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J Korean Med Sci ; 37(1): e13, 2022 Jan 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981683

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is generally asymptomatic or mild in otherwise healthy children, however, severe cases may occur. In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of children classified as critical COVID-19 in Korea to provide further insights into risk factors and management in children. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case series of children < 18 years of age classified as critical COVID-19. Cases were identified by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency surveillance system and medical records were reviewed. Critical COVID-19 was defined as cases with severe illness requiring noninvasive (high flow nasal cannula, continuous positive airway pressure, or bilevel positive airway pressure) or invasive mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), between January 20, 2020 and October 7, 2021. RESULTS: Among 39,146 cases diagnosed with COVID-19 in subjects < 18 years of age, eight cases (0.02%) were identified as critical COVID-19. The median age was 13 years (range 10 month-17 years) and male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Three children had underlying diseases; one child has asthma and major depressive disorder, one child had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and one child had mental retardation and was newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus with the diagnosis of COVID-19. Among the eight children, seven were obese (body mass index range [BMI] median 29.3, range 25.9-38.2, weight-for-length > 97% for infant) and one was overweight (BMI 21.3). All patients had fever, six patients had dyspnea or cough and other accompanied symptoms included sore throat, headache, lethargy and myalgia. Radiologic findings showed pneumonia within 1-8 days after symptom onset. Pneumonia progressed in these children for 2-6 days and was improved within 5-32 days after diagnosis. Among the eight critical cases, remdesivir was administered in six cases. Steroids were provided for all cases. Inotropics were administered in one case. Six cases were treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilator and three required mechanical ventilator. One case required ECMO due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. All cases were admitted to the intensive care unit and admission period ranged from 9-39 days. Among all critical COVID-19 cases < 18 years of age, there were no fatal cases. CONCLUSION: To develop appropriate policies for children in the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to monitor and assess the clinical burden in this population.

COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992071

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: SARS-CoV-2 and consequent pandemic has presented unique challenges. Beyond the direct COVID-related mortality in those with liver disease, we sought to determine the effect of lockdown on people with liver disease in Scotland. The effect of lockdown on those with alcohol-related disease is of interest; and whether there were associated implications for a change in alcohol intake and consequent presentations with decompensated disease. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to seven Scottish hospitals with a history of liver disease between 1 April and 30 April 2020 and compared across the same time in 2017, 2018 and 2019. We also repeated an intermediate assessment based on a single centre to examine for delayed effects between 1 April and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: We found that results and outcomes for patients admitted in 2020 were similar to those in previous years in terms of morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. In the Scotland-wide cohort: admission MELD (Model for End-stage Liver Disease) (16 (12-22) vs 15 (12-19); p=0.141), inpatient mortality ((10.9% vs 8.6%); p=0.499) and length of stay (8 days (4-15) vs 7 days (4-13); p=0.140). In the Edinburgh cohort: admission MELD (17 (12-23) vs 17 (13-21); p=0.805), inpatient mortality ((13.7% vs 10.1%; p=0.373) and length of stay (7 days (4-14) vs 7 days (3.5-14); p=0.525)). CONCLUSION: This assessment of immediate and medium-term lockdown impacts on those with chronic liver disease suggested a minimal effect on the presentation of decompensated liver disease to secondary care.

COVID-19 , End Stage Liver Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 61(1): 99-103, 2022 Jan 01.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979778

To investigate the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and work impairment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) based on real-world evidence. Outpatients with confirmed AS at Chinese PLA General Hospital were recruited consecutively by Smart-phone SpondyloArthritis Management System (SpAMS) from April 2016 to April 2018. The relationship between CRP and work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI) were evaluated. Five hundred and fifty-one outpatients with AS in paid employment were recruited. The presenteeism, overall work impairment, and activity impairment rates increased by 1.4% (1.1%, 1.8%), 1.1% (0.5%, 1.6%), and 1.7% (1.3%, 2.1%), respectively, for every 10 mg/L increase in the CRP level (all P value<0.01). However, the CRP level was not associated with absenteeism after adjusting for covariates [0.5%(-0.4%, 1.0%),P>0.05]. There is a significant association between increased serum CRP levels at baseline and the previous 7-day work impairment in patients with AS. Higher CRP levels contribute to worse presenteeism, overall work impairment, and activity impairment rates, which suggests the necessity of monitoring CRP on treatment, and also indicates that anti-inflammatory therapy may be effective for improving work productivity.

