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Curr HIV Res ; 2022 Jul 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909272

BACKGROUND: Vaccines have had a fundamental impact in containing the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there are few efficacy data relating to frail patients, including the HIV-positive patient. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serum neutralization in People Living with HIV (PLWH) compared to a cohort of healthy volunteers both vaccinated with BNT162b2. METHODS: A serum sample was then withdrawn 14-21 days after the second dose of the vaccine and a serum neutralization assay was performed on Vero-E6 cells. The experiments were performed using two strains of SARS-CoV-2 as 20A.EU1 and B.1.617.2. RESULTS: PLWH on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) showed a vaccine response comparable to the healthy subjects. No correlation between CD4 count or CD4/CD8 and neutralizing antibodies (NT-Abs) has been found. No differences in NT-Abs between patients with CD4 nadir above or under 200 cells/µl have been found. In both cohorts, vaccine-elicited serum better neutralized 20A.EU1 than B.1.617.2 strain. CONCLUSION: PLWH in ART and with good immuno-virological recovery showed a vaccine response comparable to that of healthy subjects and regardless of their immunological status at HIV infection diagnosis. However, larger studies are needed to confirm our results and to evaluate the vaccine response even in patients with low CD4 counts.

Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925613

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, 19% of the adult population are living with HIV (LWH). Few data on the influence of HIV on SARS-CoV-2 household transmission are available. METHODS: We performed a case-ascertained, prospective household transmission study of symptomatic index SARS-CoV-2 cases LWH and HIV-uninfected adults and their contacts in South Africa, October 2020 to September 2021. Households were followed up thrice weekly for 6 weeks to collect nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 testing. We estimated household cumulative infection risk (HCIR) and duration of SARS-CoV-2 positivity (at cycle threshold value <30 as proxy for high viral load). RESULTS: We recruited 131 index cases and 457 household contacts. HCIR was 59% (220/373); not differing by index HIV status (60% [51/85] in cases LWH vs 58% [163/279] in HIV-uninfected cases, OR 1.0, 95%CI 0.4-2.3). HCIR increased with index case age (35-59 years: aOR 3.4 95%CI 1.5-7.8 and ≥60 years: aOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.0-10.1) compared to 18-34 years, and contacts' age, 13-17 years (aOR 7.1, 95%CI 1.5-33.9) and 18-34 years (aOR 4.4, 95%CI 1.0-18.4) compared to <5 years. Mean positivity duration at high viral load was 7 days (range 2-17), with longer positivity in cases LWH (aHR 0.4, 95%CI 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Index HIV status was not associated with higher HCIR, but cases LWH had longer positivity duration at high viral load. Adults aged >35 years were more likely to transmit, individuals aged 13-34 to acquire SARS-CoV-2 in the household. As HIV infection may increase transmission, health services must maintain HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy initiation.

J Immunol Res ; 2022: 2114285, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935575

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has caused millions of infections and deaths globally over a 2-year period. Some populations including those living with HIV and/or cancer are reported to be at a higher risk of infection and severe disease. HIV infection leads to a depletion of CD4+ T cells which impairs cell-mediated immunity and increases the risk of malignancies such as Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2. However, several other factors including level of immunosuppression and chemotherapy may also affect the immune response against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we investigated factors affecting SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity towards the spike, nucleoprotein, membrane protein, and other open reading frame proteins in individuals with HIV-associated KS. The KS patients were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive with detectable T cell responses, but had no history of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. We observed that the T cell responses increase from baseline levels during follow-up, with responses towards the NMO peptide pool being statistically significant. Low CD4 counts below 200 cells/µl were associated with lower SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses. Cancer chemotherapy and KS T staging did not have a significant effect on the T cell responses.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Antibodies, Viral , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Zambia/epidemiology
West Afr J Med ; 39(7): 703-707, 2022 Jul 31.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924940

