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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 8, 2022 01 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989760

Purpose: To determine the annual incidences and rates of progression of myopia and high myopia in Chinese schoolchildren from grade 1 to grade 6 and explore the possible cause-specific risk factors for myopia. Methods: From 11 randomly selected primary schools in Anyang city, central China, 2835 grade 1 students were examined with annual follow ups for 5 years. Students were invited to undergo a comprehensive examination, including cycloplegic autorefraction, ocular biometry, and standardized questionnaires. Results: The mean spherical equivalent refraction decreased substantially from +0.94 ± 1.03 diopter (D) in grade 1 to -1.37 ± 2.08 D in grade 6, with rapid annual myopic shifts, especially for students in grades 3 through 6 (-0.51 to -0.59 D). The prevalence of myopia increased substantially, with the yearly incidence of myopia increasing from 7.8% in grade 1 and 2 to 25.3% in grades 5 and 6, and the incidence of high myopia increased from 0.1% to 1.0%. The 5-year incidence of myopia was lowest among children who has a baseline spherical equivalent refraction of greater than +2.00 D (4.4%), and increased to nearly 92.0% among children whose baseline spherical equivalent refraction was 0.00 to -0.50 D. The incidence of myopia was higher in children who had less hyperopic baseline refraction, two myopic parents, longer axial length, deeper anterior chamber, higher axial length-corneal radius of curvature ratio, and thinner lenses. Conclusions: Both the annual incidence and progression rates of myopia and high myopia were high in Chinese schoolchildren, especially after grade 3. Hyperopic refraction of children should be monitored before primary school as hyperopia reserve to prevent the onset of myopia and high myopia.

/statistics & numerical data , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/epidemiology , Biometry , Child , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myopia, Degenerative/diagnosis , Myopia, Degenerative/epidemiology , Prevalence , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Risk Factors , Students , Vision Tests
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 30(1): 3, 2022 Jan 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016708

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to be elevated among first responders (Emergency Medical Services, fire service, police force) compared to the general population. Examining the prevalence of mental health issues in a work force with an elevated occupational risk is fundamental towards ensuring their wellbeing and implementing safeguard measures. The goal of this study is therefore to report the prevalence of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic development, and PTSD in Norwegian ambulance personnel. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, anonymous, web-based survey (Questback®), performed among operative personnel employed in the Emergency Medical Services in the Regional Health Trust of Central Norway between 18. February and 9. April 2021. The study was sent to 1052 eligible participants. Questions reported demographic data, a traumatic events exposure index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (Depression), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, Posttraumatic symptom scale (PTSD) and Posttraumatic change scale. RESULTS: The response rate in this study was 45.5% (n = 479/1052). The mean age of respondents was 37.1 years (std. 11.1) and 52.8% (n = 253) were male. Of the respondents, 80.6% (n = 386) were married or had a partner, and 91.6% (n = 439) reported having access to a peer support programme, with 34.9% (n = 167) reporting that they had utilized peer support. In this study, 5% (n = 24) showed a prevalence of manifest posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, while 8.6% (n = 41) reported moderate to severe depression and 2.9% (n = 14) presented moderate to severe symptoms of general anxiety. Of the respondents, 77.2% (n = 370) reported personal growth because of their work experiences. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that Norwegian ambulance personnel report a prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression, which is slightly higher for men, and lower for the female proportion in this study, when compared to an adult Norwegian population. The vast majority of respondents reported personal growth because of their work experience, and both the degree of peer support and having a partner seem to influence levels of posttraumatic stress and -development.

Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Ambulances , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(1): 2-14, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017772

Background: There are reports of ocular tropism due to respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Various studies have shown ocular manifestation in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. We aimed to identify ophthalmic manifestations in COVID-19 patients and establish an association between ocular symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted for publications from December 2019 to April 2021. The search included MeSH terms such as SARS-CoV-2 and ocular manifestations. The pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using binomial distribution and random effects. The meta-regression method was used to examine factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. Results: Of the 412 retrieved articles, 23 studies with a total of 3,650 COVID-19 patients were analyzed. The PPE for any ocular manifestations was 23.77% (95% CI: 15.73-31.81). The most prevalent symptom was dry eyes with a PPE of 13.66% (95% CI: 5.01-25.51). The PPE with 95% CI for conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival congestion/conjunctivitis, and ocular pain was 13.41% (4.65-25.51), 9.14% (6.13-12.15), and 10.34% (4.90-15.78), respectively. Only two studies reported ocular discomfort and diplopia. The results of meta-regression analysis showed that age and sample size had no significant effect on the prevalence of any ocular manifestations. There was no significant publication bias in our meta-analysis. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ocular manifestations in COVID-19 patients. The most common symptoms are dry eyes, conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival congestion/conjunctivitis, ocular pain, irritation/itching/burning sensation, and foreign body sensation.

COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/virology , Humans , Prevalence
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(163)2022 Mar 31.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022256

Chronic lung diseases are the third leading cause of death worldwide and are increasing in prevalence over time. Although much of our traditional understanding of health and disease is derived from study of the male of the species - be it animal or human - there is increasing evidence that sex and gender contribute to differences in disease risk, prevalence, presentation, severity, treatment approach, response and outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and bronchiectasis represent the most prevalent and studied chronic lung diseases and have key sex- and gender-based differences which are critical to consider and incorporate into clinical and research approaches. Mechanistic differences present opportunities for therapeutic development whereas behavioural and clinical differences on the part of patients and providers present opportunities for greater education and understanding at multiple levels. In this review, we seek to summarise the sex- and gender-based differences in key chronic lung diseases and outline the clinical and research implications for stakeholders.

Asthma , Bronchiectasis , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
Saudi Med J ; 43(1): 113-116, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022293

OBJECTIVES: To examine asthma prevalence and the relationship between the level of knowledge and quality of life (QoL) among asthmatic secondary school children aged 13-14 years old in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was employed. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, asthma symptoms, knowledge on asthma, and QoL. RESULTS: Data from 2891 asthmatic schoolchildren aged 13-14 years old from secondary schools in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, were analyzed. According to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) scoring for asthma prevalence, the number of children who exhibited signs and symptoms of asthma was 9% (n=260). The mean score for total knowledge indicated a low knowledge level (82.7%). No significant relationship was found between knowledge level and QoL. Only the race factor was associated with asthma knowledge. CONCLUSION: This study has provided valuable information on asthma prevalence among Malaysian adolescents and their knowledge on asthma condition. Further research should explore the correlation factors of asthma knowledge and QoL.

Asthma , Quality of Life , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026872

Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic, debilitating mood disorder associated with poor medical outcomes. MDD has a multifactorial etiology with numerous biopsychosocial factors implicated as risk factors. Functional and psychiatric impairments have been evaluated in patients with liver cirrhosis; however, less is known about the prevalence and risk factors for the development of MDD in those patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of developing depression among adult patients with liver cirrhosis in the United States.Methods: Data were collected using a commercial database, an aggregate of electronic health record data from 26 major integrated US health care systems consisting of 360 hospitals in the US from 1999 to 2019.The study cohort was retrieved by searching the database for a Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms diagnosis of "cirrhosis of liver" during the designated period of the study.The following factors were adjusted for in the analyses: age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol, substance abuse, underlying mental disorders, and comorbidities.Results: 56,197,690 adults were identified between 1999 and 2019. Of those, 293,150 had a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. The prevalence of depression among those cirrhotic patients was 23.93% versus 7.61% in the noncirrhotic control group (95% CI, 16.1836%-16.4770%; P < .0001). By applying a multivariate analysis model, cirrhotic patients were found to be more likely to develop depression (odds ratio = 2.172; 95% CI, 2.159-2.185; P < .0001) compared to patients with no prior history of liver cirrhosis.Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased risk of depression and is likely to be an independent risk factor in its development. Future efforts should focus on the identification and treatment of this debilitating condition in those with liver cirrhosis via an integrated care model.

Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Mood Disorders , Prevalence , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e052495, 2022 01 07.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996790

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of mental health symptoms during the first surge of COVID-19 in the USA, and their associations with COVID-19-related emotional distress, health self-management and healthcare utilisation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of wave 3 (1-22 May 2020) survey data from the ongoing Chicago COVID-19 Comorbidities (C3) study. SETTING: Seven academic and community health centres in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS: 565 adults aged 23-88 with one or more chronic conditions completing at least one prior C3 study wave. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinically relevant anxiety and depressive symptoms as measured using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short forms. Self-reported emotional and health-related responses to COVID-19 were measured through a combination of single-item questions and validated measures. RESULTS: Rates of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 14% (81/563) and 15% (84/563), respectively. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were then each separately associated with greater worry about contracting COVID-19 (relative risk (RR) 2.32, 95% CI 1.52 to 3.53; RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.54), greater stress (RR 4.93, 95% CI 3.20 to 7.59; RR 3.01, 95% CI 1.96 to 4.61) and loneliness (RR 3.82, 95% CI 2.21 to 6.60; RR 5.37, 95% CI 3.21 to 8.98), greater avoidance of the doctor (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.49; RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36) and difficulty managing health (least square means (LS Means) 6.09, 95% CI 5.25 to 6.92 vs 4.23, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75; LS Means 5.85, 95% CI 5.04 to 6.65 vs 4.22, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75) and medications (LS Means 3.71, 95% CI 2.98 to 4.43 vs 2.47, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.92) due to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying and addressing mental health concerns may be an important factor to consider in COVID-19 prevention and management among high-risk medical populations.

COVID-19 , Self-Management , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(1): e017421, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019027

The present study aimed to perform an epidemiological and morphological identification of Eimeria infection in sheep in Brazil. Fecal samples from sheep were collected from 20 farms in northern Paraná, Brazil. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to evaluate the risk factors. Fecal samples containing oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG) ≥1000 were subjected to the modified Willis-Mollay method to perform oocyst identification. Sporulated oocysts were observed microscopically for morphological identification. A total of 807 fecal samples were collected. Based on the morphological characteristics of the sporulated oocysts, 10 species of Eimeria were identified, with main species observed: Eimeira ovinoidalis (98.1%), Eimeria crandallis (87.6%), Eimeria parva (79.1%), and Eimeria bakuensis (60.8%). Only 2.6% (7/268) of the sheep were infected with a single species, 4.8% (13/268) contained two different species, and 92.5% (248/268) were infected with three or more species. The analysis of risk factors showed that an intensive rearing, no rotation of pasture, dirt, and slatted floors, and age up to 12 months were associated with infection. This study showed a high prevalence of Eimeria natural infection in sheep from northern Paraná, Brazil. Furthermore, based on the risk factors, good management and hygiene practices must be employed to avoid infection.

Coccidiosis , Eimeria , Sheep Diseases , Animals , Brazil/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Feces , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
Parasitol Res ; 121(1): 275-286, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981216

Among the Plasmodium species that infect humans, P. falciparum has been largely studied in malaria endemic areas. However, P. malariae infection is less documented among the human population. This study aimed to monitor the prevalence and distribution of P. malariae in Southern Benin. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural localities in the Ouidah-Kpomasse-Tori Bossito (OKT) health district in Southern Benin from June to October 2019. Socio-demographic data were collected using a questionnaire, while malaria infection data were obtained on the one hand by microscopy diagnosis and, on the other, by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Based on microscopy, the prevalence of P. malariae mono-infection and coinfection of P. falciparum, P. malariae was respectively 2.3% and 1.2% in the OKT health district. This prevalence was higher (P < 0.01) than that reported by Damien et al. (2010) 10 years ago in the same study area with 0.7% and 0.3% of P. malariae and P. falciparum/P. malariae, respectively. Based on PCR analysis, P. malariae prevalence was 14.1%, including 5.2% of mono-infection and 8.9% of mixed infection with P. falciparum. Sub-microscopic Plasmodium infections were high (30.6%) and more pronounced in older participants (>20 years). The present study revealed that P. malariae increased in the OKT health district with a high prevalence of submicroscopic infection. Since our results provide valuable evidence of increasing P. malariae infection, the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) must consider P. malariae when designing future measures for effective control and malaria treatment.