Spondylarthritis , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , C-Reactive Protein , China , Employment , Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
Theranostics ; 12(1): 290-306, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987646

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a complex disease, with a variety of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infection or mild cold-like symptoms to more severe cases requiring hospitalization and critical care. The most severe presentations seem to be related with a delayed, deregulated immune response leading to exacerbated inflammation and organ damage with close similarities to sepsis. Methods: In order to improve the understanding on the relation between host immune response and disease course, we have studied the differences in the cellular (monocytes, CD8+ T and NK cells) and soluble (cytokines, chemokines and immunoregulatory ligands) immune response in blood between Healthy Donors (HD), COVID19 and a group of patients with non-COVID19 respiratory tract infections (NON-COV-RTI). In addition, the immune response profile has been analyzed in COVID19 patients according to disease severity. Results: In comparison to HDs and patients with NON-COV-RTI, COVID19 patients show a heterogeneous immune response with the presence of both activated and exhausted CD8+ T and NK cells characterised by the expression of the immune checkpoint LAG3 and the presence of the adaptive NK cell subset. An increased frequency of adaptive NK cells and a reduction of NK cells expressing the activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 correlated with disease severity. Although both activated and exhausted NK cells expressing LAG3 were increased in moderate/severe cases, unsupervised cell clustering analyses revealed a more complex scenario with single NK cells expressing more than one immune checkpoint (PD1, TIM3 and/or LAG3). A general increased level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was found in COVID19 patients, some of which like IL18, IL1RA, IL36B and IL31, IL2, IFNα and TNFα, CXCL10, CCL2 and CCL8 were able to differentiate between COVID19 and NON-COV-RTI and correlated with bad prognosis (IL2, TNFα, IL1RA, CCL2, CXCL10 and CXCL9). Notably, we found that soluble NKG2D ligands from the MIC and ULBPs families were increased in COVID19 compared to NON-COV-RTI and correlated with disease severity. Conclusions: Our results provide a detailed comprehensive analysis of the presence of activated and exhausted CD8+T, NK and monocyte cell subsets as well as extracellular inflammatory factors beyond cytokines/chemokines, specifically associated to COVID19. Importantly, multivariate analysis including clinical, demographical and immunological experimental variables have allowed us to reveal specific immune signatures to i) differentiate COVID19 from other infections and ii) predict disease severity and the risk of death.

COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 142-148, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999694

Estimation of visceral adipose tissue is important as it carries high cardiometabolic risk and several methods are available as its surrogate. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) is a direct measure of visceral fat rather than anthropometric measurements. EFT can be accurately measured by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. It tends to be higher in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). The present study was intended to find out the association between echocardiographic EFT and severity of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in patients with ACS. This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in the department of cardiology, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October 2017 to September 2018. Sampling technique was purposive sampling. Comparison between groups was done by unpaired-t test & dichotomous variables were compared by chi-square test. A total of 164 patients was enrolled in the study, prospectively examined EFT on echocardiography and patients were divided into 2 groups, Group I patients with EFT >4.65mm and Group II patients with EFT ≤4.65mm. Coronary angiograms were analyzed for the extent and severity of CAD using Gensini score. The mean EFT (mm) was found 6.1±1.0 in Group I and 3.5±0.7 in Group II (p<0.001). Patients with a higher EFT were associated with a high Gensini score (Group I vs. Group II, 50.3±24.1 vs. 21.9±20.0; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that EFT (OR 6.07, p<0.001) and smoking (OR 2.66, p=0.03) were independent factors affecting significant coronary artery stenosis. By ROC curve analysis, EFT >4.65mm predicated the presence of significant coronary stenosis by 76.1% sensitivity and 69.9% specificity. EFT measured using Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) significantly correlates with the severity of CAD. It is sensitive, easily available, and cost-effective and assists in the risk stratification and may be an additional marker on classical risk factors for CAD.

