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Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(5): 389-394, 2021 Oct.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734573

Objective: COVID-19 respiratory insufficiency has augmented demand of tracheostomies in intubated patients. Herein, we analyse our experience with suspension laryngoscopy-assisted percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (SL-PDT) to assess the safety for both healthcare personnel and patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent SL-PDT in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) between March 13 and April 17, 2020 (first peak of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic). Results: We included 28 SL-PDTs conducted in the ICU by a single operator using standard personal protective equipment (PPE) for high-risk procedures. The average procedure time was 30 minutes. Intraoperative complications were few, mild and promptly resolved. No operators were infected after the procedure. Conclusions: SL-PDT is a safe and quick technique: it is preferable to open surgical procedures, where air-flow cessation cannot be achieved and droplet emission is high. The cost/benefit ratio is low. A disadvantage is the need for an ENT surgeon who is familiar with direct laryngoscopy, with the main difficulty being the exposure of the upper airways. Minimal air leakage and good control of occasional bleeding makes it a safe procedure for the patient and medical personnel alike.

COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Saudi Med J ; 42(11): 1217-1222, 2021 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732554

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient tracheostomy outcomes. METHODS: All COVID-19 patients at the National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were retrospectively recruited. Those who had tracheostomies between April and December 2020 were included. RESULTS: The population was 45 patients, of which 30 (66.7%) were males, 15 (33.3%) were females and the mean age was 66.76±12.74 years. The tracheostomy indications were anticipated prolonged weaning in 40 (88.9%) and failed extubation in 5 (11.1%) of the patients. The mean intubation to tracheostomy duration was 20.62±7.21 days. Mortalities were high, with most attributed to COVID-19. Mortality and a pre-tracheostomy C-reactive protein (CRP) uptrend were significantly related (p=0.039). Mortality and intubation to tracheostomy duration were not significantly related. The mean post-tracheostomy time to death was 10.64±6.9 days. Among the survivors, 20 (44.4%) males and 11 (24.4%) females were weaned off mechanical ventilation; 9 (20%) remained on ventilation during the study. The mean ventilation weaning time was 27.92±20 days. CONCLUSION: The high mortality rate was attributed to COVID-19. Mortality and a pre-tracheostomy CRP uptrend were significantly related; uptrend patients experienced far more mortalities than downtrend patients. Unlike previous findings, mortality and intubation to tracheostomy duration were not significantly related.

COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(6): 2554-2560, 2021 11 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618595

Purpose Hospitalized, medically complex patients with new tracheostomy are at risk for aspiration. This study reports incidence of aspiration in these patients with new tracheostomy and investigates possible risk factors for aspiration and silent aspiration in this patient population. Method Retrospective review of instrumental swallowing evaluations from hospitalized inpatients with new tracheostomy tubes to determine frequency of aspiration and silent aspiration and patient factors associated with aspiration. Patient variables including sex, age, reason for hospital admission, reason for tracheostomy, duration of intubation, time since tracheostomy placement, and tracheostomy cuff and cap status were examined as possible risk factors for aspiration and silent aspiration. Results Of the 272 patients with new tracheostomies who underwent instrumental swallowing evaluation, 59% aspirated on at least one consistency. Odds of aspiration were twice as high in patients with uncapped tracheostomy compared to closed (i.e., cap or speaking valve in place). Odds of aspiration were 3.4 times greater with patients who underwent tracheostomy for an oropharyngeal etiology (oropharyngeal or laryngeal tumor, surgery, or infection). Of the patients who aspirated, 81% aspirated silently on at least one consistency. Odds of silent aspiration was 4.5 greater with an uncapped tracheostomy. Conclusions Medically complex patients with new tracheostomy are at risk for aspiration and benefit from instrumental swallowing evaluations. Future prospective research is warranted to determine contributing factors responsible for this risk. Lastly, speech pathologists play an important role in the patient's recovery.

