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1.
Workplace Health Saf ; 70(1): 43-49, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037513

This case study draws attention to the psychosocial difficulties that emerged in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in relation to the remote management of subjects with psychiatric vulnerabilities following exposure to prolonged quarantine. The case involves a 56-year-old hospital nurse, followed by the Occupational Health Department of a major university hospital in central Italy for mood instability in the context of a cyclothymic temperament. She was quarantined for occupationally acquired COVID-19 and remained positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) via swab test for more than 2 months between March and May 2020. In this case study, we discuss the challenges presented by the risk of a prolonged quarantine in a psychologically vulnerable employee, the need for occupational medicine to provide adequate health surveillance of all health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, the effectiveness of telepsychiatry, and the difficulties in formulating a proper treatment strategy.


COVID-19 , Occupational Medicine , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 5, 2022 01 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012610

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through direct lysis of infected lung epithelial cells, which releases damage-associated molecular patterns and induces a pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu causing systemic inflammation. Anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents have shown limited therapeutic efficacy. Soluble CD24 (CD24Fc) blunts the broad inflammatory response induced by damage-associated molecular patterns via binding to extracellular high mobility group box 1 and heat shock proteins, as well as regulating the downstream Siglec10-Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 pathway. A recent randomized phase III trial evaluating CD24Fc for patients with severe COVID-19 (SAC-COVID; NCT04317040) demonstrated encouraging clinical efficacy. METHODS: Using a systems analytical approach, we studied peripheral blood samples obtained from patients enrolled at a single institution in the SAC-COVID trial to discern the impact of CD24Fc treatment on immune homeostasis. We performed high dimensional spectral flow cytometry and measured the levels of a broad array of cytokines and chemokines to discern the impact of CD24Fc treatment on immune homeostasis in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled, and the clinical characteristics from the CD24Fc vs. placebo groups were matched. Using high-content spectral flow cytometry and network-level analysis, we found that patients with severe COVID-19 had systemic hyper-activation of multiple cellular compartments, including CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD56+ natural killer cells. Treatment with CD24Fc blunted this systemic inflammation, inducing a return to homeostasis in NK and T cells without compromising the anti-Spike protein antibody response. CD24Fc significantly attenuated the systemic cytokine response and diminished the cytokine coexpression and network connectivity linked with COVID-19 severity and pathogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that CD24Fc rapidly down-modulates systemic inflammation and restores immune homeostasis in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, supporting further development of CD24Fc as a novel therapeutic against severe COVID-19.


CD24 Antigen/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Inflammation/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Alarmins/immunology , Alarmins/metabolism , CD24 Antigen/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Double-Blind Method , Female , HMGB1 Protein/immunology , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/immunology , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Homeostasis/drug effects , Homeostasis/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Solubility , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Treatment Outcome
3.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012962

Plitidepsin, a marine-derived cyclic-peptide, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication at nanomolar concentrations by targeting the host protein eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A. Here, we show that plitidepsin distributes preferentially to lung over plasma, with similar potency against across several SARS-CoV-2 variants in preclinical studies. Simultaneously, in this randomized, parallel, open-label, proof-of-concept study (NCT04382066) conducted in 10 Spanish hospitals between May and November 2020, 46 adult hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection received either 1.5 mg (n = 15), 2.0 mg (n = 16), or 2.5 mg (n = 15) plitidepsin once daily for 3 d. The primary objective was safety; viral load kinetics, mortality, need for increased respiratory support, and dose selection were secondary end points. One patient withdrew consent before starting procedures; 45 initiated treatment; one withdrew because of hypersensitivity. Two Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were observed (hypersensitivity and diarrhea). Treatment-related adverse events affecting more than 5% of patients were nausea (42.2%), vomiting (15.6%), and diarrhea (6.7%). Mean viral load reductions from baseline were 1.35, 2.35, 3.25, and 3.85 log10 at days 4, 7, 15, and 31. Nonmechanical invasive ventilation was required in 8 of 44 evaluable patients (16.0%); six patients required intensive care support (13.6%), and three patients (6.7%) died (COVID-19-related). Plitidepsin has a favorable safety profile in patients with COVID-19.