Acute Coronary Syndrome , Coronary Artery Disease , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Bangladesh , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Humans , Pericardium/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0260897, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995294

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can manifest with varying disease severity and mortality. Genetic predisposition influences the clinical course of infectious diseases. We investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes ACE2, TIRAP, and factor X are associated with clinical outcomes in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective cohort study. All patients who visited the emergency department with SARS-CoV-2 infection proven by polymerase chain reaction were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ACE2 (rs2285666), TIRAP (rs8177374) and factor X (rs3211783) were assessed. The outcomes were mortality, respiratory failure and venous thromboembolism. Respiratory failure was defined as the necessity of >5 litres/minute oxygen, high flow nasal oxygen suppletion or mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Between March and April 2020, 116 patients (35% female, median age 65 [inter quartile range 55-75] years) were included and treated according to the then applicable guidelines. Sixteen patients (14%) died, 44 patients (38%) had respiratory failure of whom 23 required endotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation, and 20 patients (17%) developed venous thromboembolism. The percentage of TIRAP polymorphism carriers in the survivor group was 28% as compared to 0% in the non-survivor group (p = 0.01, Bonferroni corrected p = 0.02). Genotype distribution of ACE2 and factor X did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSION: This study shows that carriage of TIRAP polymorphism rs8177374 could be associated with a significantly lower mortality in COVID-19. This TIRAP polymorphism may be an important predictor in the outcome of COVID-19.

COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-1/genetics , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Factor X/genetics , Factor X/metabolism , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-1/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142322, 2022 01 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015063

Importance: Severe outcomes among youths with SARS-CoV-2 infections are poorly characterized. Objective: To estimate the proportion of children with severe outcomes within 14 days of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in an emergency department (ED). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study with 14-day follow-up enrolled participants between March 2020 and June 2021. Participants were youths aged younger than 18 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection at one of 41 EDs across 10 countries including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Italy, New Zealand, Paraguay, Singapore, Spain, and the United States. Statistical analysis was performed from September to October 2021. Exposures: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nucleic acid (eg, polymerase chain reaction) testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severe outcomes, a composite measure defined as intensive interventions during hospitalization (eg, inotropic support, positive pressure ventilation), diagnoses indicating severe organ impairment, or death. Results: Among 3222 enrolled youths who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3221 (>99.9%) had index visit outcome data available, 2007 (62.3%) were from the United States, 1694 (52.6%) were male, and 484 (15.0%) had a self-reported chronic illness; the median (IQR) age was 3 (0-10) years. After 14 days of follow-up, 735 children (22.8% [95% CI, 21.4%-24.3%]) were hospitalized, 107 (3.3% [95% CI, 2.7%-4.0%]) had severe outcomes, and 4 children (0.12% [95% CI, 0.03%-0.32%]) died. Characteristics associated with severe outcomes included being aged 5 to 18 years (age 5 to <10 years vs <1 year: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% CI, 1.09-2.34]; age 10 to <18 years vs <1 year: OR, 2.39 [95% CI 1.38-4.14]), having a self-reported chronic illness (OR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.59-3.44]), prior episode of pneumonia (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 1.83-5.42]), symptoms starting 4 to 7 days prior to seeking ED care (vs starting 0-3 days before seeking care: OR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.29-3.82]), and country (eg, Canada vs US: OR, 0.11 [95% CI, 0.05-0.23]; Costa Rica vs US: OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.05-2.96]; Spain vs US: OR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.27-0.98]). Among a subgroup of 2510 participants discharged home from the ED after initial testing and who had complete follow-up, 50 (2.0%; 95% CI, 1.5%-2.6%) were eventually hospitalized and 12 (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%) had severe outcomes. Compared with hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-negative youths, the risk of severe outcomes was higher among hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive youths (risk difference, 3.9%; 95% CI, 1.1%-6.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, approximately 3% of SARS-CoV-2-positive youths tested in EDs experienced severe outcomes within 2 weeks of their ED visit. Among children discharged home from the ED, the risk was much lower. Risk factors such as age, underlying chronic illness, and symptom duration may be useful to consider when making clinical care decisions.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142046, 2022 01 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982158

