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1.
Washington; D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-21.
En, Es | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-55656

In the context of the increase in COVID-19 cases in the Region of the Americas, along with the high circulation of other respiratory viruses, there has been an observed increase in the burden on healthcare systems and services. In this respect, the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) recommends Member States to take measures to adequately prepare health services to cope with a high influx of patients, including maintaining supplies, effectively managing patients and resources, and mitigate absenteeism by protecting healthcare workers' health.


En el contexto del aumento de casos de COVID-19 en la Región de las Américas, junto con la alta circulación de otros virus respiratorios, se está registrando un aumento en la carga sobre los sistemas y servicios de salud. En este contexto, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros que tomen medidas para preparar adecuadamente los servicios de salud para hacer frente a una gran afluencia de pacientes, incluido el mantenimiento de suministros, el manejo adecuado de pacientes, la gestión eficaz de recursos, y mitigar el ausentismo protegiendo la salud de los trabajadores de la salud.


International Health Regulations , Emergencies , COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Health Services , Public Health , International Health Regulations , Emergencies , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Health Services , Public Health
2.
Washington; D.C.; OPAS; 2022-01-19. (OPAS/IMS/FPL/COVID-19/21-0005).
Pt | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-55633

A pandemia de COVID-19 é uma crise sanitária mundial que desencadeou uma crise econômica e social e põe em risco a segurança alimentar da população. Este guia visa contribuir para o funcionamento seguro de feiras e mercados durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Foi concebido como uma iniciativa da OPAS diante da preocupação com a pandemia e da necessidade de fazer recomendações para reduzir a transmissão do vírus SARS-CoV-2, de tal maneira que feiras e mercados possam funcionar com segurança para os trabalhadores, distribuidores e público frequentador.


COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Food Security , Market Sanitation
3.
Washingto, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-19. (PAHO/IMS/FPL/COVID-19/21-0005).
En | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-55632

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that has also caused an economic and social crisis that puts the population's food security at risk. The purpose of this handbook is to contribute to the safe functioning of food fairs and markets during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thie aim is to address concerns about the need to establish recommendations to reduce transmission of the SARS-Cov-2 virus, so that food fairs and markets are safe for workers, distributors, and shoppers during the pandemic.


COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Market Sanitation , Food Supply
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-19.
En, Es | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-55631

[WEEKLY SUMMARY] North America: Overall, influenza activity remained low but increasing, while SARS-CoV-2 activity increased. In Canada, influenza A and B virus co-circulated with influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09; SARS-CoV-2 activity slightly increased. In Mexico, influenza A(H3N2) prevailed, with B co-circulating and SARS-CoV-2 activity increased at moderate levels. In the United States, influenza A(H3N2) predominated, with SARS-CoV-2 activity increasing, hospitalizations and deaths remained elevated. Respiratory syncytial virus activity remained high in Canada and Mexico. Caribbean: Influenza remained at low activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 activity increased in Jamaica with increased number of pneumonia cases and SARI hospitalizations. In Suriname, SARS-CoV-2 and SARI activity continued at low levels. Central America: Influenza activity continued to increase and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased to low levels overall. In Guatemala and Honduras, influenza activity increased with the predominance of influenza A(H3N2), and low SARS-CoV-2 circulation; while SARS-CoV-2 activity increased in Costa Rica. RSV activity decreased in the subregion. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity continued at low levels; however, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru reported increased influenza activity associated with A(H3N2) detections. SARS-CoV-2 activity stands elevated in Bolivia and Ecuador; and in Bolivia, SARI activity was recorded at extraordinary levels. Brazil and Southern Cone: Influenza activity increased to pre-pandemic levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity continues at low levels, except in Argentina. Influenza A(H3N2) detections continue to rise in Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Most activity and increasing A(H3N2) detections are recorded in Brazil and Chile.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL] América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en aumento a niveles bajos, mientras que la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 aumentó. En Canadá, el virus de la influenza A y B circularon concurrentemente con los virus influenza A(H3N2) y A(H1N1)pdm09; la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó ligeramente. En México, predominó el virus influenza A(H3N2), con la circulación concurrente de B, y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó a niveles moderados. En los Estados Unidos, predominó la influenza A(H3N2), con aumento de la actividad del SARS-CoV-2, las hospitalizaciones y muertes se mantuvieron elevadas. La actividad del virus respiratorio sincitial se mantuvo alta en Canadá y México. Caribe: la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos de actividad. La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 en Jamaica aumento en paralelo a mayor número de casos por neumonía y hospitalizaciones por IRAG. En Surinam, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 e IRAG permaneció a niveles bajos. América Central: la actividad de la influenza continuó en aumento y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó a niveles bajos en general. En Guatemala y Honduras, la actividad de la influenza aumentó con el predominio de la influenza A(H3N2) y baja circulación de SARS-CoV-2; mientras que la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó en Costa Rica. La actividad del VRS decreció en la subregion. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 continuó en aumento; sin embargo, Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú informaron un aumento de la actividad de la influenza asociada con las detecciones de A(H3N2). La actividad de SARS-CoV-2 se mantiene elevada en Bolivia y Ecuador; y en Bolivia, la actividad de IRAG se registró en niveles extraordinarios. Brasil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza aumentó a niveles prepandémicos y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continúa en niveles bajos, excepto en Argentina. Las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2) continúan aumentando en Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. La mayor parte de la actividad y las detecciones crecientes de A(H3N2) se registran en Brasil y Chile.