COVID-19/drug therapy , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Depsipeptides/adverse effects , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/chemically induced , Peptides, Cyclic/adverse effects , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load/drug effects
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 80, 2022 01 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013199

Cross-reactive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 have been observed in pre-pandemic cohorts and proposed to contribute to host protection. Here we assess 52 COVID-19 household contacts to capture immune responses at the earliest timepoints after SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Using a dual cytokine FLISpot assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we enumerate the frequency of T cells specific for spike, nucleocapsid, membrane, envelope and ORF1 SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that cross-react with human endemic coronaviruses. We observe higher frequencies of cross-reactive (p = 0.0139), and nucleocapsid-specific (p = 0.0355) IL-2-secreting memory T cells in contacts who remained PCR-negative despite exposure (n = 26), when compared with those who convert to PCR-positive (n = 26); no significant difference in the frequency of responses to spike is observed, hinting at a limited protective function of spike-cross-reactive T cells. Our results are thus consistent with pre-existing non-spike cross-reactive memory T cells protecting SARS-CoV-2-naïve contacts from infection, thereby supporting the inclusion of non-spike antigens in second-generation vaccines.


Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Contact Tracing/methods , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus/physiology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , /virology , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Young Adult
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 439, 2022 01 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013430

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 led to rapid vaccine development. However, there remains considerable vaccine hesitancy in some countries. We investigate vaccine willingness in three nations with very different vaccine histories: Israel, Japan and Hungary. Employing an ecological-systems approach we analyse associations between health status, individual cognitions, norms, trust in government, COVID-19 myths and willingness to be vaccinated, with data from three nationally representative samples (Israel, Jan. 2021, N = 1011; Japan, Feb. 2021, N = 997; Hungary, April 2021, N = 1130). Vaccine willingness was higher in Israel (74%) than Japan (51%) or Hungary (31%). In all three countries vaccine willingness was greatest amongst who would regret not being vaccinated and respondents who trusted their government. Multi-group latent class analysis identified three groups of COVID myths, with particular concern about alteration of DNA (Israel), allergies (Hungary) and infection from the vaccine (Japan). Intervention campaigns should address such cultural myths while emphasising both individual and social benefits of vaccination.


COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/psychology , /methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hungary , Israel , Japan , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 385, 2022 01 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013457

The immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration appears to be characterized by high inter-individual variation, even in SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects, who could have experienced different post-infection, unresolved conditions. We monitored anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and kinetics along with circulating biomarkers in a cohort of 175 healthcare workers during early immunization with COVID-19 mRNA-LNP BNT162b2 vaccine, to identify the associated factors. Subjects with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were characterized by higher BMI and CRP levels and lower neutrophil count with respect to naïve subjects. Baseline IgG levels resulted associated with CRP independently on BMI and inflammatory diseases. Among 137 subjects undergoing vaccination and monitored after the first and the second dose, three kinetic patterns were identified. The pattern showing a rapid growth was characterized by higher IgG levels at baseline and higher CRP and MCHC levels than negative subjects. Subjects previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 showed higher levels of CRP, suggesting persistence of unresolved inflammation. These levels are the main determinant of IgG levels at baseline and characterized subjects belonging to the best performing, post-vaccine antibody kinetic pattern.


Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Kinetics , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e22122, 2022 01 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014966