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a distinct spatiotemporal pattern in the United States. Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe complications from COVID-19, but it is not well known whether COVID-19 outcomes in this patient population were associated with geography. Objective: To quantify spatiotemporal variation in COVID-19 outcomes among patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included patients with a historical diagnosis of invasive malignant neoplasm and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and November 2020. Data were collected from cancer care delivery centers in the United States. Exposures: Patient residence was categorized into 9 US census divisions. Cancer center characteristics included academic or community classification, rural-urban continuum code (RUCC), and social vulnerability index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary composite outcome consisted of receipt of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and all-cause death. Multilevel mixed-effects models estimated associations of center-level and census division-level exposures with outcomes after adjustment for patient-level risk factors and quantified variation in adjusted outcomes across centers, census divisions, and calendar time. Results: Data for 4749 patients (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-76] years; 2439 [51.4%] female individuals, 1079 [22.7%] non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 690 [14.5%] Hispanic individuals) were reported from 83 centers in the Northeast (1564 patients [32.9%]), Midwest (1638 [34.5%]), South (894 [18.8%]), and West (653 [13.8%]). After adjustment for patient characteristics, including month of COVID-19 diagnosis, estimated 30-day mortality rates ranged from 5.2% to 26.6% across centers. Patients from centers located in metropolitan areas with population less than 250 000 (RUCC 3) had lower odds of 30-day mortality compared with patients from centers in metropolitan areas with population at least 1 million (RUCC 1) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.84). The type of center was not significantly associated with primary or secondary outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome rates across the 9 census divisions, but adjusted mortality rates significantly improved over time (eg, September to November vs March to May: aOR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17-0.58). Conclusions and Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study, significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes across US census divisions were not observed. However, substantial heterogeneity in COVID-19 outcomes across cancer care delivery centers was found. Attention to implementing standardized guidelines for the care of patients with cancer and COVID-19 could improve outcomes for these vulnerable patients.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rural Population , Social Vulnerability , Urban Population , Aged , Cause of Death , Censuses , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spatial Analysis , United States/epidemiology
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010048, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986169

BACKGROUND: The first community transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant of concern (VOC) in Guangzhou, China occurred between May and June 2021. Herein, we describe the epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak and evaluate the implemented containment measures against this outbreak. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention provided the data on SARS-CoV-2 infections reported between 21 May and 24 June 2021. We estimated the incubation period distribution by fitting a gamma distribution to the data, while the serial interval distribution was estimated by fitting a normal distribution. The instantaneous effective reproductive number (Rt) was estimated to reflect the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical severity was compared for cases with different vaccination statuses using an ordinal regression model after controlling for age. Of the reported local cases, 7/153 (4.6%) were asymptomatic. The median incubation period was 6.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.42-6.71) days and the means of serial intervals decreased from 5.19 (95% CI: 4.29-6.11) to 3.78 (95% CI: 2.74-4.81) days. The incubation period increased with age (P<0.001). A hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 was implemented in Guangzhou, with Rt decreasing from 6.83 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 3.98-10.44) for the 7-day time window ending on 27 May 2021 to below 1 for the time window ending on 8 June and thereafter. Individuals with partial or full vaccination schedules with BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac accounted for 15.3% of the COVID-19 cases. Clinical symptoms were milder in partially or fully vaccinated cases than in unvaccinated cases (odds ratio [OR] = 0.26 [95% CI: 0.07-0.94]). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hierarchical prevention and control strategy against COVID-19 in Guangzhou was timely and effective. Authorised inactivated vaccines are likely to contribute to reducing the probability of developing severe disease. Our findings have important implications for the containment of COVID-19.

COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Prevention/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262193, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986168

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate a logistic regression-based machine learning (ML) prognostic algorithm implemented in real-time as a clinical decision support (CDS) system for symptomatic persons under investigation (PUI) for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We developed in a 12-hospital system a model using training and validation followed by a real-time assessment. The LASSO guided feature selection included demographics, comorbidities, home medications, vital signs. We constructed a logistic regression-based ML algorithm to predict "severe" COVID-19, defined as patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or died in or out-of-hospital. Training data included 1,469 adult patients who tested positive for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 14 days of acute care. We performed: 1) temporal validation in 414 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, 2) validation in a PUI set of 13,271 patients with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 test during an acute care visit, and 3) real-time validation in 2,174 ED patients with PUI test or positive SARS-CoV-2 result. Subgroup analysis was conducted across race and gender to ensure equity in performance. RESULTS: The algorithm performed well on pre-implementation validations for predicting COVID-19 severity: 1) the temporal validation had an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of 0.87 (95%-CI: 0.83, 0.91); 2) validation in the PUI population had an AUROC of 0.82 (95%-CI: 0.81, 0.83). The ED CDS system performed well in real-time with an AUROC of 0.85 (95%-CI, 0.83, 0.87). Zero patients in the lowest quintile developed "severe" COVID-19. Patients in the highest quintile developed "severe" COVID-19 in 33.2% of cases. The models performed without significant differences between genders and among race/ethnicities (all p-values > 0.05). CONCLUSION: A logistic regression model-based ML-enabled CDS can be developed, validated, and implemented with high performance across multiple hospitals while being equitable and maintaining performance in real-time validation.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Triage/methods , COVID-19/physiopathology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index
Agri ; 34(1): 33-37, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988956