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has ravaged the world with significant implications on the socio-economic and health status of individuals. Several measures were put in place to curtail the pandemic especially movement restrictions. The effect of this pandemic and the restriction measures could further compound the health needs of PLWHA. This study thus described the trend in access to HIV/AIDS care services before and during the COVID-19 induced lockdown and the possible consequences on their treatment outcome. METHODS: A secondary analysis of client data was carried out at the HIV clinic of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. The sociodemographic and clinical data [type of ART, duration on ART, clinical services 3-months before and during the COVID-19 induced Lockdown] were extracted from the electronic medical records. Data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 22.0. RESULTS: The median age of PLWHA was 45 years (IQR: 39-51), with the predominant age group being 25-49 years (65.4%). The majority were females (68.7%), married (59.5%), had at least secondary education (82.8%), and employed (81.5%). The median duration on ART was 102 months (IQR: 67-138) with the majority on non-Protease Inhibitor based regimen (77.7%). In the 3 months before the lockdown, there was an increase in drug pick-up of approximately 25% over the booked appointment compared to a decline of 40% when the lockdown was enacted. CONCLUSION: The significant decline in drug pick-up during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic raises the need for measures to ensure continued access to drugs and care among PLWHA.

INTRODUCTION: La pandémie de SRAS-CoV-2 a ravagé le monde avec des implications significatives sur l'état socio- économique et sanitaire. Plusieurs mesures ont été mises en place pour freiner la pandémie, en particulier la restriction des déplacements. L'effet de cette pandémie et les mesures de restriction pourraient encore aggraver les besoins de santé des PVVIH. Cette étude décrit ainsi la tendance des services de soins du VIH / SIDA avant et pendant le verrouillage induit par le COVID-19 et les conséquences possibles sur l'issue de leur traitement. MÉTHODES: Une étude transversale parmi les PVVIH fréquentant la clinique VIH de l'Institut nigérian de recherche médicale. Les données sociodémographiques et cliniques [type de TAR, durée de la TAR, services cliniques 3 mois avant et pendant le verrouillage induit par COVID-19] ont été extraites des dossiers médicaux électroniques. Les données obtenues ont été analysées à l'aide de la version 22.0 de SPSS. RÉSULTATS: L'âge médian des PVVIH était de 45 ans (IQR (39-51), le groupe d'âge prédominant étant 25-49 ans (65,4%). La majorité étaient des femmes (68,7%), mariées (59,5%), avaient au moins secondaire (82,8%) et employé (81,5%). La durée médiane des TAR était de 102 mois (IQR: 67-138), la majorité sous traitement sans inhibiteur de protéase (77,7%). Au cours des 3 mois précédant le verrouillage , il y a eu une augmentation de la cueillette de médicaments d'environ 25% par rapport au rendez-vous réservé, comparativement à une baisse de 40% lorsque le verrouillage a été décrété. CONCLUSION: La baisse significative de la collecte de médicaments pendant la pandémie de SRAS-CoV-2 fait ressortir la nécessité de prendre des mesures pour assurer un accès continu aux médicaments et aux soins parmi les PVVIH. Mots Clés: SRAS-CoV-2, antirétroviral, COVID-19, ramassage de médicaments, VIH, verrouillage.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-4, 2022 Aug 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926844

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to understand the socioeconomic and physical activity impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) and without HIV (HIV-) in Kampala (Uganda). METHODS: The authors included children aged 10-18 years who filled out questionnaires at baseline (2017-2018, prepandemic) and 2 years later (March 2020-January 2021, pandemic) in an observational cohort study at Joint Clinical Research Centre (Kampala). Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated using a youth compendium from the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research. Descriptive and standard test statistics including Kruskal-Wallis were used. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-eight children from Kampala Uganda were included prepandemic (101 PHIV and 97 HIV-); 131 (71 PHIV and 60 HIV-) had information collected during the pandemic. At baseline, median and interquartile range age was 13 years (11; 15), and 52% were females. During the pandemic, overall weekly physical activity increased by a median of 854 minutes (interquartile range: 270-1890), and energy expenditures increased by 16% in both PHIV and in HIV- (P < .001 for groups overall prepandemic vs pandemic). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found in this Ugandan cohort of children that children engaged in more physical activity. Further research is warranted to understand the long-term effects of the pandemic on children's well-being.