Deglutition Disorders , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tracheostomy/adverse effects
J Card Surg ; 36(12): 4597-4603, 2021 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647349

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Long-term laryngotracheal complications have not been described in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for laryngotracheal complications following cardiac surgery. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients at high risk for laryngotracheal complications following cardiac surgery between 2006 and 2016 was performed. High-risk patients were reviewed to determine the presence of laryngotracheal complications including laryngotracheal stenosis, keyhole deformity, or vocal cord immobility. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of long-term laryngotracheal complications. RESULTS: Of 11,417 patients who underwent cardiac surgery, 1099 were identified as at high risk. Of these, 24 (2.2%) developed laryngotracheal complications following their surgery and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Laryngotracheal stenosis and keyhole deformity were present in 13 (1.2%) and 6 (0.5%) patients, respectively. Logistic regression demonstrated older age (age ≥ 70 odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.83) was protective, while readmission to ICU for ventilation (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.17-8.25) and receiving a tracheostomy (OR 7.83, 95% CI 2.22-27.6) were associated with laryngotracheal complications. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of long-term laryngotracheal complications following cardiac surgery was 2.2%. Readmission to ICU for ventilation and having a tracheostomy performed were associated with laryngotracheal complications.

Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Laryngostenosis , Tracheal Stenosis , Adult , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Laryngostenosis/epidemiology , Laryngostenosis/etiology , Laryngostenosis/surgery , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tracheal Stenosis/epidemiology , Tracheal Stenosis/etiology , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Tracheostomy/adverse effects
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666447

Objective: To investigate the clinical diagnosis and treatment of congenital laryngotracheoesophageal cleft (LTEC) in children. Methods: The clinical data of 8 children (including 7 males and 1 female)with congenital laryngotracheoesophageal cleft from January 2016 to June 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The median diagnosing age was 3.75 months (5 days to 12 months). According to the modified Benjamin Inglis classification proposed by Sandu in 2006,there were 3 cases of type Ⅱ, 3 cases of type Ⅲa, 1 case of type Ⅲb and 1 case of type Ⅳa. All children were followed up regularly. Results: Six patients were treated for recurrent bronchopneumonia and aspiration during feeding. The patients were first treated in the pneumology departmentt or intensive care unit. Six patients combined with other malformations. Endoscopic repair operations were performed in 6 cases (3 cases of type Ⅱ, 3 cases of type Ⅲ a), 1 case of LTEC was operated through cervical approach, and 1 case of type IVa LTEC associated with VACTERL was repaired under thoracoscope combined with suspension laryngoscope. Seven patients underwent tracheotomy before or during the repair operations. Gastrostomy was performed in 2 children. The operations were successfully performed in all cases. Three children with type Ⅱ LTEC recovered well and decannulated. One case of type Ⅲa was followed up for 5 months with occasionally choking while feeding. Two cases of type Ⅲa, 1 case of type Ⅲb and 1 case of type Ⅳa died due to severe reflux, tracheomalacia or respiratory failure. Conclusions: Congenital LTEC is a rare congenital malformation which is difficult to diagnose for the poor specificity of clinical manifestations. LTEC needs to be classified by endoscopy examination under general anesthesia. Severe cases of LTEC have poorer outcomes than the mild cases, and the perioperative managements need multi-disciplinary cooperation to reduce the mortality.

Larynx , Trachea , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Larynx/surgery , Male , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy , Tracheotomy
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639575

Few large-scale studies have focused on tracheostomy in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation. This retrospective population-based study extracted data from the longitudinal National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan to compare long-term mortality between patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation with and without tracheostomy and their related medical expenditures. Data on newly developed respiratory failure in patients on ventilator support were extracted from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2008. Of 10,705 patients included, 1372 underwent tracheostomy (n = 563) or translaryngeal intubation (n = 779). Overall survival of the patients with tracheostomy was followed for 5 years. Average survival was 4.98 years for the patients with tracheostomy and 5.48 years for the patients with translaryngeal intubation (not significant). Sex, age, premium-based monthly salary difference, occupation, urbanization level, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure, chronic renal disease, and cerebrovascular diseases were significantly associated with mortality for endotracheal intubation. Male sex, chronic heart failure, chronic renal disease, age ≥45 years, and low income were associated with significantly higher mortality. Although total medical expenditures were higher for the patients with tracheostomy, annual medical expenditures were not significantly different. There were no differences in long-term mortality between the two groups.