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to compare the Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score (MASES) values of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA) with and without coccydynia. METHODS: We included 42 cases between the ages of 18 to 65 that were admitted to our clinic between August 1, 2019 and April 20, 2020 with the diagnosis of ax-SpA. The first group consisted of 13 patients with coccydynia and the second group consisted of 29 patients without coccydynia. Besides the demographic data Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (ASDAS-CRP), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and MASES values of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: We found that 13 (29.5%) of 42 patients with ax-SpA had coccydynia. While the rate of female patients in the coccydynia group was 46.15%, in the group without coccydynia, this rate was 31.03%. The mean of MASES, ASDAS-CRP, and BASFI values of the coccydynia group was statistically significantly higher than the group without coccydynia. We found that the BASFI was the most effective factor affecting the presence of coccydynia. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the increased prevalence of coccydynia in patients with ax-SpA. In this study, we found that the presence of coccydynia may be associated with hypomobility rather than enthesitis.

Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/complications , Young Adult
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(1): 4-8, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983139

OBJECTIVE: To find out whether there is any correlation between the fractional flow reserve (FFR) that indicates the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and the HbA1c value in non-diabetic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Cardiology, Dicle University, Turkey, from September 2015 to November 2019. METHODOLOGY: Patients who underwent elective FFR procedure were included in the study. There were two groups formed according to FFR lesion severity: FFR <0.8 group (75 patients), FFR >0.8 group (39 patients). HbA1c was compared between the two groups. The relationship between categorical variables was examined with Pearson Chi-square and Fisher's Exact test. ROC (Receiver operating characteristic) analysis was performed for the HbA1c the cut-off value. RESULTS: The two groups were similar in terms of mean age and male gender ratios (58.4±9.6 vs. 57.9 ± 10.8 years, p=0.794; 64% vs. 74.4%, respectively, p=0.262). HbA1c value was statistically higher in the group with FFR value <0.8 [(5.8 (IQR: 5.7-6.0)] compared to the group with FFR value ≥0.8 [(5.5 (IQR: 5.2-6.0, p = 0.002)]. The HbA1c cut-off value was determined as 5.55. The ideal HbA1c threshold value calculated by the Youden index had 88% sensitivity, and 53.85% specificity. CONCLUSION: HbA1c, which shows the long-term glycemic index in non-diabetic individuals, is associated with the severity of CAD determined by the fractional flow reserve. Key Words: Coronary artery disease, fractional flow reserve, HbA1c.

Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Stenosis , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessels , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index
J Med Econ ; 25(1): 77-86, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927509

AIMS: A budget impact analysis (BIA) comparing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with SAPIEN 3 and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis among patients of low, intermediate, and high surgical risk from the perspective of the public and private sectors in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Markov model was developed with six states to calculate the budget impact from time of either TAVR or SAVR intervention up to 5 years. We compared the budget effects of new permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI), new onset atrial fibrillation (AF), major/disabling stroke (MDS), and surgical site infections (SSI). One-way sensitivity analyses (OWSA) were performed on cost and probability inputs. RESULTS: Analysis of the base case parameters suggests TAVR vs. SAVR is budget saving among intermediate- and high-risk patients at 5 years. TAVR vs. SAVR for low surgical risk reaches budget neutrality at 5 years. TAVR is associated with higher costs for PPI and budget savings for MDS, AF, and SSI. TAVR also results in savings for non-device costs due to fewer human resource uses and shorter procedure durations. Similarly, TAVR is associated with cost savings due to shorter hospital intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU stays. The OWSA consistently revealed that SAVR non-device theater costs were the leading cost driver across all surgical risk levels. LIMITATIONS: This is the first budget impact analysis of its kind in Saudi Arabia and future research is needed on costing TAVR and SAVR procedures, the economic impact of SSI, and corroborating estimates for the public and private sectors. CONCLUSIONS: Payers, providers, and policymakers increasingly turn to results of BIA to inform technologies affordability decisions. TAVR with SAPIEN 3 appears to generate savings vs. SAVR from a budget impact perspective across various surgical risk levels in Saudi Arabia.

