability, due to its correlation with bone-to-implant contact. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant length on the primary and secondary stability of single-implant crown rehabilitations, as measured by resonance-frequency analysis at different times. Materials and Methods: Implants of 10 and 11.5 mm were placed, and the resonance frequency was measured at the time of surgery (T0), as well as at 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 12 (T3) months post-surgery. Results: A total of 559 implants were placed in 195 patients. Significant differences were observed when comparing the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at T1, with values for 10-mm implants being greater than those for 11.5-mm implants (p = 0.035). These differences were also observed when comparing ISQ values for buccal and lingual areas. At T0, T2, and T3, no significant differences in ISQ values were observed. The use of 10-mm implants in the anterior maxilla yielded significantly greater values at T0 (p = 0.018) and T1 (p = 0.031) when compared with 11.5-mm implants. Significant differences in measurements were observed only for buccal areas (p = 0.005; p = 0.018). When comparing the sample lengths and sex, women with 11.5-mm implants showed significantly lower results than those with 10-mm implants (p < 0.001). Conclusions: There is a direct relationship between implants of a smaller length and greater ISQ values, with this relationship being most evident in the maxilla and in women.

Dental Implantation, Endosseous/classification , Mandible/surgery , Maxilla/surgery , Prostheses and Implants/standards , Quality of Health Care/standards , Adult , Dental Implantation, Endosseous/methods , Dental Implantation, Endosseous/standards , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mandible/abnormalities , Maxilla/abnormalities , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prospective Studies , Prostheses and Implants/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Resonance Frequency Analysis
J Int Med Res ; 48(5): 300060520925680, 2020 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436459

Bilateral Tessier no. 7 clefts are rarely reported in the literature. Here, we describe the presence of accessory maxilla with supernumerary teeth in a patient who exhibited bilateral Tessier no. 7 clefts; the diagnosis was established based on the patient's history, clinical presentation, and computed tomography images. A review of the available literature revealed 24 patients with Tessier no. 7 clefts from 2000 to 2020, including our patient. The most common clinical manifestation in patients with Tessier no. 7 clefts comprises bilateral facial clefts. Additionally, Tessier no. 7 clefts are more frequently found in boys or men, rather than in girls or women. The presence of an accessory maxilla with supernumerary teeth in a patient with bilateral Tessier no. 7 clefts is extremely rare. Early detection of craniofacial abnormalities is important, because it may influence patient prognosis and management.

Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnosis , Facial Asymmetry/etiology , Maxilla/abnormalities , Tooth, Supernumerary/diagnosis , Abnormalities, Multiple/surgery , Adult , Craniofacial Abnormalities/complications , Craniofacial Abnormalities/surgery , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Male , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/surgery , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tooth, Supernumerary/complications , Tooth, Supernumerary/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(9): 1095-1100, 2020 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394117

PURPOSE: According to the functional matrix theory, the development of maxillomandibular complex may be affected by the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the length and angulation of the styloid process in different types of malocclusions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Angulations and length of the styloid process were evaluated in CBCT images of 97 individuals retrospectively. The patients were classified as class I, II, and III groups according to sagittal skeletal classes. The mean length, anterior angulation, and medial angulation of the styloid process were analyzed. Statistical significance was evaluated at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The mean styloid process length in group class III was found to be significantly longer than class I (p: 0.035). Anterior angle was significantly higher in class III group than in other groups (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in medial angle between the groups (p: 0.506). CONCLUSION: According to present findings, class III malocclusion is associated with the stylohyoid complex morphology due to longer styloid process lengths and higher anterior angle values.

Anatomic Variation , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/etiology , Mandible/abnormalities , Maxilla/abnormalities , Temporal Bone/abnormalities , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Male , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Turkey , Young Adult
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(5): 1262-1265, 2020 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332550

The Le Fort I osteotomy is a versatile operation for correction of developmental, congenital, and posttraumatic deformities of the lower midface. One of the challenges of the osteotomy is pterygomaxillary separation, with the potential for unfavorable fractures to the orbit/skull base or vascular injury. A modified technique for pterygomaxillary disjunction is the transmucosal tuberosity osteotomy. The authors have used this technique for pterygomaxillary separation in 200 consecutive Le Fort I osteotomies over a 3-year period (2014 to 2017). There were no episodes of unfavorable propagation to the skull base or orbit, oroantral or oronasal fistulae, excessive bleeding/vessel injuries, or vascular insufficiency to the maxilla. The transmucosal tuberosity approach is a reliable and safe method of performing the pterygomaxillary separation during the Le Fort I osteotomy.

Maxilla/abnormalities , Osteotomy, Le Fort/methods , Humans , Maxilla/surgery , Osteotomy, Le Fort/adverse effects , Osteotomy, Le Fort/instrumentation , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology
Head Neck Pathol ; 14(1): 224-229, 2020 Mar.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900210

Regional odontodysplasia (RO) is a rare dental anomaly of unknown etiology that can affect both deciduous and permanent dentition. RO is characterized by severe hypoplasia of enamel and dentin, and teeth affected are friable and more susceptible to caries and fractures. Most of the lesions occur in the anterior maxilla and correlation with clinical and radiographic features is essential to provide a correct diagnosis. The major criteria for diagnosis are predominantly based on radiography, which shows presence of large pulp chambers and a marked reduction in the radiopacity of enamel and dentin, making the distinction between these mineralized structures difficult. Early diagnosis is important to minimize future sequels and allow preventive or conservative treatment. The therapeutic approach of the RO should be based on the degree of severity of the anomaly and in the individual functional and aesthetic needs of each case. A classic case of RO affecting the maxilla is exemplified in this Sine Qua Non Radiology-Pathology article.

Maxilla/abnormalities , Odontodysplasia/pathology , Child , Female , Humans , Odontodysplasia/diagnosis
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(1): 134-140, 2020 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474475

PURPOSE: Management of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) remains a significant clinical challenge. The objective of this retrospective study is to evaluate the accuracy of virtual surgical planning (VSP) with different maxillary advancement techniques. METHODS: Ninety adult patients with cleft-related maxillary hypoplasia between April 2010 and April 2016 were enrolled in our study. Various surgical techniques including conventional orthognathic surgery, total maxillary distraction osteogenesis, and anterior maxillary segmental distraction were used according to the characteristics of patients. All the cases were aided with VSP and three-dimensional (3D)-printed surgical splints. The virtual surgical plan was compared with the postoperative surgical results by analyzing the positions of several landmarks and planes relative to reference planes. RESULTS: Both the profile and occlusion were improved significantly in all the cases. VSP was successfully transferred to actual surgery with the help of 3D-printed surgical splints in different surgical techniques. CONCLUSION: Management of cleft-related maxillary hypoplasia requires both comprehensive surgical planning and accurate execution. VSP serves as a viable alternative to conventional model surgery with high accuracy in patients with adult CLP.

Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Palate/surgery , Maxilla/abnormalities , Osteogenesis, Distraction/methods , Osteotomy, Le Fort/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Maxilla/surgery , Micrognathism/surgery , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures/methods , Patient Care Planning , Treatment Outcome , User-Computer Interface , Young Adult