Respiratory Insufficiency , Tracheostomy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(12): 1507-1512, 2021 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713733

The benefits of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) placement have been well documented in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, the data regarding the benefit of PDT in coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) patients are scarce. The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of a cohort of 37 patients who underwent tracheostomy as part of their COVID-19 care. Retrospective data from a series for 37 patients undergoing tracheostomy was collected using chart review. Primary outcomes included 30 and 60 day mortality, weaning rate, and decannulation rate. Secondary outcomes collected included admission demographics, comorbidities, and procedural information. Thirty-seven (37) patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19. Of these 37 patients, 35 were alive 60 days post-PDT placement, 33 have been weaned from mechanical ventilation and 18 have been decannulated. The low mortality and high decannulation rates in this cohort in is a promising development in the care of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Of note, all participating physicians underwent routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 virus and no physician contracted COVID-19 as a result of their involvement. Overall, this case series describes the modified PDT technique used by our team and discusses the feasibility and potential benefit to PDT placement in COVID-19 patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation.

COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Injury ; 52(11): 3320-3326, 2021 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565616

OBJECTIVE: Study outcomes, predictors of mortality, and effects of procedural interventions on patients following traumatic inhalational airway injury. STUDY: Design: Retrospective study. SETTING: National Trauma Data Bank METHODS: Patients over the age of eighteen admitted between 2008 and 2016 to NTDB-participating sites were included. In-hospital mortality and length of stay were the primary outcomes. RESULTS: The final study cohort included 13,351 patients. History of active smoking was negatively associated with in-house mortality with an OR of 0.33 (0.25-0.44). History of alcohol use, and presence of significant medical co-morbidities were positively associated with in-house mortality with OR of 5.28 (4.32-6.46) 2.74 (19.4-3.86) respectively. There was little to no association between procedural interventions and in-house mortality. Intubation, laryngobronchoscopy, and tracheostomy had OR of 0.90 (0.67-1.20), 1.02 (0.79-1.30), and 0.94 (0.58-1.51), respectively. However, procedural intervention did affect both the median hospital and ICU lengths of stay of patients. Median hospital and ICU length of stay were shorter for patients receiving endotracheal intubation. Median hospital length of stay was longer for patients undergoing bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy, but median ICU length of stay was shorter for patients undergoing bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy. Patients receiving a tracheostomy have both significantly increased median hospital and ICU lengths of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Active smoking was associated with decreased odds of in-hospital mortality, while presence of pre-existing medical comorbidities and history of alcohol use disorder was associated with increased odds of in-hospital mortality. Procedural intervention had little to no association with in-hospital mortality but did affect overall hospital and ICU LOS.

Hospitalization , Tracheostomy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
AANA J ; 89(5): 443-448, 2021 Oct.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586999

Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is the absence of movement of one or both vocal cords and can be neurogenic or mechanical in origin. Causes include surgical injury, intubation, malignancy, neurologic diseases, and trauma. Whether temporary or permanent, VCP increases the risk of respiratory distress and aspiration in the perioperative period. Changes in voice, breathing, and swallowing in acute unilateral VCP are usually evident within 24 hours after injury. Symptoms of acute bilateral VCP range from mild stridor with exertion to acute airway obstruction. Most intubation-related laryngeal injuries result from prolonged pressure on sensitive airway tissues during short- or long-term intubations. Intubation-related VCP can be temporary, resolving within 6 months, or can be permanent. Contributing factors include endotracheal tube lumen size, cuff location, and cuff inflation pressure. Considerations in care of patients with unilateral VCP include maintaining function of the mobile vocal cord and preventing laryngeal edema. Patients with bilateral VCP have a fixed glottic size, which makes preventing airway edema critical as it may precipitate respiratory distress requiring intubation or tracheostomy. Considerations in care of patients with bilateral VCP include avoiding intubation, use of smaller endotracheal tubes when necessary, atraumatic intubation, perioperative corticosteroid administration, smooth emergence, and enhanced postoperative monitoring.