Curr HIV Res ; 2022 Aug 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927917

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic determines the functioning of the healthcare system. The epidemic of HIV infection depends heavily on the effectiveness of the health system and its ability to test and deliver prevention and treatment.This study aims to determine the consequences of this pandemic on the development of HIV infection testing in the Czech Republic. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study analyzed data for two infectious diseases, HIV (2020 and 2015-2019) and COVID-19 (2020), in the Czech Republic. For the statistical comparison of 2020 with the earlier period, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and Poisson regression methods were used. Monthly HIV and COVID-19 indicators for 2020 were analyzed using correlation analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A significant difference was observed only in April (IRR = 0.81; p = 0.046) and July (IRR = 1.27; p = 0.023) between the number of HIV tests performed in each month in 2020 and the control period (average for the same months of the period 2015-2019).Significant differences between the observed periods were further identified for testing reasons. Correlation analysis of the number of tests performed on HIV and COVID-19 after 2020 showed a negative relationship (r = -0.261, p = 0.412). CONCLUSION: The study did not confirm statistically significant differences between the number of HIV tests performed in the pandemic year 2020 compared to the previous period, except for two months. The incidence and number of newly diagnosed cases did not differ statistically significantly from previous years (2015-2019).

PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272608, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921353

PURPOSE: We describe the rationale for and design of an innovative, nested, tripartite prospective observational cohort study examining whether relative estrogen insufficiency-induced inflammation amplifies HIV-induced inflammation to cause end organ damage and worsen age-related co-morbidities affecting the neuro-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (Brain), skeletal (Bone), and cardiovascular (Heart/vessels) organ systems (BBH Study). METHODS: The BBH parent study is the Multicenter AIDS Cohort/Women's Interagency HIV Study Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS) with participants drawn from the Atlanta MWCCS site. BBH will enroll a single cohort of n = 120 women living with HIV and n = 60 HIV-negative women, equally distributed by menopausal status. The innovative multipart nested study design of BBH, which draws on data collected by the parent study, efficiently leverages resources for maximum research impact and requires extensive oversight and management in addition to careful implementation. The presence of strong infrastructure minimized BBH study disruptions due to changes in the parent study and the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: BBH is poised to provide insight into sex and HIV associations with the neuro-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems despite several major, unexpected challenges.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Cohort Studies , Estrogens , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Inflammation/complications , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Prospective Studies
AIDS ; 2022 Aug 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950935

In pregnant women antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein cross the placenta and can be detected in cord-blood at the time of delivery. We measured SARS-CoV-2 full-length anti-spike IgG in blood samples collected from women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and without HIV when presenting for labour, and from paired cord-blood samples.Anti-spike IgG was measured in maternal blood at delivery on the Luminex platform. Cord-blood samples from newborns of women in with detectable anti-spike IgG were analysed. The IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and the percentage of cord-blood samples with detectable anti-spike IgG were compared between WLWHIV and without HIV.A total of 184 maternal and cord-blood pairs were analysed, including 47 WLWHIV and 137 without HIV. There was no difference in anti-spike GMCs between WLWHIV and without HIV (157 binding antibody units [BAU]/mL vs 187 BAU/mL; p = 0.17). Cord-blood samples from newborns of WLWHIV had lower GMCs compared with those without HIV (143 BAU/mL vs. 205 BAU/mL; p = 0.033). Cord-to-maternal blood antibody ratio was 1.0 and similar between the two HIV groups. In WLWHIV, those ≤30 years old had lower cord-to-maternal blood antibody ratio (0.75 vs. 1.10; p = 0.037) and their newborns had lower cord-blood GMCs (94 BAU/mL vs 194 BAU/mL; p = 0.04) compared to the older women. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of maternal HIV infection status there was efficient transplacental transfer of anti-spike antibodies. The GMCs in cord-blood from newborns of WLWHIV were lower than those in HIV-unexposed newborns.

AIDS Behav ; 2022 Aug 08.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939177

The COVID-19 related U.S.-Mexico border-crossing restrictions disrupted social networks and HIV harm reduction services among people who inject drugs (PWID) in San Diego and Tijuana. We assessed associations of descriptive network norms on PWID's HIV vulnerability during this period. Between 10/2020 and 10/2021, 399 PWID completed a behavioral and egocentric questionnaire. We used Latent Profile Analysis to categorize PWID into network norm risk profiles based on proportions of their network (n = 924 drug use alters) who injected drugs and engaged in cross-border drug use (CBDU), among other vulnerabilities. We used logistic and linear regressions to assess network profile associations with individual-level index of HIV vulnerability and harm reduction behaviors. Fit indices specified a 4-latent profile solution of descriptive network risk norms: lower (n = 178), moderate with (n = 34) and without (n = 94) CBDU and obtainment, and higher (n = 93). Participants in higher risk profiles reported more HIV vulnerability behaviors and fewer harm reduction behaviors. PWID's gradient of HIV risk was associated with network norms, warranting intervention on high-vulnerability networks when services are limited.