BACKGROUND: Plain language summaries (PLSs) are intended to provide readers with a clear, nontechnical, and easily understandable overview of medical and scientific literature; however, audience preferences for specific PLS formats have yet to be fully explored. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the preferred readability level and format for PLSs of medical research articles of different disease states via a web-based survey of audiences of different age groups. METHODS: Articles describing phase III clinical trials published in top-level, peer-reviewed journals between May 2016 and May 2018 were identified for 3 chronic disease states representing a range of adult patient age groups: (1) psoriasis, a skin disease representative of younger patients; (2) multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurological disease representative of middle-aged patients; and (3) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a painful joint disease representative of older patients. Four PLSs were developed for each research article, of which 3 were text-only summaries (written with high, medium, and low complexity) and 1 was an infographic. To evaluate each of the 4 PLS formats, a 20-question open survey (specific to one of the 3 diseases) was sent to a representative sample selected via UK-based patient association websites, Twitter, and Facebook patient groups. A weighted-average calculation was applied to respondents' ranked preferences for each PLS format. RESULTS: For all 3 articles, the weighted-average preference scores showed that infographic (psoriasis 2.91, MS 2.71, and RA 2.78) and medium-complexity text-based PLS (reading age 14-17 years, US Grade 9-11; psoriasis 2.90; MS 2.47; RA 2.77) were the two most preferred PLS formats. CONCLUSIONS: Audience preferences should be accounted for when preparing PLSs to accompany peer-reviewed original research articles. Oversimplified text can be viewed negatively, and graphical summaries or medium-complexity text-based summaries appear to be the most popular. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Patients and caregivers should have the chance to read about medical research in a format they can understand. However, we do not know much about the formats that people with different illnesses or ages prefer. Researchers wanted to find out more about this. They selected 3 medical articles about illnesses that affect different age groups: psoriasis (younger patients), multiple sclerosis (middle-aged patients), and rheumatoid arthritis (older patients). They created 4 summaries of each article. One was a graphical summary, and the other 3 were words-only summaries of high, medium, and low complexity. Then, the researchers posted surveys on UK patient group websites and Facebook patient groups to ask people what they thought of the summaries. The surveys were taken by 167 people. These people were patients with psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, or rheumatoid arthritis, or their caregivers. Most were women, and about half had a university degree. For each illness, most people preferred the graphical summary. Among the word-only summaries, most people preferred the medium-complexity wording written for a reading age of 14 to 17 years. People felt that the graphical and medium-complexity summaries were clear and concise, while the others used jargon or were too simple. Authors of medical articles should remember these results when writing summaries for patients. More research is needed about the preferences of other people, such as those with other illnesses. (See Multimedia Appendix 1 for the graphical summary of the plain language summary.).


Biomedical Research , Comprehension , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Language , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e25792, 2022 01 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014969

BACKGROUND: New cancer treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), can improve survival and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with cancer. Although long-term monitoring of HRQoL has been shown to improve survival, integration of HRQoL into everyday practice remains poorly documented. OBJECTIVE: This study describes experiences and expectations of patients treated with ICIs regarding a discussion of HRQoL with health care professionals (HCPs) in cancer management. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in an online patient community (Carenity) in France. Patients treated with ICIs for cancer, included between September 2018 and January 2019, completed a questionnaire to assess the involvement of HCP in a discussion of HRQoL and when and what was discussed. RESULTS: Of 82 patients included (mean age: 56.9 years, 95% CI 54.2-59.6; 46 [56%] male; 34 [41%] with lung cancer), 62 (76%) reported discussing HRQoL at least once with HCPs, mainly general practitioners (54/82, 66%), oncologists (53/82, 65%), and hospital nurses (50/82, 61%). Around half (45/82, 55%) of the patients were satisfied with these discussions. Discussions with the oncologist were at the patient's initiative (34/53, 64%). Discussions occurred primarily during follow-up visits (40/62, 65%), when adverse events occurred (30/62, 48%), and at treatment initiation (27/62, 32%). The most discussed dimensions were symptoms (48/62, 77%) and physical well-being (43/62, 69%). With respect to expectations, 54/82 (66%) patients considered oncologists as the most important HCPs for discussing HRQoL. These discussions were desirable throughout the care pathway, particularly at diagnosis (63/82, 77%) and when treatment was initiated (75/82, 92%) or changed (68/82, 83%). All HRQoL dimensions were considered important to discuss. CONCLUSIONS: With only around half of the patients satisfied with HRQoL discussions, impactful HRQoL integration in clinical practice is critical. According to patients, this integration should involve mainly oncologists and general practitioners, should happen at every step of the care pathway, and should be extended to dimensions that are currently rarely addressed.