Influenza, Human , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , International Health Regulations , Emergencies , Americas , Caribbean Region , Influenza, Human , International Health Regulations , Emergencies , Americas , Caribbean Region
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-11.
En, Es | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-55594

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza activity remained low but increasing. In Canada, influenza A and B virus co-circulated with influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 among samples where subtyping was performed; SARS-CoV-2 activity slightly increased. In Mexico, influenza A(H3N2) prevailed, with B co-circulating and SARS-CoV-2 activity increased. In the United States, influenza A(H3N2) predominated, with SARS-CoV-2 activity increasing, hospitalizations and deaths remained elevated. Respiratory syncytial virus activity remained high in Canada. Caribbean: Influenza remained at low activity levels. Haiti reported a few detections in recent weeks with the predominance of influenza B/Victoria and A(H1N1)pdm09. In Suriname, SARS-CoV-2 and SARI activity decreased to low levels. Central America: Influenza activity continued low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased to low levels overall. In Guatemala, influenza activity decreased with the predominance of influenza A(H3N2) in the previous week, while influenza A(H3N2) circulation increased in Honduras with low SARI and ILI activity. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low; however, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru reported increased influenza activity associated with A(H3N2) detections. SARS-CoV-2 activity stands elevated in Bolivia and Ecuador; and in Bolivia, SARI activity continued at extraordinary levels. Brazil and Southern Cone: Influenza activity increased to pre-pandemic levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity continues at low levels, except in Argentina. Influenza A(H3N2) detections continue to rise in Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Most activity and increasing A(H3N2) detections are recorded in Brazil and Uruguay. Global: In the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity, although still low, appeared to increase in some countries with detections of mainly influenza A(H3N2) and B Victoria lineage (mainly in China). In Europe, influenza activity continued to increase. Influenza A(H3N2) predominated. In East Asia, influenza activity continued rising in China, while influenza illness indicators and activity remained low in the rest of the subregion. Influenza B/Victoria viruses predominated. In tropical Africa, overall influenza activity continued decreasing, with both influenza A and B detected. In Southern Asia, influenza virus detections of predominately influenza A(H3N2) increased overall, although reducing in a few countries. In South-East Asia, sporadic influenza detections were reported in the Philippines. However, in the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained low overall. SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity from sentinel surveillance increased to approximately 30%. Activity remained under 10% positivity in the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asian and Western Pacific Regions of WHO. In the other WHO Regions, an increasing trend in positivity was observed in recent weeks. Overall positivity from non-sentinel sites also increased and was at 25%.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL] América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja pero en aumento. En Canadá, el virus de la influenza A y B circularon concurrentemente con los virus influenza A(H3N2) y A(H1N1)pdm09 en las muestras a las que se les determinó el subtipo; la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó ligeramente. En México, predominó el virus influenza A(H3N2), con la circulación concurrente de B, y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó. En los Estados Unidos, predominó la influenza A(H3N2), con un aumento de la actividad del SARS-CoV-2, las hospitalizaciones y muertes se mantuvieron elevadas. La actividad del virus respiratorio sincitial se mantuvo alta en Canadá. Caribe: la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos de actividad. Haití reportó algunas detecciones en las últimas semanas con predominio de influenza B/Victoria y A(H1N1)pdm09. En Surinam, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 e IRAG disminuyó a niveles bajos. América Central: la actividad de la influenza continuó baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó a niveles bajos en general. En Guatemala, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó con el predominio de la influenza A(H3N2) en semanas previa, mientras que la circulación de la influenza A(H3N2) aumentó en Honduras con baja actividad de IRAG y ETI. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja; sin embargo, Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú informaron un aumento de la actividad de la influenza asociada con las detecciones de A(H3N2). La actividad de SARS-CoV-2 se mantiene elevada en Bolivia y Ecuador; y en Bolivia, la actividad de la IRAG continuó en niveles extraordinarios. Brasil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza aumentó a niveles prepandémicos y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continúa en niveles bajos, excepto en Argentina. Las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2) continúan aumentando en Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. La mayor parte de la actividad y las detecciones crecientes de A(H3N2) se registran en Brasil y en Uruguay. Global: en las zonas templadas del hemisferio norte, la actividad de la influenza, aunque todavía baja, pareció aumentar en algunos países con detecciones de influenza principalmente A(H3N2) y B linaje Victoria (principalmente en China). En Europa, la actividad gripal siguió aumentando. Predominó influenza A(H3N2). En el este de Asia, la actividad de la influenza siguió aumentando en China, mientras que los indicadores y la actividad de la enfermedad por influenza se mantuvieron bajos en el resto de la subregión. Predominaron los virus influenza B linaje Victoria. En África tropical, la actividad general de la influenza continuó disminuyendo y se detectaron tanto la influenza A como la B. En el sur de Asia, en general, las detecciones de los virus de la influenza predominantemente A(H3N2) aumentaron, aunque disminuyeron en algunos países. En el sudeste asiático, en Filipinas se informaron detecciones esporádicas de influenza. Sin embargo, en las zonas templadas del hemisferio sur, la actividad de influenza se mantuvo baja en general. El porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV-2 de la vigilancia centinela aumentó a aproximadamente el 30%. La actividad se mantuvo por debajo del 10 % de positividad en las Regiones del Mediterráneo Oriental, Asia Sudoriental y el Pacífico Occidental. En las otras Regiones, se observó una tendencia creciente en la positividad en las últimas semanas. La positividad general de los sitios no centinela también aumentó y fue del 25%.