Malaria , Plasmodium malariae , Aged , Benin , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Plasmodium falciparum , Prevalence
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 1, 2022 Jan 06.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991654

BACKGROUND: The role of allergic sensitization seems to be protective against SARS CoV2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using online surveys, the impact of COVID-19 on Italian allergic children, comparing the prevalence of AR and asthma symptoms between the first and second pandemic wave. METHODS: Both surveys were emailed to Italian pediatricians in April 2020 (first survey) and in March 2021 (second survey). The first one was related to the impact of COVID-19 and the most frequently reported symptoms. The second one was superimposed on the previous one, taking into account some additional aspects in the management of disease. RESULTS: A total of 99 pediatricians participated in the first survey and 267 in the second one. The first survey showed that, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence was mostly between 0 and 20% throughout the country. The second survey showed a lower prevalence of both diseases nationwide in comparison to the first one. Comparing the two surveys, statistically significant differences were reported only in the distribution of asthma prevalence in Southern Italy while no differences were highlighted in the North and in the Center. Finally regarding allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence, no differences were noticed nationwide. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, if under control, did not represent risk factors for the susceptibility to SARS CoV2. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to continue therapies during COVID-19 outbreak, according to the international guidelines. However, being COVID-19 a new disease, actual knowledge will undergo continuous improvements over time.

Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Asthma/complications , Child , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/complications , Humans , Italy , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
Parasitol Res ; 121(1): 1-10, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993634

Trichuriasis is one of the most common soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, affecting populations globally. The condition is particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas with low levels of sanitation and poor living conditions. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura infection in Asia at the country and region level. Multiple databases/academic search engines (Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were searched for literature on T. trichiura prevalence in Asia published through January 2021. Pooled prevalence was determined using the meta-package in R (version 3.6.1). Out of 13,836 articles, 226 studies (5,439,500 individuals) from 26 countries met the inclusion criteria. Of the 226 studies, 151 were community-based studies that included individuals across the age spectrum, while 75 studies focused on school children (typically in the 5-16 years age range). The overall T. trichiura pooled prevalence was 15.3% (95% CI: 12.4-19.1%), with a pooled prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 10.0-17.1%) for the community studies and 20.9% (95% CI: 14.7-27.9%) for the studies only including school children. For studies including all age groups, individuals in the 1-15 years age group had the highest pooled prevalence at 23.4% (95% CI: 1.7-49.4%). There was a significant difference found in overall pooled prevalence by sex (p < 0.001) and community type (rural versus urban) (p < 0.001). Although prevalence appears to be decreasing, study findings suggest that T. trichiura infection continues to be a public health problem in Asia. Therefore, control programs focused on at-risk individuals in endemic areas are needed.

Ascariasis , Helminthiasis , Trichuriasis , Adolescent , Animals , Ascariasis/epidemiology , Ascaris lumbricoides , Asia , Child , Child, Preschool , Feces , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Prevalence , Sanitation , Soil , Trichuriasis/epidemiology , Trichuris
Parasitol Res ; 121(1): 287-301, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993635