General Practitioners , Lung Neoplasms , Critical Pathways , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 3, 2022 Jan 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016707

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as an infectious disease primarily spreading through droplet infection in dental treatment. Patient satisfaction is an indicator of healthcare quality service. Quality of healthcare service and patient satisfaction has been affected by the COVID­19 pandemic. This study aims to assess the knowledge and satisfaction toward health protocols COVID-19 during dental treatment among dental patients. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 270 dental patients using a self­designed questionnaire consisting of knowledge and satisfaction about health protocols COVID-19 during dental treatment through a random sampling technique. Data were imported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify the factors associated with their knowledge and satisfaction. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistical significance. RESULTS: Totally, 270 dental patients with mean age of 37.6 ± 6.7 years participated in the study. The mean knowledge score was 36.7 ± 3.5, as considerable number of participants were unaware about the risk associated with dental treatment as well as restrictions imposed on dental procedures. About 18% of participants experienced one or other form of dental complaints during the lockdown period. The overall level of patient satisfaction was 44.6%. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that, public knowledge is to be improved about risk of virus transmission that can be related with dental treatment and also people should be encouraged to use virtual facilities, such as teledentistry, so that no dental emergencies is left untreated during the pandemic time. In addition, the level of satisfaction was in a medium level for dental patients in the study area. Specifically, we deduced from the results that social/physical distancing measures are one of the mechanisms to decrease the fear of exposure to the COVID-19.


COVID-19/prevention & control , Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Knowledge , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Care/methods , Dental Care/standards , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e30026, 2022 01 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019851

BACKGROUND: Web-based mindfulness programs may be beneficial in improving the well-being outcomes of those living with chronic illnesses. Adherence to programs is a key indicator in improving outcomes; however, with the digitization of programs, it is necessary to enhance engagement and encourage people to return to digital health platforms. More information is needed on how engagement strategies have been used in web-based mindfulness programs to encourage adherence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop a list of engagement strategies for web-based mindfulness programs and evaluate the impact of engagement strategies on adherence. METHODS: A narrative systematic review was conducted across the MEDLINE Complete, CINAHL Complete, APA PsycINFO, and Embase databases and followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. Articles were screened using the population, intervention, comparator, and outcome framework. Adults aged >18 years with chronic health conditions were included in the study. Mindfulness interventions, including those in combination with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, delivered on the web through the internet or smartphone technology were included. Interventions lasted at least 2 weeks. Studies with a randomized controlled trial design or a pilot randomized controlled trial design were included. Engagement strategies, including web-based program features and facilitator-led strategies, adherence, and retention, were included. RESULTS: A total of 1265 articles were screened, of which 19 were relevant and were included in the review. On average, 70.98% (2258/3181) of the study participants were women with a mean age of 46 (SD 13) years. Most commonly, mindfulness programs were delivered to people living with mental health conditions (8/19, 42%). Of the 19 studies, 8 (42%) used only program features to encourage adherence, 5 (26%) used facilitator-led strategies, and 6 (32%) used a combination of the two. Encouraging program adherence was the most common engagement strategy used, which was used in 77% (10/13) of the facilitator-led studies and 57% (8/14) of the program feature studies. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of the studies provided a definition of adherence, which varied between 50% and 100% completion across studies. The overall mean participant compliance to the mindfulness programs was 56% (SD 15%). Most studies (10/19, 53%) had a long-term follow-up, with the most common follow-up period being 12 weeks after intervention (3/10, 30%). After the intervention, the mean retention was 78% (SD 15%). CONCLUSIONS: Engagement strategies in web-based mindfulness programs comprise reminders to use the program. Other features may be suitable for encouraging adherence to interventions, and a facilitator-led component may result in higher retention. There is variance in the way adherence is measured, and intervention lengths and follow-up periods are inconsistent. More thorough reporting and a standardized framework for measuring adherence are needed to more accurately assess adherence and engagement strategies.