Influenza, Human , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , International Health Regulations , Emergencies , Americas , Caribbean Region , Influenza, Human , International Health Regulations , Emergencies , Americas , Caribbean Region
6.
Article Es | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-55571

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Estimar el impacto presupuestal de la vacunación contra COVID-19 en seis países de América Latina: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú, durante el periodo 2021-2022. Métodos. Se evaluaron las vacunas de Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), Janssen (JNJ-78436735), Instituto de Gamaleya (Gam-COVID-Vac), Sinovac (CoronaVac), CanSino (Convidecia), AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria), Moderna (mRNA-1273) y Pfizer (BNT162b2), según disponibilidad para cada país. Se adoptó la perspectiva del sistema de salud, de manera que solo se incluyeron costos médicos directos. El horizonte temporal se adoptó teniendo en cuenta los tiempos de implementación de cada plan de vacunación, excluyendo menores de 16 años y gestantes. Se incluyeron los siguientes costos: costo de la vacunación y aplicación, costos de la hospitalización general aislamiento, cuidado intermedio e intensivo. Se compararon dos escenarios de vacunación: 1) Población que desea vacunarse (según las encuestas nacionales) y 2) Población que debería vacunarse (total susceptible de vacunación). Los costos agregados para cada escenario de vacunación se compararon con el escenario de no vacunación. Adicionalmente, se realizaron análisis de sensibilidad determinísticos y probabilísticos. Resultados. Los diferentes esquemas de vacunación contra COVID-19 disponibles en América Latina generan ahorros potenciales que oscilan entre USD 100 y USD 1 500 millones de dólares por país para el período 2021-2022, asumiendo que se logra implementar en su totalidad el plan de vacunación previsto en cada país. Conclusiones. La vacunación contra COVID-19 es una estrategia que además de reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad para Latinoamérica, genera ahorros potenciales para los sistemas de salud en la región.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To estimate the budgetary impact of COVID-19 vaccination in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, during the 2021-2022 biennium. Methods. Vaccines from Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), Janssen (JNJ-78436735), Gamaleya Institute (Gam-COVID-Vac), Sinovac (CoronaVac), CanSino (Convidecia), AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria), Moderna (mRNA-1273), and Pfizer (BNT162b2) were evaluated, according to their availability in each country. The health system perspective was adopted, so that only direct health care costs were included. The time horizon adopted took into account the implementation times of each vaccination plan, excluding children under 16 years of age and pregnant persons. The following costs were included: cost of vaccination/vaccine administration and costs of hospitalization (general isolation, stepdown care, and intensive care). Two vaccination scenarios were compared: 1) population wanting to be vaccinated (according to national surveys); and 2) population that should be vaccinated (total population susceptible to vaccination). The aggregate costs for each vaccination scenario were compared with the no-vaccination scenario. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results. The different COVID-19 vaccination regimens available in Latin America generate potential savings ranging from USD 100 million to USD 1.5 billion per country for the 2021-2022 biennium, assuming that the vaccination plan proposed for each country is fully implemented. Conclusions. COVID-19 vaccination is a strategy that not only reduces morbidity and mortality in Latin America, but also generates potential savings for health systems in the region.