Aortic Valve Stenosis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Cost Savings , Humans , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
Microbiol Res ; 254: 126918, 2022 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798538

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) causes urinary tract infections that can result in sepsis. The haemostatic system is protective in the pyelonephritis stage of ascending UPEC infection, but the role of the haemostatic system has not been investigated during sepsis. Here we utilize a zebrafish-UPEC systemic infection model to visualize infection-induced coagulation and examine the effects of commonly prescribed anti-haemostatic medications on the infection severity. Treatment of systemically infected zebrafish with warfarin, aspirin, or ticagrelor reduced host survival, while stabilization of clots with aminocaproic acid increased host survival. Anti-haemostatic drug treatment increased UPEC burden. Our findings provide evidence that commonly prescribed anti-haemostatic medications may worsen the outcome of severe UPEC infection.

Escherichia coli Infections , Hemostatics , Sepsis , Urinary Tract Infections , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/pathology , Hemostatics/pharmacology , Sepsis/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/pathology , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli , Zebrafish
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 380-383, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403142

The durability of infection-induced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunity has crucial implications for reinfection and vaccine effectiveness. However, the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and long-term anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level is poorly understood. Here, we measured the longevity of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in survivors who had recovered from COVID-19 1 year previously. In a cohort of 473 survivors with varying disease severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe), we observed a positive correlation between virus-specific IgG antibody titers and COVID-19 severity. In particular, the highest virus-specific IgG antibody titers were observed in patients with severe COVID-19. By contrast, 74.4% of recovered asymptomatic carriers had negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test results, while many others had very low virus-specific IgG antibody titers. Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG persistence and titer depend on COVID-19 severity.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 131-140, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403145

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become a global threat to public health, and it is difficult to predict severe patients and their prognosis. Here, we intended developing effective models for the late identification of patients at disease progression and outcome. METHODS: A total of 197 patients were included with a 20-day median follow-up time. We first developed a nomogram for disease severity discrimination, then created a prognostic nomogram for severe patients. RESULTS: In total, 40.6% of patients were severe and 59.4% were non-severe. The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that IgG, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen were significant factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. Using immune response phenotyping based on NLR and IgG level, the logistic model showed patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype are most likely to have severe disease, especially compared to those with the NLRlo IgGlo phenotype. The C-indices of the two discriminative nomograms were 0.86 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated sufficient discriminative power. As for predicting clinical outcomes for severe patients, IgG, NLR, age, lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, monocytes, and procalcitonin were significant predictors. The prognosis of severe patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype was significantly worse than the NLRlo IgGhi group. The two prognostic nomograms also showed good performance in estimating the risk of progression. CONCLUSIONS: The present nomogram models are useful to identify COVID-19 patients with disease progression based on individual characteristics and immune response-related indicators. Patients at high risk for severe illness and poor outcomes from COVID-19 should be managed with intensive supportive care and appropriate therapeutic strategies.

COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Nomograms , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 141-146, 2022 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406674

Due to the known anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects of zinc, 25(OH)D, and vitamin B12, in this study, we explored the association between serum levels of these micronutrients in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at the time of admission and the clinical outcomes. This study was carried out on 293 patients with COVID-19, who were hospitalized at Imam Hassan hospital (Bojnourd, Iran). We collected demographic data, clinical characteristics, values of serum biochemical parameters in the first week of admission, and clinical outcomes from electronic medical records. We also measured serum levels of zinc, 25(OH)D, and vitamin B12 within 3 days of admission. Of the 293 hospitalized, the median age was 53 years, and 147 (50.17%) were female. Thirty-seven patients (12.62%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and forty-two (14.32%) died. We found that the serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, and 25(OH)D were lower in patients who died than those who were admitted to ICU or non-ICU and survived; however, these differences were not statistically significant for vitamin B12 and 25(OH)D (p > 0.05). The serum concentrations of zinc, vitamin B12, and 25(OH)D at the time of admission did not affect the length of hospital stay in patients with COVID-19. In general, it seems that serum levels of 25(OH)D, vitamin B12, and especially zinc at the time of admission can affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Vitamin B 12/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Zinc/blood , Adult , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index