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Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e23878, 2021 Feb 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592843

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer screening in high-risk population increases the proportion of patients diagnosed at a resectable stage. AIMS: To optimize the selection criteria and quality indicators for lung cancer screening by low-dose CT (LDCT) in the Czech population of high-risk individuals. To compare the influence of screening on the stage of lung cancer at the time of the diagnosis with the stage distribution in an unscreened population. To estimate the impact on life-years lost according to the stage-specific cancer survival and stage distribution in the screened population. To calculate the cost-effectiveness of the screening program. METHODS: Based on the evidence from large national trials - the National Lung Screening Trial in the USA (NLST), the NELSON study, the recent recommendations of the Fleischner society, the American College of Radiology, and I-ELCAP action group, we developed a protocol for a single-arm prospective study in the Czech Republic for the screening of high-risk asymptomatic individuals. The study commenced in August 2020. RESULTS: The inclusion criteria are: age 55 to 74 years; smoking: ≥30 pack-years; smoker or ex-smoker <15 years; performance status (0-1). The screening timepoints are at baseline and 1 year. The LDCT acquisition has a target CTDIvol ≤0.5mGy and effective dose ≤0.2mSv for a standard-size patient. The interpretation of findings is primarily based on nodule volumetry, volume doubling time (and related risk of malignancy). The management includes follow-up LDCT, contrast enhanced CT, PET/CT, tissue sampling. The primary outcome is the number of cancers detected at a resectable stage, secondary outcomes include the average cost per diagnosis of lung cancer, the number, cost, complications of secondary examinations, and the number of potentially important secondary findings. CONCLUSIONS: A study protocol for early detection of lung cancer in Czech high-risk asymptomatic individuals (ELEGANCE) study using LDCT has been described.

Asymptomatic Diseases , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases/economics , Biopsy/economics , Biopsy/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Czech Republic , Early Detection of Cancer/economics , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/economics , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging/economics , Neoplasm Staging/methods , Patient Selection , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/economics , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Prospective Studies , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiratory Function Tests/economics , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Risk Assessment/economics , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/economics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Respir Res ; 22(1): 15, 2021 Jan 13.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441106

BACKGROUND: Elderly asthmatics represent an important group that is often excluded from clinical studies. In this study we wanted to present characteristics of asthmatics older than 70 years old as compared to younger patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis on a series of 758 asthmatics subdivided in three groups: lower than 40, between 40 and 70 and older than 70. All the patients who had a successful sputum induction were included in the study. RESULTS: Older patients had a higher Body Mass Index, had less active smokers and were more often treated with Long Acting anti-Muscarinic Agents. We found a significant increase in sputum neutrophil counts with ageing. There was no significant difference in blood inflammatory cell counts whatever the age group. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC values were significantly lower in elderly who had lower bronchial hyperresponsiveness and signs of air trapping. We found a lower occurrence of the allergic component in advanced ages. Asthmatics older than 70 years old had later onset of the disease and a significant longer disease duration. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that asthmatics older than 70 years old have higher bronchial neutrophilic inflammation, a poorer lung function, signs of air trapping and lower airway variability. The role of immunosenescence inducing chronic low-grade inflammation in this asthma subtype remains to be elucidated.

Asthma/metabolism , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Sputum/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Sputum/immunology
Br J Radiol ; 94(1118): 20201218, 2021 Feb 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320729

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate CT-ventilation imaging (CTVI) within a well-characterized, healthy cohort with no respiratory symptoms and examine the correlation between CTVI and concurrent pulmonary function test (PFT). METHODS: CT scans and PFTs from 77 Caucasian participants in the NORM dataset ( NCT00848406) were analyzed. CTVI was generated using the robust Integrated Jacobian Formulation (IJF) method. IJF estimated total lung capacity (TLC) was computed from CTVI. Bias-adjusted Pearson's correlation between PFT and IJF-based TLC was computed. RESULTS: IJF- and PFT-measured TLC showed a good correlation for both males and females [males: 0.657, 95% CI (0.438-0.797); females: 0.667, 95% CI (0.416-0.817)]. When adjusting for age, height, smoking, and abnormal CT scan, correlation moderated [males: 0.432, 95% CI (0.129-0.655); females: 0.540, 95% CI (0.207-0.753)]. Visual inspection of CTVI revealed participants who had functional defects, despite the fact that all participant had normal high-resolution CT scan. CONCLUSION: In this study, we demonstrate that IJF computed CTVI has good correlation with concurrent PFT in a well-validated patient cohort with no respiratory symptoms. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: IJF-computed CTVI's overall numerical robustness and consistency with PFT support its potential as a method for providing spatiotemporal assessment of high and low function areas on volumetric non-contrast CT scan.

Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Lung/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Dec 23.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372742

COVID-19 pneumonia has a significant case fatality rate and no effective antiviral drugs are available even after 9 months of the pandemic. The spectrum of COVID-19 disease ranges from asymptomatic cases to severe ARDS with myriad manifestations. Here we report a case of a male patient with severe COVID-19 ARDS who improved after receiving standard therapy but again 'deteriorated' after being stepped down to ward. He complained of worsening shortness of breath and hypoxemia which was found to be mainly positional. After ruling out other causes, he was labeled as a case of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome due to underlying lung involvement.  It is important to be aware of this condition in the context of COVID-19 which can be easily diagnosed bedside with pulse oximetry.

Dyspnea , Hypoxia , Lung , Patient Positioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , /physiopathology , Clinical Deterioration , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Oximetry/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Syndrome , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Dec 23.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372741

We report the case of a man affected by cystic fibrosis who developed a severe SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia in March 2020. In addition to lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine, he was treated with two doses of tocilizumab, displaying a significant clinical improvement. This is the first case described in the literature of an adult patient affected by cystic fibrosis who received tocilizumab for COVID-19, with documented total recovery, also assessed by a spirometry.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Cystic Fibrosis , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , /isolation & purification , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , /diagnosis , /physiopathology , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Cystic Fibrosis/immunology , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Drug Combinations , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(10): 1195-1220, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-199391

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es una de las patologías que mayores tasas de prevalencia y mortalidad presenta a nivel mundial, en España representa la 3ª causa de muerte. El tabaco es su principal causa, por lo que es una enfermedad prevenible. Se define como un síndrome complejo y heterogéneo que condiciona tanto calidad de vida como envejecimiento de los que la padecen, especialmente en las últimas décadas de la vida ya que se acompaña de un número de comorbilidades que agravan la propia evolución de la enfermedad. OBJETIVOS: Conocer las comorbilidades más prevalentes en la EPOC, así como su relación y posible influencia en el progreso de esta. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed y Crochrane haciendo uso de los términos "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" AND "comorbidities", aplicando diferentes filtros durante la misma. RESULTADOS: La presencia de comorbilidad en los pacientes con EPOC afecta a la mortalidad a largo y corto plazo. Según la bibliografía resultante la relación existente entre comorbilidad y EPOC puede explicarse por la existencia de inflamación sistémica. DISCUSIÓN: Hay evidencias suficientes para afirmar que la presencia de comorbilidad es un hecho desfavorable en cuanto a evolución del paciente con EPOC

INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the diseases with the highest prevalence and mortality rates worldwide. In Spain, it is the third leading cause of death. Tobacco is its main risk factor, so it is a preventable disease. We can define it as a complex and heterogeneous syndrome that conditions both quality of life and the aging of those who suffer from it, especially in the last decades of life, since it is accompanied by a not inconsiderable number of comorbidities that aggravate the evolution of the it. OBJECTIVES: To understand the most prevalent comorbidities in COPD, as well as their relationship and possible influence on the progress of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bibliographic search in Pubmed and Cochrane using the terms "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" AND "comorbidities", applying different filters during the search. RESULTS: The presence of comorbidity affects short and long term mortality. The relationship between comorbidity and COPD can be explained by the existence of systemic inflammation. DISCUSSION: There is enough evidence to affirm that the presence of comorbidity is an unfavourable fact in terms of the evolution of the patient with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: A multidimensional assessment of the COPD patient is necessary, as well as comprehensive and individualized care

Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Pulmonary Emphysema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Statistics on Sequelae and Disability , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Risk Factors
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(4): 788-792, 2020.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930119

Context: Spirometry is an important tool to monitor treatment response in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. However, there is lack of evidence to support its application to evaluate response to chemotherapy in advanced lung cancer. It might be a useful adjunct to the imaging-based response evaluation which lacks functional assessment of lungs. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the change in spirometry in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy and to find its correlation with change in physical tumor size. Subjects and Methods: Sixty-two advanced lung cancer patients who were eligible for palliative chemotherapy were enrolled. Baseline tumor size evaluation using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST)-based scoring system, and spirometry was done. Four cycles of double agent (platinum doublets) chemotherapy were administered, after which treatment response was evaluated. Repeat spirometry was analyzed and correlated with changes in physical tumor size. Results: Twenty-five patients showed a response (all partial response) to four cycles of chemotherapy. Small cell carcinoma showed a better response rate than non-small cell carcinoma (78% vs. 39%). There was statistically significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 (FEV1) (P = 0.01) and forced vital capacity (P = 0.03) in responders as compared to nonresponders. Change in FEV1 showed a statistically significant correlation with the change in tumor size (RECIST score) (r = -0.34; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Improvement in spirometry correlates with the tumor response as judged using RECIST criteria after chemotherapy. Further studies with bigger sample size are required to consolidate the results.

Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume/drug effects , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Spirometry/methods , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden/drug effects
Lung ; 198(5): 771-775, 2020 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915271

PURPOSE: To investigate whether sarcoidosis patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for adverse disease outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in five hospitals within the Mount Sinai Health System during March 1, 2020 to July 29, 2020. All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in the study. We identified sarcoidosis patients who met diagnostic criteria for sarcoidosis according to accepted guidelines. An adverse disease outcome was defined as the presence of intubation and mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality. In sarcoidosis patients, we reported (when available) the results of pulmonary function testing measured within 3 years prior to the time of SARS­CoV­2 infection. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to generate an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) to evaluate sarcoidosis as a risk factor for an adverse outcome. The same model was used to analyze sarcoidosis patients with moderate and/or severe impairment in pulmonary function. RESULTS: The study included 7337 patients, 37 of whom (0.5%) had sarcoidosis. The crude rate of developing an adverse outcome was significantly higher in patients with moderately and/or severely impaired pulmonary function (9/14 vs. 3/23, p = 0.003). While the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was not independently associated with risk of an adverse event, (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9-3.6), the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in patients with moderately and/or severely impaired pulmonary function was associated with an adverse outcome (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 2.4-25.8). CONCLUSION: Moderate or severe impairment in pulmonary function is associated with mortality in sarcoidosis patients infected with SARS­CoV­2.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
Clin Chest Med ; 41(3): 347-366, 2020 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800190

Lung function testing has undisputed value in the comprehensive assessment and individualized management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a pathologic condition in which a functional abnormality, poorly reversible expiratory airway obstruction, is at the core of its definition. After an overview of the physiologic underpinnings of the disease, the authors outline the role of lung function testing in this disease, including diagnosis, assessment of severity, and indication for and responses to pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. They discuss the current controversies surrounding test interpretation with these purposes in mind and provide balanced recommendations to optimize their usefulness in different clinical scenarios.

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Female , Humans , Male
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 46(5): 347-354, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-197322

El asma es la enfermedad respiratoria más prevalente en el mundo; puede afectar a personas de todas las edades y es potencialmente mortal. En la actualidad, contamos con tratamientos de mantenimiento que son efectivos en la mayoría de los pacientes con asma y, sin embargo, una proporción importante no tiene bien controlada su enfermedad a pesar de los medios disponibles. En este documento, con el respaldo de las sociedades de los médicos que tratan el asma en España, se quiere llamar la atención de la sociedad y los profesionales sobre este problema en nuestro país. Se pone el foco sobre los aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos del asma y se plantean algunas acciones de mejora en el ámbito de los pacientes y en el profesional sanitario que, en vista de los resultados actuales derivados de la falta de control del asma, podrían ser beneficiosas tanto en los resultados clínicos para los pacientes como en los de salud pública