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Estimar o impacto orçamentário da vacinação contra a COVID-19 em seis países da América Latina: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia, México e Peru, no período 2021-2022. Métodos. Foram avaliadas as vacinas da Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), Janssen (JNJ-78436735), Instituto Gamaleya (Gam-COVID-Vac), Sinovac (CoronaVac), CanSino (Convidecia), AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria), Moderna (mRNA-1273) e Pfizer (BNT162b2), conforme a disponibilidade para cada país. Adotou-se a perspectiva do sistema de saúde, de forma que só foram incluídos custos médicos diretos. O horizonte temporal foi adotado levando em consideração os tempos de implementação de cada plano de vacinação, excluindo crianças menores de 16 anos e gestantes. Foram incluídos os seguintes custos: custos de vacinação e aplicação, custos gerais de hospitalização, isolamento, e cuidados intermediários e intensivos. Compararam-se dois cenários de vacinação: 1) população disposta a se vacinar (com base em pesquisas nacionais) e 2) população que deveria ser vacinada (total elegível de vacinação). Os custos agregados para cada cenário de vacinação foram comparados com o cenário de não vacinação. Além disso, foram realizadas análises de sensibilidade determinísticas e probabilísticas. Resultados. Os diferentes esquemas de vacinação contra a COVID-19 disponíveis na América Latina geram economias potenciais entre 100 milhões e 1,5 bilhão de dólares por país para o período 2021-2022, considerando a implementação completa do plano de vacinação previsto em cada país. Conclusões. A vacinação contra a COVID-19 é uma estratégia que, além de reduzir a morbidade e a mortalidade na América Latina, gera economias potenciais para os sistemas de saúde da região.


Vaccination , Coronavirus , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Care Costs , COVID-19 Vaccines , Latin America , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Care Costs , Latin America , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Care Costs
7.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-04.
En, Es | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-55549

North America: Influenza activity remained low. In Mexico and the United States, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued elevated and increasing. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained low. In Belize, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued at moderate levels and increasing; RSV detections continue to increase in the country. In Puerto Rico and Saint Lucia, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to increase. Central America: Influenza activity remained low. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued at moderate levels in the subregion. In Nicaragua, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued elevated and increasing. Andean: Influenza activity remained low. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued at moderate levels but decreasing. Brazil and Southern Cone: Influenza activity remained low. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued at moderate levels but decreasing. In Argentina and Uruguay RSV activity remained elevated and increasing. Global: Despite continued or even increased testing for influenza in some countries, influenza activity remained at lower levels than expected for this time of the year. In the temperate zones of the southern and northern hemispheres, influenza activity remained at inter-seasonal levels. In tropical Africa, influenza detections were reported in some countries in Western and Eastern Africa. In Southern Asia, influenza detections were reported from Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. In South East Asia, one detection of Influenza A(H3N2) was reported from the Philippines. Worldwide, influenza B detections accounted for most of the low number of detections reported.