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Mindfulness , Adult , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Internet , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Smartphone
12.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 184(2)2022 01 10.
Article Da | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023466

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children and adults. Cocaine is associated with asthma exacerbations. In Denmark, the prevalence of cocaine use has been increasing in recent years. This is a case report of a 47-year-old male with acute asthma exacerbation after cocaine use. Cocaine use is probably an underestimated reason for acute asthma exacerbations.


Asthma , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Adult , Asthma/chemically induced , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Chronic Disease , Cocaine/adverse effects , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Clin Lab ; 68(1)2022 Jan 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023694

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has continued to aggressively spread and kill. The incidence of complications and associated mortality rates are high. Cardiac damage, which is related to survival, is one of these. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of BNP, a cardiac biomarker, in predicting mortality in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center, prospective observational study was performed from July to September 2020 in a tertiary university hospital designated for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Patients whose diagnoses were confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tested nasopharyngeal swabs and with thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings compatible with COVID-19 pneumonia were included in the study. All clinical and laboratory data were obtained within the first 24 hours of hospital admission. To determine the risk of in-hospital death, patients were followed from admission until their discharge (1 to 15 days). The primary outcome was in-hospital death, defined as the case-fatality ratio. RESULTS: Among all biomarkers that were included in the multivariate analysis only high BNP levels was independently associated with mortality [Mean 1.012, 95% CI (1.005 - 1.02 pg/mL) (p = 0.002)]. Mortality was found to be significantly associated with older age and higher BNP, LDH, AST, HGB, PLT, ferritin, D-dimer, and CRP levels. In addition, mortality was found to be higher with longer duration of hospitalization (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Our fundamental goal for COVID-19 is to determine whether the hospitalized patients are in the mortality risk group at an early stage of disease. Adding measurement of BNP levels to routine laboratory tests for COVID-19 may be a practical approach to determine the patients with a high risk of mortality.


COVID-19 , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(2): 164-169, 2022 02 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026778

ABSTRACT: A growing number of studies have documented a wide variety of neurological manifestations associated with the novel SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Of the available literature, cranial neuropathies and central nervous system disorders, such as encephalopathy and ischemic strokes, remain the predominant discussion. Limited investigations exist examining peripheral neuropathies of those with COVID-19. This case series discusses eight patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and presented with localized weakness after a prolonged course of mechanical ventilation (>21 days). We retrospectively reviewed all patients' charts who received electrodiagnostic evaluation between March and November 2020 in the outpatient clinic or in the acute care hospital at the JFK Medical Center/JFK Johnson Rehabilitation Institute and Saint Peter's University Hospital of New Jersey. A total of eight COVID-19-positive patients were identified to have a clinical presentation of localized weakness after a prolonged course of mechanical ventilation. All patients were subsequently found to have a focal peripheral neuropathy of varying severity that was confirmed by electrodiagnostic testing. Patient demographics, clinical, and electrodiagnostic findings were documented. The findings of local weakness and focal peripheral neuropathies after diagnosis of COVID-19 raise significant questions regarding underlying pathophysiology and overall prognosis associated with COVID-19.


COVID-19/complications , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electrodiagnosis/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 50, 2022 Jan 13.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027010

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing-Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) has risen in patients with urinary tract infections. The objective of this study was to determine explore the risk factors of ESBL-E infection in hospitalized patients and establish a predictive model. METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients with an Enterobacteriaceae-positive urine sample at the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university from January 2018 to December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBL-E were analyzed, and multivariate analysis of related factors was performed. From these, a nomogram was established to predict the possibility of ESBL-E infection. Simultaneously, susceptibility testing of a broad array of carbapenem antibiotics was performed on ESBL-E cultures to explore possible alternative treatment options. RESULTS: Of the total 874 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs), 272 (31.1%) were ESBL-E positive. In the predictive analysis, five variables were identified as independent risk factors for ESBL-E infection: male gender (OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.066-2.416), older age (OR = 4.100, 95% CI 1.678-12.343), a hospital stay in preceding 3 months (OR = 1.872, 95% CI 1.141-3.067), invasive urological procedure (OR = 1.810, 95% CI 1.197-2.729), and antibiotic use within the previous 3 months (OR = 1.833, 95% CI 1.055-3.188). In multivariate analysis, the data set was divided into a training set of 611 patients and a validation set of 263 patients The model developed to predict ESBL-E infection was effective, with the AuROC of 0.650 (95% CI 0.577-0.725). Among the antibiotics tested, several showed very high effectiveness against ESBL-E: amikacin (85.7%), carbapenems (83.8%), tigecycline (97.1%) and polymyxin (98.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram is useful for estimating a UTI patient's likelihood of infection with ESBL-E. It could improve clinical decision making and enable more efficient empirical treatment. Empirical treatment may be informed by the results of the antibiotic susceptibility testing.


Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenems , Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28479, 2022 Jan 14.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029196

ABSTRACT: To facilitate the understanding of the interaction between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other pathogens causing respiratory system affection we investigated the effect of influenza vaccination on the incidence and severity of COVID-19 among members of staff working in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital.All staff members working in the hospital between February 2020 and March 2021 were divided into 2 main groups based on whether or not they received influenza vaccination. None of the participants had received any of the COVID-19 vaccines throughout this time period. The records of each were scrutinized to see the effect of influenza vaccination on incidence and severity of COVID-19. Severity measures were: need for hospital and intensive care unit admission and total length of hospital stay.Incidence of affection with COVID-19 was much lower in the vaccinated group (3.7% vs 8.1%, P < .001). Influenza vaccination also reduced total length of hospital stay (6.2 days vs 12.7 days, P < .05) and need for intensive care unit admission among the patients.Influenza vaccine reduces both the incidence of affection as well as the overall burden of COVID-19. This is of particular importance for people working in the healthcare field during the serious COVID-19 pandemic.


COVID-19 , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Adult , Bahrain/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28561, 2022 Jan 14.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029223

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus, has infected millions worldwide with cancer patients demonstrating a higher prevalence for severe disease and poorer outcomes. Recently, the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was released as the primary means to combat COVID-19. The currently reported incidence of local and systemic side effects was 27% in the general public. The safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine has not been studied in patients with an active cancer diagnosis who are either ongoing or plan to undergo oncologic therapy.This single center study reviewed the charts of 210 patients with active cancer diagnoses that received both doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The development of side effects from the vaccine, hospitalizations or exacerbations from various oncologic treatment were documented. Type of oncologic treatment (immunotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal, biologic, radiation or mixed) was documented to identify if side effects were related to treatment type. The time at which the vaccine was administered in relation to treatment onset (on long term therapy, within 1 month of therapy or prior to therapy) was also documented to identify any relationships.Sixty five (31%) participants experienced side effects from the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, however most were mild to moderate. Treatment protocol was not linked to the development of vaccine related side effects (P = .202), nor was immunotherapy (P = .942). The timing of vaccine administered in relation to treatment onset was also not related to vaccine related side effects (P = .653). Six (2.9%) participants were hospitalized and 4 (2%) died.The incidence of side effects in cancer patients is similar to what has been reported for the general public (31% vs 27%). Therefore, we believe that the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine is safe in oncologic patients undergoing numerous cancer treatments.


/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Neoplasms , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28567, 2022 Jan 14.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029226