Anesthesia , Vocal Cord Paralysis , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Tracheostomy , Vocal Cord Paralysis/etiology , Vocal Cord Paralysis/surgery
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 27(5): 491-496, 2021 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476792

BACKGROUND: Our aim in this study was to compare the blood gas changes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels in blood and lung tissues after ischemia/reperfusion, the histopathological damage in lung tissue in rats provided respiratory support with mechanical ventilation after translaryngeal intubation and tracheostomy. METHODS: Group 1 rats were provided mechanical ventilator support after translaryngeal intubation, Group 2 mechanical ventilator support after tracheostomy, and Group 3 was the control group where rats were only anesthetized. Three groups were compared for blood gas changes, MDA, GSH, and histopathological changes. RESULTS: Blood gas evaluation showed a more marked increase in pO2 values and decline in pCO2 values in Group 2 than Group 1 (p<0.05), and higher serum MDA levels in Group 1 than Group 2 (p<0.05). Tissue GSH levels in Groups 1 and 2 were higher than the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). In terms of histopathological scoring, the damage score in Group 1 was higher than in Group 2 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show tracheostomy to be more advantageous than translaryngeal intubation in terms of blood gases, ischemia/reperfusion damage, and structural changes in the lung tissue.

Reperfusion Injury , Tracheostomy , Animals , Free Radicals , Intubation, Intratracheal , Malondialdehyde , Rats , Respiration, Artificial
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 86(4): 36-40, 2021.
Article Ru | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499445

The relevance of the study is due to the need to improve the methods of managing patients after reconstructive surgery on the larynx and trachea. OBJECTIVES: To optimize the management of wounds after tracheostomy and/or reconstuctive operations on larynx and trachea on the basis of use of modern dressings in the inpatient and outpatient settings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patients were divided into two: group I tracheostomy after reconstructive operations on the larynx and trachea. The postoperative area was ligated with drugs based on sodium alginate. Tracheostomy of group II patients was carried out according to the standard technique. RESULTS: In the first group of patients, postoperative wounds healed by primary intention on the 5-6th day after the operation in patients with bilateral paralysis of the larynx and on the 8-10th day in patients with chronic cicatricial stenosis of the larynx and trachea. In group II, postoperative wounds in the tracheostomy foramen area healed on day 7 in patients with bilateral paralysis of the larynx and on days 10-14 in patients with chronic cicatricial stenosis of the larynx and trachea. CONCLUSIONS: The Proposed algorithm for the management of patients after reconstructive operations on the larynx and trachea, of tracheostomy have improved clinical outcomes after surgery and to reduce the economic costs for this group of patients.

Larynx , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Tracheal Stenosis , Humans , Larynx/surgery , Trachea/surgery , Tracheal Stenosis/diagnosis , Tracheal Stenosis/etiology , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Tracheostomy/adverse effects
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 116(8): 715-726, 2021 Nov.
Article De | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586430

Weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation is challenging for the ICU team in terms of shortening time of ventilation via endotracheal tube in order to improve the patient's prognosis by early extubation. Thereby prolonged mechanical ventilation (> 14 days), which is associated with risk of tracheotomy and prolonged weaning, shall be avoided. This article will give an overview about weaning categories, causes for weaning failure and strategies to overcome this problem. In the last part we will cover concepts in the process of prolonged weaning including discharge management with invasive mechanical ventilation.

Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiration, Artificial , Airway Extubation , Humans , Tracheostomy , Ventilator Weaning
Respir Care ; 66(11): 1704-1712, 2021 Nov.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465570