Toxoplasma gondii is an important intracellular parasitic protozoan with a variety of hosts, including chickens, which poses a potential threat to public health. However, little is known regarding overall T. gondii infection in chickens in China. Herein, the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in chickens in China were investigated using a meta-analysis. Forty studies regarding the prevalence of T. gondii in chickens in China from 1993 to 2021 were identified using five databases (PubMed, Science Direct, CNKI, Wang Fang, and VIP). Quantitative and potential sources were analyzed through subgroup analysis and meta-regression in R v3.5.2. The overall prevalence of T. gondii in chickens in China was 13.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.9-16.0). In the region subgroup, the lowest prevalence was presented in Northwestern China (6.0%, 95% CI: 3.2-9.5; P < 0.001). Seasonally, T. gondii prevalence was the highest in spring (17.9%, 95% CI: 7.7-30.9; P = 0.007). Among detection methods, the prevalence in the ELISA subgroup was the highest (22.8%, 95% CI: 17.1-29.1; P < 0.001). According to the farming mode, the prevalence of T. gondii in free-range chickens (19.5%, 95% CI: 15.4-23.9) was significantly higher than that in chickens raised by intensive farming (7.4%, 95% CI: 5.1-10.2; P < 0.001). We also estimated the relationships between region, sampling year, chicken age, chicken application, gender, sample classification, study quality, and T. gondii prevalence in chickens in China. Our study showed that region, season, and farming model played important roles in T. gondii infection of chickens. Integrated control measures should be undertaken to reduce the losses caused by T. gondii infection to the chicken industry.

Poultry Diseases , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan , Chickens , China , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 41, 2022 Jan 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000580

BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in France and to identify the populations most exposed during the first epidemic wave. METHODS: Random selection of individuals aged 15 years or over, from the national tax register (96% coverage). Socio-economic data, migration history, and living conditions were collected via self-computer-assisted-web or computer-assisted-telephone interviews. Home self-sampling was performed for a random subsample, to detect IgG antibodies against spike protein (Euroimmun), and neutralizing antibodies with in-house assays, in dried blood spots (DBS). RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 134,391 participants from May 2nd to June 2st, 2020, including 17,441 eligible for DBS 12,114 of whom were tested. ELISA-S seroprevalence was 4.5% [95% CI 3.9-5.0] overall, reaching up to 10% in the two most affected areas. High-density residences, larger household size, having reported a suspected COVID-19 case in the household, working in healthcare, being of intermediate age and non-daily tobacco smoking were independently associated with seropositivity, whereas living with children or adolescents did not remain associated after adjustment for household size. Adjustment for both residential density and household size accounted for much of the higher seroprevalence in immigrants born outside Europe, twice that in French natives in univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The EPICOV cohort is one of the largest national representative population-based seroprevalence surveys for COVID-19. It shows the major role of contextual living conditions in the initial spread of COVID-19 in France, during which the availability of masks and virological tests was limited.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 5, 2022 Jan 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000586

OBJECTIVE: To provide current estimates of the number of patients with prevalent systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by major health insurance types in the US and to describe patient characteristics. Four large US health insurance claims databases were analyzed to represent different types of insurance coverage, including private insurance, Medicaid, and Medicare Supplemental. RESULTS: Overall unadjusted SLE prevalence per 100,000 persons in the US ranged from 150.1 (private insurance) to 252.9 (Medicare Supplemental insurance). Extrapolating to the US civilian population in 2016, we estimated roughly 345,000 to 404,000 prevalent SLE patients with private/Medicare insurance and 99,000 prevalent SLE patients with Medicaid insurance. Comorbidities, including renal failure/dialysis were commonly observed across multiple organ systems in SLE patients (8.4-21.1%). We estimated a larger number of prevalent SLE cases in the US civilian population than previous reports and observed extensive disease burden based on a 1-year cross-sectional analysis.

Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Medicare , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Insurance, Health , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20210258, 2022.
Article En, Pt | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007316

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of syphilis and associated factors in riverine communities. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional and analytical study carried out with 250 riverside dwellers living in five communities in the city of João Pessoa, state of Paraíba. Data were collected through interviews and rapid screening tests to investigate syphilis. Bivariate, logistic regression and weight of evidence analysis were performed to identify the association between risk factors and behavior variables and rapid test positivity. RESULTS: he prevalence of syphilis was 11.6% (95%CI: 7.5-15.6). Riverside dwellers who have a previous history of Sexually Transmitted Infection (OR 8.00; 95%CI: 2.76-23.2), history of imprisonment (OR 7.39; 95%CI: 1.61-33.7) and who reported having more than two sexual partners in the last 12 months (OR 4.31; 95%CI: 1.55-11.9) were more likely to be positive for syphilis. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of syphilis among riverside dwellers and the presence of behavioral factors that increase vulnerability to acquiring the infection. The need to invest in preventive and screening strategies for syphilis in populations considered vulnerable is highlighted.

HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
Malar J ; 21(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980109

BACKGROUND: In malaria serology analysis, the standard approach to obtain seroprevalence, i.e the proportion of seropositive individuals in a population, is based on a threshold which is used to classify individuals as seropositive or seronegative. The choice of this threshold is often arbitrary and is based on methods that ignore the age-dependency of the antibody distribution. METHODS: Using cross-sectional antibody data from the Western Kenyan Highlands, this paper introduces a novel approach that has three main advantages over the current threshold-based approach: it avoids the use of thresholds; it accounts for the age dependency of malaria antibodies; and it allows us to propagate the uncertainty from the classification of individuals into seropositive and seronegative when estimating seroprevalence. The reversible catalytic model is used as an example for illustrating how to propagate this uncertainty into the parameter estimates of the model. RESULTS: This paper finds that accounting for age-dependency leads to a better fit to the data than the standard approach which uses a single threshold across all ages. Additionally, the paper also finds that the proposed threshold-free approach is more robust against the selection of different age-groups when estimating seroprevalence. CONCLUSION: The novel threshold-free approach presented in this paper provides a statistically principled and more objective approach to estimating malaria seroprevalence. The introduced statistical framework also provides a means to compare results across studies which may use different age ranges for the estimation of seroprevalence.

Epidemiologic Methods , Malaria/epidemiology , Plasmodium/isolation & purification , Serologic Tests/methods , Age Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e052752, 2022 01 06.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992110

OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that ethnic minorities have been disproportionally affected by the COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether prevalence and correlates of past SARS-CoV-2 exposure varied between six ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged 25-79 years enrolled in the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting population-based prospective cohort (n=16 889) were randomly selected within ethnic groups and invited to participate in a cross-sectional COVID-19 seroprevalence substudy. OUTCOME MEASURES: We tested participants for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and collected information on SARS-CoV-2 exposures. We estimated prevalence and correlates of SARS-CoV-2 exposure within ethnic groups using survey-weighted logistic regression adjusting for age, sex and calendar time. RESULTS: Between 24 June and 9 October 2020, we included 2497 participants. Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was comparable between ethnic Dutch (24/498; 5.1%, 95% CI 2.8% to 7.4%), South-Asian Surinamese (22/451; 4.9%, 95% CI 2.2% to 7.7%), African Surinamese (22/400; 8.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 13.6%), Turkish (30/408; 7.9%, 95% CI 4.4% to 11.4%) and Moroccan (32/391; 7.2%, 95% CI 4.2% to 10.1%) participants, but higher among Ghanaians (95/327; 26.3%, 95% CI 18.5% to 34.0%). 57.1% of SARS-CoV-2-positive participants did not suspect or were unsure of being infected, which was lowest in African Surinamese (18.2%) and highest in Ghanaians (90.5%). Correlates of SARS-CoV-2 exposure varied across ethnic groups, while the most common correlate was having a household member suspected of infection. In Ghanaians, seropositivity was associated with older age, larger household sizes, living with small children, leaving home to work and attending religious services. CONCLUSIONS: No remarkable differences in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence were observed between the largest ethnic groups in Amsterdam after the first wave of infections. The higher infection seroprevalence observed among Ghanaians, which passed mostly unnoticed, warrants wider prevention efforts and opportunities for non-symptom-based testing.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ghana , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(1): 102.e1-102.e12, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996571