Community Health Equity Res Policy ; : 272684X221094151, 2022 Aug 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944130

AIM: This study assessed the level of adherence to antiretroviral drugs and the associated factors among clients who have a follow-up at public health facilities in central Ethiopia. METHOD: A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted from August 1-30, 2020 at seven public health institutions. A systematic random sampling method was used to recruit 385 participants. Data was collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics, and binary logistic regression model. The OR with its 95% C.I was employed to present analytic outputs. Statistical significance for the multivariable model was considered at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Of the 371 participants, the majority were females (233, 62.8%), attended health centers (215, 58.0%), and were married (173, 46.6%). Eighty-nine (89, 24.0%) of the participants have at least one comorbidity. About 72 (19.0%) and 50 (13.5%) of the respondents stated that the COVID-19 has posed challenges on their follow-ups and availability of medications respectively. Nearly a half of the people living with HIV and comorbid T2DM or hypertension (29, 48.0%) reported that they had encountered an increase in the price of medications compared to the pre-COVID-19 times. About half of the respondents in the study setting have perfect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) (200, 54.0%). Basic education (aOR = 3.02: 95% CI: 1.57-5.80), marriage (aOR = 2.27: 95% CI: 1.24-4.15), attendance to a health center (aOR = 0.59: 95% CI: 0.36-0.98) and sleep disturbance (aOR = 0.47: 95% CI: 0.26-0.84) showed a statistically significant association with adherence to ART. CONCLUSION: About half of the respondents in the study settings have perfect adherence to their ART medications. As multiple factors interplay in the success rate of adherence to ART, stakeholders should place and strengthen practices, such as active follow-up and tracing of cases, ensuring medication affordability (access and low pricing), and psycho-social support to patients.

Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942149

The world has been suffering from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since late 2019. COVID-19 is caused by a virus called the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in many patients around the world. This has raised the alarm for the importance of understanding the dynamics of coinfection and its impact on the lives of patients. As in other pandemics, mathematical modeling is one of the important tools that can help medical and experimental studies of COVID-19. In this paper, we develop a within-host SARS-CoV-2/HIV coinfection model. The model consists of six ordinary differential equations. It depicts the interactions between uninfected epithelial cells, infected epithelial cells, free SARS-CoV-2 particles, uninfected CD4+ T cells, infected CD4+ T cells, and free HIV particles. We confirm that the solutions of the developed model are biologically acceptable by proving their nonnegativity and boundedness. We compute all possible steady states and derive their positivity conditions. We choose suitable Lyapunov functions to prove the global asymptotic stability of all steady states. We run some numerical simulations to enhance the global stability results. Based on our model, weak CD4+ T cell immune response or low CD4+ T cell counts in SARS-CoV-2/HIV coinfected patient increase the concentrations of infected epithelial cells and SARS-CoV-2 viral load. This causes the coinfected patient to suffer from severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. This result agrees with many studies which showed that HIV patients are at greater risk of suffering from severe COVID-19 when infected. More studies are needed to understand the nature of SARS-CoV-2/HIV coinfection and the role of different immune responses during infection.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 2022 Aug 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930187

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we examine the intersection of the HIV and COVID-19 epidemics with focus on COVID-19-related health outcomes and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 among people living with HIV (PLWH). RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence to date do not suggest a higher incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH compared to the general population, although-once exposed-PLWH are at greater risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. Key risk factors for severe COVID-19 include non-HIV comorbidities known to be associated with severe disease, as well as HIV-specific risk factors such as low CD4 + T-cell count, unsuppressed viral load, and tuberculosis co-infection. The disproportionate impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic among Black, Latinx, and Native American/Alaskan Native PLWH could worsen pre-existing disparities in health outcomes among PLWH. Data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine protection among PLWH needs additional study, although some studies suggest decreased humoral responses among those with low CD4 + T-cell counts, while there is a signal of increased vaccine breakthrough rates among PLWH in two large observational cohorts. Data on post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) among PLWH is also limited. PLWH do not have a higher susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, but once exposed, they are at higher risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. Additional resources will need to be dedicated to the development of interventions to improve health outcomes and address disparities among PLWH impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

AIDS Behav ; 2022 Aug 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930202