ABSTRACT: Gyeonggi-do (Gyeonggi province) has the second highest number of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in the Republic of Korea after Seoul, with approximately 25% of the COVID-19 patients as of January 2021. Our center is a level I trauma center located in south Gyeonggi-do, and we aimed to evaluate whether the characteristics of trauma patients changed after the COVID-19 pandemic.We retrospectively reviewed the trauma patients registered with the Korea Trauma Database of the Center from February 2019 to January 2021. The patients were dichotomized into pre-coronavirus disease (pre-COVID) and coronavirus disease (COVID) groups, and their trauma volumes, injury characteristics, intentionality, and outcomes were compared.A total of 2628 and 2636 patients were included in the pre-COVID and COVID groups, respectively. During the COVID-19 period, motorcycle accidents, bicycle accidents, and penetrating injury cases increased, and pedestrian traffic accidents, slips, and injury by machines decreased. The average daily number of patients in the COVID group was lower in March (5.6 ±â€Š2.6/day vs 7.2 ±â€Š2.4/day, P = .014) and higher in September (9.9 ±â€Š3.2/day vs 7.7 ±â€Š2.0/day, P = .003) compared to the pre-COVID group. The COVID group also had a higher ratio of direct admissions (67.5% vs 57.2%, P < .001), proportion of suicidal patients (4.1% vs 2.7%, P = .005), and injury severity scores (14 [9-22] vs 12 [4-22], P < .001) than the pre-COVID group. The overall mortality (4.7% vs 4.9%, P = .670) and intensive care unit length of stay (2 [0-3] days vs 2 [0-4] days, P = .153) was not different between the 2 groups.Although the total number of patients did not change, the COVID-19 pandemic affected the number of monthly admissions and the injury mechanisms changed. More severely injured patients were admitted directly to the trauma center.


COVID-19 , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e32939, 2022 01 14.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029538

BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health care service delivery. However, the perceptions and needs of such systems remain elusive, hindering efforts to promote AI adoption in health care. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide an overview of the perceptions and needs of AI to increase its adoption in health care. METHODS: A systematic scoping review was conducted according to the 5-stage framework by Arksey and O'Malley. Articles that described the perceptions and needs of AI in health care were searched across nine databases: ACM Library, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Embase, IEEE Xplore, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies that were published from inception until June 21, 2021. Articles that were not specific to AI, not research studies, and not written in English were omitted. RESULTS: Of the 3666 articles retrieved, 26 (0.71%) were eligible and included in this review. The mean age of the participants ranged from 30 to 72.6 years, the proportion of men ranged from 0% to 73.4%, and the sample sizes for primary studies ranged from 11 to 2780. The perceptions and needs of various populations in the use of AI were identified for general, primary, and community health care; chronic diseases self-management and self-diagnosis; mental health; and diagnostic procedures. The use of AI was perceived to be positive because of its availability, ease of use, and potential to improve efficiency and reduce the cost of health care service delivery. However, concerns were raised regarding the lack of trust in data privacy, patient safety, technological maturity, and the possibility of full automation. Suggestions for improving the adoption of AI in health care were highlighted: enhancing personalization and customizability; enhancing empathy and personification of AI-enabled chatbots and avatars; enhancing user experience, design, and interconnectedness with other devices; and educating the public on AI capabilities. Several corresponding mitigation strategies were also identified in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The perceptions and needs of AI in its use in health care are crucial in improving its adoption by various stakeholders. Future studies and implementations should consider the points highlighted in this study to enhance the acceptability and adoption of AI in health care. This would facilitate an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of health care service delivery to improve patient outcomes and satisfaction.


Artificial Intelligence , Delivery of Health Care , Adult , Aged , Chronic Disease , Community Health Services , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e31664, 2022 01 14.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029540

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and economic burden of dementia are increasing dramatically. Using information communication technology to improve cognitive functions is proven to be effective and holds the potential to serve as a new and efficient method for the prevention of dementia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the experience of mobile apps for cognitive training in middle-aged adults. We evaluated the relationships between the experience of cognitive training apps and structural variables using an extended health belief model. METHODS: An online survey was conducted on South Korean participants aged 40 to 64 years (N=320). General characteristics and dementia knowledge were measured along with the health belief model constructs. Statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Higher dementia knowledge (odds ratio [OR] 1.164, P=.02), higher perceived benefit (OR 1.373, P<.001), female gender (OR 0.499, P=.04), and family history of dementia (OR 1.933, P=.04) were significantly associated with the experience of cognitive training apps for the prevention of dementia. CONCLUSIONS: This study may serve as a theoretical basis for the development of intervention strategies to increase the use of cognitive training apps for the prevention of dementia.


Dementia , Mobile Applications , Adult , Cognition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
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