América del Norte: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja. En México y los Estados Unidos, la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 continuó elevada y en aumento. Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja. En Belice la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en niveles moderados y en aumento; las detecciones de VRS continúan aumentando en el país. En Puerto Rico y Santa Lucía, la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 continuó en aumento. América Central: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja. En general, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en niveles moderados en la subregión. En Nicaragua, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó elevada y en aumento. Andina: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja. En general, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en niveles moderados, pero en disminución. Brasil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja. En general, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en niveles moderados, pero disminuyó. En Argentina y Uruguay, la actividad del VRS se mantuvo elevada y en aumento. Global: a pesar de que la realización de pruebas para la detección de influenza continuó o incluso aumentó en algunos países, la actividad del virus de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles más bajos de lo esperado para esta época del año. En las zonas templadas de los hemisferios sur y norte, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles entre estaciones. En África tropical, se notificaron detecciones de influenza en algunos países de África occidental y oriental. En el sur de Asia, se informaron detecciones de influenza en Bangladesh, India y Nepal. En el sudeste asiático, se informó de una detección de influenza A(H3N2) en Filipinas. A nivel mundial, las detecciones de influenza B representaron la mayor parte del bajo número de detecciones notificadas.


Influenza, Human , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Emergencies , International Health Regulations , Coronavirus Infections , Influenza, Human , Emergencies , International Health Regulations
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-04.
En, Es | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-55548

North America: Influenza activity remained low overall. In Mexico, SARI activity continued to rise and was associated with high SARS-CoV-2 activity. In the United States, SARS-CoV-2 detections continued to increase, and COVID-19 mortality remained elevated and above the epidemic threshold. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained low overall. In Jamaica, SARS-CoV-2 activity continues to increase, and pneumonia activity continued above moderate levels and rising. In Puerto Rico, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued elevated and increasing. In Saint Lucia, ILI activity in the population five years of age and older continues above the alert threshold and was associated with SARS-CoV-2 activity. Central America: Influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity continued at moderate levels overall. In Nicaragua, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued high and increasing. Andean: Influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity continued at moderate levels overall. In Peru, RSV activity continues to increase. Brazil and Southern Cone: Influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity continued at moderate levels overall. In Argentina, RSV activity remained high and increasing. In Uruguay, SARI activity continued above epidemic levels and rising.


América del Norte: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja en general. En México, la actividad de la IRAG continuó aumentando y se asoció con una alta actividad de SARS-CoV-2. En los Estados Unidos, las detecciones de SARS-CoV-2 continuaron aumentando y la mortalidad por COVID-19 se mantuvo elevada y por encima del umbral epidémico. Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja en general. En Jamaica, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continúa aumentando y la actividad de la neumonía continuó por encima de niveles moderados y en aumento. En Puerto Rico, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó elevada y en aumento. En Santa Lucía, la actividad de la ETI en la población de cinco años o más continúa por encima del umbral de alerta y se asoció con la actividad del SARS-CoV-2. América Central: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó a niveles moderados en general. En Nicaragua, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó elevada y en aumento. Andina: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en niveles moderados en general. En Perú, la actividad del VRS sigue en aumento. Brasil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en niveles moderados en general. En Argentina, la actividad del VRS se mantuvo alta y en aumento. En Uruguay, la actividad de la IRAG continuó por encima de los niveles epidémicos y en aumento.


Influenza, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Emergencies , International Health Regulations , Influenza, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Emergencies , International Health Regulations
9.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-13. (OPAS/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0010).
Non-conventional Pt | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr2-55599

Desde a introdução do SARS-CoV-2 na Região das Américas e apesar dos níveis elevados de testagem, as detecções de gripe têm sido excepcionalmente baixas. No entanto, nas últimas quatro semanas epidemiológicas (SE) de 2021, a atividade da gripe com predomínio da A (H3N2) continuou a aumentar no Hemisfério Norte e em alguns países da sub-região Andina e do Cone Sul. Esse aumento está relacionado ao início da temporada de gripe no Hemisfério Norte, ao aumento da mobilidade da população e ao relaxamento das medidas de saúde pública e sociais da COVID-19, entre outros fatores.


COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-13. (OPAS-W/BRA/FGL/COVID-19/22-0008).
Non-conventional Pt | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr2-55592

O SAGE aplica os princípios da medicina baseada em evidências e estabeleceu um processo metodológico completo para emitir ou atualizar recomendações. Especificamente para vacinas contra a COVID-19, uma descrição detalhada dos processos metodológicos pode ser encontrada no esquema de evidências do SAGE para vacinas contra a COVID-19. Esse esquema contém orientações sobre como levar em consideração os dados provenientes de ensaios clínicos em apoio à emissão de recomendações baseadas em evidências específicas para vacinas.


COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 Vaccines , China
11.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-12. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0005).
Non-conventional Pt | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr2-55580

A orientação é baseada na evidência resumida no documento de referência sobre o estudo de fase 3 da vacina Janssen Ad26.COV2.S (COVID-19) e o acompanhamento de longo prazo de um pequeno número de participantes no tocante à durabilidade das respostas imunes humorais e celulares. Essas recomendações provisórias se referem à vacina Ad26.COV2.S, fabricada pela Janssen (Johnson e Johnson). A vacina também é conhecida como vacina contra COVID-19 da Johnson & Johnson/Janssen. No texto subsequente, a vacina será denominada Ad26. COV2.S. Em 12 de março de 2021, a vacina Ad26.COV2.S recebeu a Lista de Uso de Emergência (EUL) da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS).


COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
12.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-12. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0004).
Non-conventional Pt | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr2-55579

Esta orientação provisória foi desenvolvida com base na recomendação emitida pelo Grupo Consultivo Estratégico de Especialistas (SAGE) em imunização, em sua reunião extraordinária de 5 de janeiro de 2021, e atualizada durante sua reunião extraordinária de 27 de maio de 2021, sendo novamente atualizada em 19 de novembro de 2021. Estas recomendações provisórias se referem à vacina de mRNA BNT162b2, fabricada pela Pfizer e BioNTech. A denominação comum internacional (DCI) é Tozinameran. A vacina também é conhecida como vacina Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 ou Comirnaty. No texto subsequente, a vacina será denominada BNT162b2. Em 31 de dezembro de 2020, a BNT162b2 recebeu a Lista de Uso de Emergência da OMS (EUL).


COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Pandemics , Epidemics
13.
Brasília, D.F.; OPS; 2022-01-12. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0003).
Non-conventional Pt | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr2-55578

Tendo em vista a rápida disseminação da variante de preocupação (VOC) Ômicron do SARS-CoV-2, o vírus que causa a doença do coronavírus (COVID-19), a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) recomenda o seguinte em relação ao uso de máscaras por profissionais de saúde que prestam atendimento a pacientes com suspeita ou confirmação de COVID-19.


COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Masks , Health Personnel , N95 Respirators
14.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-12. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0002).
Non-conventional Pt | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr2-55577

Esta orientação provisória foi desenvolvida com base na recomendação emitida pelo Grupo Consultivo Estratégico de Especialistas (SAGE) em imunização em sua reunião extraordinária de 21 de janeiro de 2021, e atualizada durante sua reunião extraordinária de 27 de maio de 2021, sendo novamente atualizada em 19 de novembro de 2021. Foram coletadas as declarações de interesses de todos os colaboradores externos, sendo elas avaliadas quanto a quaisquer conflitos de interesse. O resumo dos interesses relatados pode ser encontrado no site da reunião do SAGE e no site do Grupo de Trabalho do SAGE. Esta orientação é baseada na evidência resumida no documento de referência sobre a vacina Moderna mRNA-1273 contra COVID-19.


COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Immunization , Epidemics , Vaccination , Vaccines
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 28, 2022 Jan 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986824

BACKGROUND: The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has overwhelmed healthcare systems across the world. Along with the medical team, clinical pharmacists played a significant role during the public health emergency of COVID-19. This study aimed to explore the working experience of clinical pharmacists and provide reference for first-line clinical pharmacists to prepare for fighting against COVID-19. METHODS: A qualitative study based on descriptive phenomenology was employed with face-to-face and audio-recorded interviews to study the working experience of 13 clinical pharmacists (including two clinical nutritional pharmacists). All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the interview data were analyzed thematically using NVivo software. RESULTS: Four themes emerged from interview data, including roles of clinical pharmacists, working experiences of clinical pharmacists, psychological feelings of clinical pharmacists, and career expectations of clinical pharmacists. CONCLUSIONS: The results contributed to a deeper understanding of the clinical pharmacists' work experiences in COVID-19 and offered guidance to better prepare clinical pharmacists in participating in a public health crisis.