Although HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is free in Thailand, many transgender women discontinue taking it after initiation. We determined the loss to follow-up (LTFU) rate of transgender women who initiated PrEP at the Mplus Foundation, Chiang Mai, Thailand, and identified associated risk factors using Cox proportional hazard models. Of 235 participants who initiated PrEP, 59 (55%) out of 108 remaining participants had reactive syphilis. The LTFU rate at 6 months was 38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-48%). Multivariable analysis indicates that LTFU is independently associated with age ≥ 26 years old (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.06-4.14) and reactive syphilis (aHR = 1.98; 95% CI:1.01-3.88). Delayed appointment scheduling by the PrEP providers and the syphilis clinic was associated with transgender women having reactive syphilis, and the lockdown policy during the COVID-19 pandemic might have influenced them to discontinue PrEP and their subsequent LTFU.

J Clim Chang Health ; 6: 100106, 2022 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945919

As we commemorate the 40th anniversary of the discovery of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) while fighting the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, another global crisis - climate change - is threatening the progress achieved so far in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. The climate emergency is anticipated to generate dire health consequences worldwide in the coming decades. While the pathways that link climate change and different disease areas are better understood, the connection between climate change and HIV/AIDS is still yet to be recognized both in research and practice. In this review, we update one of the frameworks on the HIV-climate nexus described in earlier literature. Four major pathways have been identified: extreme weather events; sea level rise; changes in precipitation and temperature; and increased air pollution. These pathways impact the spectrum of HIV/AIDS-related outcomes through changes in social systems, healthcare disruption, and other climate-sensitive diseases, influenced by the social determinants of health. We also reflect on the significance of this updated framework for the Philippines, a country that is both highly vulnerable to the climate crisis and facing a rising HIV/AIDS epidemic. The framework can aid countries like the Philippines in filling gaps in research, policy, and program design to mount climate-adaptive HIV/AIDS responses. The HIV/AIDS and climate justice movements must also join forces in calling for accelerated worldwide decline in greenhouse gas emissions from all sectors to stabilize the global climate - this will benefit not just people affected by HIV/AIDS but everyone.

AIDS Behav ; 2022 Aug 02.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916951

The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated adaptations in how healthcare services are rendered. However, it is unclear how these adaptations have impacted HIV healthcare services across the United States. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impacts of the pandemic on service engagement, treatment adherence, and viral suppression. We identified 26 total studies spanning the beginning of the pandemic (March 11, 2020) up until November 5, 2021. Studies were conducted at the national, state, and city levels and included representation from all four CDC HIV surveillance regions. Studies revealed varying impacts of the pandemic on HIV healthcare retention/engagement, medication adherence, and viral suppression rates, including decreases in HIV healthcare visits, provider cancellations, and inability to get prescription refills. Telehealth was critical to ensuring continued access to care and contributed to improved retention and engagement in some studies. Disparities existed in who had access to the resources needed for telehealth, as well as among populations living with HIV whose care was impacted by the pandemic.

Med Trop Sante Int ; 2(2)2022 Jun 30.
Article Fr | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919254

In Côte d'Ivoire, a country of 28 million inhabitants in West Africa, a survey conducted by the Ministry of the Family in 2018 showed the extent of gender-based violence (GBV) in the Greater Abidjan area (5 million inhabitants), the country's economic capital. The social workers employed for this work were mobilized during the Covid-19 pandemic to raise awareness and help the population fight against SARS-CoV-2. The results collected by these workers during the first period (January 2019 - February 2020) and the second period (March 2020 - April 2021) are the subject of this article.From the first period to the second, the number of rapes increased from 41 to 77, sexual assaults from 4 to 7, physical assaults from 139 to 171, and forced marriages from 4 to 7. In total, the social workers helped 303 victims during the pre-pandemic period and 402 during the pandemic. This evolution varies from municipality to municipality in the Greater Abidjan area, and is not related to the number of inhabitants per municipality and without any link with the frequency of Covid-19 in each municipality. Despite possible biases, this study highlights a major health problem, GBV, and demonstrates the probable negative effects of the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Gender-Based Violence , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cote d'Ivoire/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Cureus ; 14(6): e26428, 2022 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915696

In this study, we present a unique instance of a patient who developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to a triple infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), HIV, and histoplasmosis. We emphasize the proinflammatory dysregulations driving the severity of COVID-19 infection in this setting and highlight the importance of early diagnosis and targeted therapy of underlying conditions as a method to increase the chance of survival.