BACKGROUND: The role of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) during a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) in patients who were tracheostomized and on prolonged mechanical ventilation is unclear. This study aimed to assess EELV during a 60-min SBT and its correlation with weaning success. METHODS: Enrolled subjects admitted to a weaning unit were measured for EELV and relevant parameters before and after the SBT. RESULTS: Of the 44 enrolled subjects, 29 (66%) were successfully liberated, defined as not needing mechanical ventilation for 5 d. The success group had fewer subjects with chronic kidney disease (41% vs 73%, P = .044), stronger mean ± SD maximum inspiratory pressure (41.6 ± 10.4 vs 34.1 ± 7.1 cm H2O; P = .02) and mean ± SD maximum expiratory pressure (46.9 ± 11.7 vs 35.3 ± 16.9 cm H2O; P = .01) versus the failure group. Toward the end of the SBT, the success group had a significant increase in the mean ± SD EELV (before vs after: 1,278 ± 744 vs 1,493 ± 867 mL; P = .040) and a decrease in the mean ± SD rapid shallow breathing index (83.8 ± 39.4 vs 66.3 ± 29.4; P = .02), whereas there were no significant changes in these 2 parameters in the failure group. The Cox regression analysis showed that, at the beginning of SBT, a greater difference between EELV with a PEEP of 0 cm H2O and with a PEEP of 5 cm H2O was significantly correlated to a higher likelihood of weaning success. Toward the end of the SBT, a greater EELV level at a PEEP of 0 cm H2O was also correlated with weaning success. Also, the greater difference of EELV at a PEEP of 0 cm H2O between the beginning and the end of the SBT was also correlated with a shorter duration to weaning success. CONCLUSIONS: The change in EELV during a 60-min SBT may be of prognostic value for liberation from prolonged mechanical ventilation in patients who had a tracheostomy. Our findings suggest a model to understand the underlying mechanism of failure of liberation from mechanical ventilation in these patients.

Respiration, Artificial , Ventilator Weaning , Humans , Lung Volume Measurements , Respiration , Tracheostomy
Med J Malaysia ; 76(Suppl 4): 23-26, 2021 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558553

Performing tracheostomy on COVID-19 patients poses a significant risk to the procedural team. Such procedures should be evaluated individually via close communication between the otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgeon and the intensivist. Comprehensive examination and preparation should be well-planned before tracheostomy, optimal technique during tracheostomy and special care following the surgery. We would like to highlight our revised guidelines at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on the timing of tracheostomy, management of anticoagulant and the surgical planning in COVID-19 patients during these challenging times.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
Med J Malaysia ; 76(Suppl 4): 60-62, 2021 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558563

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to an increase in the number of critically ill patients requiring intensive care unit admissions and mechanical ventilation. The sequential effect is that these patients may then require a tracheostomy. Tracheostomy guidelines were established to help minimise the risk of viral transmission to the personnel performing the procedure. Safety measures regarding preoperative planning, surgical technique and nursing care are important to minimise the risk of transmission to medical personnel. We describe our experience in conducting tracheostomies for two COVID-19 patients at a referral centre in Sabah, Malaysia.

COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1797-1804, 2021 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548406

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic increased the number of patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation, either through an endotracheal tube or through a tracheostomy. Tracheomalacia is a rare but potentially severe complication of mechanical ventilation, which can significantly complicate the weaning process. The aim of this study was to describe the strategies of airway management in mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2, the incidence of severe tracheomalacia, and investigate the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study was performed in an Italian teaching hospital. All adult subjects admitted to the ICU between February 24, 2020, and June 30, 2020, treated with invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure caused by SARS-CoV-2 were included. Clinical data were collected on the day of ICU admission, whereas information regarding airway management was collected daily. RESULTS: A total of 151 subjects were included in the study. On admission, ARDS severity was mild in 21%, moderate in 62%, and severe in 17% of the cases, with an overall mortality of 40%. A tracheostomy was performed in 73 (48%), open surgical technique in 54 (74%), and percutaneous Ciaglia technique in 19 (26%). Subjects who had a tracheostomy performed had, compared to the other subjects, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and longer ICU and hospital stay. Tracheomalacia was diagnosed in 8 (5%). The factors associated with tracheomalacia were female sex, obesity, and tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, approximately 50% of subjects with ARDS due to SARS-CoV-2 were tracheostomized. Tracheostomized subjects had a longer ICU and hospital stay. In our population, 5% were diagnosed with tracheomalacia. This percentage is 10 times higher than what is reported in available literature, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.

COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Tracheomalacia , Adult , Female , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy/adverse effects