COVID-19 , Community Pharmacy Services , Humans , Pharmacists , Professional Role , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986872

OBJECTIVE: To study the change in trend of antenatal mental health and associated factors among a cohort of pregnant women during the second wave of COVID-19 using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Previous study using the same scale, during the first wave reported a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. RESULTS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the two large maternity hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka: Castle Street Hospital for Women (CSHW) and De Soysa Hospital for Women (DSHW). Consecutively recruited 311 women were studied. Out of which, 272 (87.5%) were having uncomplicated pregnancies at the time of the survey and 106 (34.1%) were either anxious, depressed, or both. Prevalence of anxiety was 17.0% and depression 27.0%. Overall, continuing COVID-19 pandemic increased antenatal anxiety and depression. The trend was to aggravate depression more intensively compared to anxiety in this cohort of women studied. Special support is needed for pregnant mothers during infectious epidemics taking more attention to antenatal depression.


COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 6, 2022 Jan 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986883

Bhutan has reported a total of 2596 COVID-19 cases and three deaths as of September 15, 2021. With support from India, the United States, Denmark, the People's Republic of China, Croatia and other countries, Bhutan was able to conduct two rounds of nationwide vaccination campaign. While many countries struggle to overcome vaccine refusal or hesitancy due to complacency, a lack of trust, inconvenience and fear, escalated in some countries by anti-vaccine groups, Bhutan managed to inoculate more than 95% of its eligible populations in two rounds of vaccination campaign. Enabling factors of this successful vaccination campaign were strong national leadership, a well-coordinated national preparedness plan, and high acceptability of vaccine due to effective mass communication and social engagement led by religious figures, volunteers and local leaders. In this short report, we described the national strategic plan and enabling factors that led to the success of this historical vaccination campaign.


COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Bhutan , Humans , Immunization Programs , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 21(1): ar1, 2022 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978923

The COVID-19 pandemic shut down undergraduate research programs across the United States. A group of 23 colleges, universities, and research institutes hosted remote undergraduate research programs in the life sciences during Summer 2020. Given the unprecedented offering of remote programs, we carried out a study to describe and evaluate them. Using structured templates, we documented how programs were designed and implemented, including who participated. Through focus groups and surveys, we identified programmatic strengths and shortcomings as well as recommendations for improvements from students' perspectives. Strengths included the quality of mentorship, opportunities for learning and professional development, and a feeling of connection with a larger community. Weaknesses included limited cohort building, challenges with insufficient structure, and issues with technology. Although all programs had one or more activities related to diversity, equity, inclusion, and justice, these topics were largely absent from student reports even though programs coincided with a peak in national consciousness about racial inequities and structural racism. Our results provide evidence for designing remote Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REUs) that are experienced favorably by students. Our results also indicate that remote REUs are sufficiently positive to further investigate their affordances and constraints, including the potential to scale up offerings, with minimal concern about disenfranchising students.


COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , United States
19.
Mil Med ; 187(1-2): 9-11, 2022 01 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990511

In response to the COVID pandemic, Uniformed Services University (USU) suspended clerkships. As the nation's military medical school, USU had to keep students safe while still preparing them to be military physicians. In this commentary, we, a group of USU students, explore what this experience taught us about military medicine.


COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Military Medicine , Military Personnel , Students, Medical , Humans , Military Medicine/education , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical
20.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991778

Europe has experienced a large COVID-19 wave caused by the Delta variant in winter 2021/22. Using mathematical models applied to Metropolitan France, we find that boosters administered to ≥ 65, ≥ 50 or ≥ 18 year-olds may reduce the hospitalisation peak by 25%, 36% and 43% respectively, with a delay of 5 months between second and third dose. A 10% reduction in transmission rates might further reduce it by 41%, indicating that even small increases in protective behaviours may be critical to mitigate the wave.


COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19/prevention & control , France/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
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