Asthma is the most prevalent respiratory disease worldwide and it can affect people of all ages and is potentially fatal. Today, maintenance treatments are available that are effective in most patients, yet a significant proportion have poorly controlled disease, despite the resources on offer. This document, endorsed by members of the Spanish medical societies involved in the treatment of asthma, is intended to draw the attention of society and professionals to this problem in Spain. It focuses on the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of asthma, and proposes some actions for improvement as regards patients and healthcare professionals which, in view of the current results arising from inadequate asthma control, might be beneficial to improve outcomes for both patients and public health

Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/physiopathology , Symptom Flare Up , Spirometry/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Bronchial Provocation Tests/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/therapeutic use
Anesthesiology ; 133(4): 867-878, 2020 10 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701573

BACKGROUND: Complete airway closure during expiration may underestimate alveolar pressure. It has been reported in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), as well as in morbidly obese patients with healthy lungs. The authors hypothesized that complete airway closure was highly prevalent in obese ARDS and influenced the calculation of respiratory mechanics. METHODS: In a post hoc pooled analysis of two cohorts, ARDS patients were classified according to body mass index (BMI) terciles. Low-flow inflation pressure-volume curve and partitioned respiratory mechanics using esophageal manometry were recorded. The authors' primary aim was to compare the prevalence of complete airway closure according to BMI terciles. Secondary aims were to compare (1) respiratory system mechanics considering or not considering complete airway closure in their calculation, and (2) and partitioned respiratory mechanics according to BMI. RESULTS: Among the 51 patients analyzed, BMI was less than 30 kg/m2 in 18, from 30 to less than 40 in 16, and greater than or equal to 40 in 17. Prevalence of complete airway closure was 41% overall (95% CI, 28 to 55; 21 of 51 patients), and was lower in the lowest (22% [3 to 41]; 4 of 18 patients) than in the highest BMI tercile (65% [42 to 87]; 11 of 17 patients). Driving pressure and elastances of the respiratory system and of the lung were higher when complete airway closure was not taken into account in their calculation. End-expiratory esophageal pressure (ρ = 0.69 [95% CI, 0.48 to 0.82]; P < 0.001), but not chest wall elastance, was associated with BMI, whereas elastance of the lung was negatively correlated with BMI (ρ = -0.27 [95% CI, -0.56 to -0.10]; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of complete airway closure was high in ARDS and should be taken into account when calculating respiratory mechanics, especially in the most morbidly obese patients.

Airway Obstruction/epidemiology , Airway Obstruction/physiopathology , Body Mass Index , /physiopathology , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Retrospective Studies
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(3): 163-170, 2020.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687114

Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite microbiological cure for the disease, many patients still demonstrate residual respiratory symptoms and spirometric abnormalities. Aim and Objectives: The study aimed at identifying the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with spirometric abnormalities in patients successfully treated for PTB in Ilorin, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study at the pulmonary outpatient clinics of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital and Kwara State Specialist Hospital, Sobi, Ilorin. A total of 308 consenting patients who had been certified microbiologically cured for bacteriologically confirmed PTB in the preceding 3 years had assessment of residual pulmonary symptoms, spirometry and plain chest radiograph. Results: The prevalence of abnormal spirometry following treatment for PTB was 72.1% (confidence interval: 0.6682-0.7695), with restrictive pattern being the predominant abnormality (42.2%). Over half of the patients (56.5%) had at least one residual respiratory symptom. The significant predictors of abnormal spirometry were PTB retreatment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.918; P = 0.012), increasing modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scores (aOR = 7.935; P = 0.008) and increasing radiologic scores (aOR = 4.679; P ≤ 0.001) after treatment. Conclusion: There is significant residual lung function impairment in majority of the individuals successfully treated for PTB in Ilorin. This highlights the need for spirometric assessment and follow-up after treatment.

Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Lung/physiopathology , Spirometry/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Prevalence , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1087-1089, 2020 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621858

COVID-19 pandemic turned the entire health-care system organization upside-down, suspending elective activities and outpatient services. In Italy, we are entering a second phase of the pandemic and several strategies have been developed to "re-open" the country, some businesses, and also health care outpatient activities. This manuscript describes the experience of a Southern Italy Respiratory Unit for safely resuming outpatient respiratory services and preventing COVID-19 transmission.

Ambulatory Care/methods , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Italy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Function Tests/methods
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(4): 440-446.e1, 2020 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621994

BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a noninvasive biomarker of type 2 asthma that can predict response to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Little is known regarding the magnitude of FeNO reduction after an oral corticosteroid (OCS) course, and less is known whether there are differential responses based on race in children with mild-to-moderate asthma. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a short course of OCS on FeNO in children with asthma and to determine whether the effect is influenced by race. METHODS: Children presenting with an acute asthma exacerbation, who had a FeNO measurement within the past 6 months when clinically stable, were enrolled. Spirometry and FeNO were obtained at the time of exacerbation and after a short course of prednisone. RESULTS: A total of 92 children were identified (aged 11 ± 3.3 years; white, n = 46 [50%], Hispanics, n = 30 [33%], African Americans [AAs], n = 16 [7%]). At baseline, AAs were more atopic and had higher mean FeNO values than both white (48.9 vs 25.6 ppb; P < .05) and Hispanic children (22.5 ppb; P < .05), despite being prescribed similar inhaled corticosteroid doses. During the exacerbation, AAs had the highest FeNO values, whereas there was no difference in lung function between AAs and non-AAs. After prednisone therapy, there was a 56.6% reduction in FeNO, and although AAs maintained the highest FeNO levels, the relative reduction was similar between AAs and non-AAs (53.9% vs 57.8%, respectively). CONCLUSION: FeNO levels reduced by more than 50% after an OCS course. African American children had a greater degree of type 2-driven airway inflammation at baseline, during an exacerbation and after a short course of OCS, compared with non-AAs, although the relative reduction in FeNO was similar between the groups.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Treatment Outcome , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Asthma/ethnology , Child , Exhalation , Female , Humans , Male , Nitric Oxide
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 378-395, 2020 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548841

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this literature review is to gather all the LFT norms available for the Tunisian population, as well as QDV questionnaires specific to chronic respiratory patients that have been validated in Tunisia. METHODS: This review included a literature search using the PubMed and Sciencedirect databases. The reference lists of the retrieved English/French articles were searched for any additional reference. Specific research has been carried out for each stage of the natural evolution of chronic diseases. For LFT used in the exploration of deficiency, the key-words were ("respiratory function test" OR "spirometry" OR "plethysmography" OR "exhaled fraction of oxide nitric" OR "lung diffusion" OR "peak nasal inspiratory flow" OR "Lung age") AND ("Tunisia" OR "North Africa") AND ("reference equation" OR "reference value" OR "standard reference"). For LFT used in the exploration of incapacity, the key-words were ("exercise test" OR "maximal oxygen uptake" OR "cardiorespiratory test" OR "six minute walk distance" OR "six-minute walk distance" OR "6-minute walk distance" OR "six-min walk distance" OR "6-min walk distance" OR "six minute walking distance" OR "six-minute walking distance" OR "6MWD") AND ("Tunisia" OR "North Africa") AND ("reference equation" OR "reference value" OR "standard reference"). For the QOL questionnaires used in pneumology, the key-words were: ("quality of life" OR "QOL") AND ("respiratory" OR "pulmonology") AND ("Tunisia" OR "North Africa"). RESULTS: As part of deficiency exploration, 11 Tunisian norms are available. As part of incapacity exploration, three Tunisian norms are available for the 6-minute walk test. Only one QOL questionnaire specific to chronic respiratory patients has been validated in Tunisia. CONCLUSION: Despite its richness, the Tunisian "bank" of norms for LFT and QOL questionnaires has yet to be enriched.

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests/standards , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Chronic Disease , Disabled Persons , Disease Progression , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/standards , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Tunisia , Validation Studies as Topic