INTRODUCTION: Prolonged length of stay in emergency departments is associated with increased hospitalization, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, medication errors, and mortality. In acute admissions in Denmark in 2018, 67% of patients experienced waiting time from arrival to examination. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of prolonged length of stay (≥6 hours) and identify risk factors related to input, throughput, and output components. METHODS: A retrospective health records repository review included 4743 patients admitted to a single urban emergency department in Denmark in January 2019. Data collected from the electronic health record system repository included demographic and organizational characteristics and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Among patients admitted in the study period, 31% had a prolonged length of stay of ≥6 hours. Prolonged length of emergency department stay was associated with being female (male odds ratio [OR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.98), treatment by medical service (OR, 4.25, 95% CI, 3.63-4.98) vs surgical or injury, triage acuity of 2-Orange (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18-1.78) or 3-Yellow (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23-1.75) on a 5-level scale, evening (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.66) or night (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.91-2.91) arrival, ages 56 to 80 (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.52-2.11) and >81 (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.99-2.88) years, and hospital admission (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.38) vs discharge from the emergency department to home. DISCUSSION: Female, elderly, and medical patients were each identified as at-risk characteristics for ≥6-hour length of stay in the emergency department. Acute care patient pathways in the emergency department, particularly for evening and night, with guideline-based care and system level improvements in patient flow are warranted. Further research with larger populations is needed to identify and support interventions to decrease prolonged length of stay.

Emergency Service, Hospital , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69 Suppl 1: s55-s68, 2022.
Article Es | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998311

Latex allergy is a major problem worldwide due to both the severity of the symptomatology it produces and the risk groups that are exposed to it. Complete avoidance is difficult, if not impossible, due to its ubiquity. Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a natural polymer that is released by the Hevea brasiliensis (Hev b) tree, which functions as a protective sealant. It is currently used for the manufacture of health-care products such as tube caps, pistons, masks, and cannulas. The purpose of this review is to highlight the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of NRL allergy, and to conduct a review of the literature on its management through a bibliographic search of articles in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, UpToDate, and Google Scholar, up to September 2021. About 121 articles were reviewed, of which 76 were used as a reference. We concluded that latex allergy is an entity for which its treatment, even nowadays, is avoidance, despite having a worldwide prevalence of 4.3 % and representing a surgical complication in about 20 % of surgeries with an anaphylactic reaction and a mortality rate that can reach 9 %. The only treatment that could modify the evolution of this disease is immunotherapy, but there are no standardized extracts yet and it has not been possible to determine the safest and most effective way to apply it.

La alergia al látex es un problema importante en el mundo debido a la gravedad de la sintomatología que produce y a los grupos de riesgo expuestos. La evitación completa es difícil, casi imposible, dada su ubicuidad. El látex de caucho natural (LCN) es un polímero secretado por el árbol Hevea brasiliensis (Hev b), que funciona como sellador protector. Actualmente se usa para fabricar productos para el cuidado de la salud como tapones para tubos, pistones, mascarillas y cánulas. El objetivo de esta revisión es resaltar los aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y diagnósticos de la alergia al LCN, y realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre su manejo, mediante una búsqueda bibliográfica de artículos en bases de datos como PubMed, Cochrane, UpToDate y Google Académico, hasta septiembre del 2021. Se revisaron aproximadamente 121 artículos, de los cuales se utilizaron 76 como referencia. Concluimos que la alergia al látex es una entidad cuyo tratamiento aún hoy en día es la evitación, a pesar de tener una prevalencia mundial de 4.3 % y representar una complicación quirúrgica de cerca de 20 % de las cirugías con una reacción anafiláctica y una mortalidad que puede llegar a 9 %. El único tratamiento que podría modificar la evolución de esta enfermedad es la inmunoterapia, pero aún no se cuenta con extractos estandarizados y no se ha podido determinar la vía más segura y efectiva.

Hevea , Latex Hypersensitivity , Allergens , Humans , Latex Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Latex Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Latex Hypersensitivity/therapy , Prevalence , Rubber