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1.
Arch Public Health ; 80(1): 29, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-Communicable diseases (NCD) are the main contributors to mortality and burden of disease. There is no infrastructure in Europe that could provide health information (HI) on Public Health monitoring and Health Systems Performance (HSP) for research and evidence-informed decision-making. Moreover, there was no EU and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MSs) general consensus, on developing this initiative and guarantee its sustainability. The aim of this study is to analyze the integration of technical and political views made by the Joint Action on Health Information (InfAct; Information for Action) and the results obtained from those activities, in terms of advice and national and institutional support to develop an integrated and sustainable European Distributed Infrastructure on Population Health (DIPoH) for research and evidence-informed policy-making. METHODS: InfAct established two main boards, the Technical Dialogues (TDs) and the Assembly of Members (AoM), to provide a platform for discussion with EU/EEA MSs to establish a sustainable infrastructure for HI: 1) The TDs were composed by national technical experts (NTE) with the aim to discuss and provide feedback about scientific aspects, feasibility and EU-added value of the infrastructure proposed by InfAct. 2) The AoM gathered country representatives from Ministries of Health and Research at the highest political level, with the aim of providing policy-oriented advice for the future political acceptance, support, implementation, and development of InfAct's outcomes including DIPoH. The documentation provided for the meetings consisted in Fact-Sheets, where the main results, new methods and proposals were clearly exposed for discussion and assessment; altogether with more extended information of the DIPoH. The documentation was provided to national representatives within one more before each TD and AoM meeting. The Agenda and methodological approaches for each TD and AoM meeting consisted in the presentations of the InfAct outcomes extending the information provided in the Fact-Sheets; followed by a non-structured interaction, exchange of information, discussion and suggestions by the MSs representatives. The outcomes of the non-structured discussions were collected in Minutes of the TD and AoM meetings, and the final version was obtained with the consensus of all participants. Additionally, structured letters of political support were provided to the AoM representatives, for them to consider providing their MS written support for DIPoH. RESULTS: NTE, within the TDs, considered that DIPoH was useful for technical mutual learning and cooperation among and within countries; although they considered that the technical feasibility to uptake InfAct deliverables at the national and EU level was complex. The AoM focused on political support, resources, and expected MSs returns. The AoM representatives agreed in the interest of setting up an integrated and sustainable HI infrastructure and they considered DIPoH to be well-articulated and defined; although, some of them, expressed some barriers for providing DIPoH political support. The AoM representatives stated that the AoM is the most suitable way to inform EU MSs/ACs about future advances of DIPoH. Both boards provided valuable feedback to develop this infrastructure. Eleven countries and sixteen institutions supported the proposal, either by letters of political support or by signing the Memorandum of Understandings (MoU) and three countries, additionally, provided expression of financial commitment, for DIPoH to be added to the ESFRI 2021 roadmap. CONCLUSIONS: TDs and AoM were key forums to develop, advise, advocate and provide support for a sustainable European research infrastructure for Population Health.

2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210262, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1346044

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo validar indicadores para o monitoramento da qualidade da assistência pré-natal. Método estudo metodológico, com 11 especialistas da Linha de Cuidado à Saúde Materna e Infantil do Paraná, realizado em 2020. Os indicadores foram organizados em domínios de um modelo lógico e na tríade estrutura, processo e resultado. Analisado Taxa de Concordância, Razão de Validade de Conteúdo, Índice de Validade de Conteúdo e confiabilidade pelo Alfa de Cronbach. Resultados elaboração de 35 indicadores e, após os procedimentos de validação foram readequados quanto a clareza, dois foram excluídos. Apresentaram confiabilidade excelente para clareza e relevância da estrutura (0,94), do processo (0,98) e do resultado (0,94); bem como, em relação aos domínios do modelo lógico de entradas (0,96), atividades (0,86), saídas (0,98), resultados (0,86) e impacto (0,96). Conclusão os indicadores apresentam validade e confiabilidade para da qualidade do pré-natal, sob a ótica do monitoramento e da qualidade em saúde. Implicações para a Prática o constructo apresenta flexibilidade de aplicação para diversas dimensões territoriais como municípios, regionais de saúde e estado.


Resumen Objetivo validar indicadores para el seguimiento de la calidad de la atención prenatal. Método estudio metodológico, con 11 especialistas de la Línea de Atención Materno infantil de Paraná, indicadores organizados en dominios de un modelo lógico y en la organización de la tríada estructura, proceso y resultado, realizado en 2020. Tasa de Concordancia Calculada, Razón de Validez de Contenido, Índice de Validez de Contenido; y confiabilidad por Alfa de Cronbach. Resultados Se elaboraron 35 indicadores, que luego de reajustar los procedimientos de validación para mayor claridad, se excluyeron dos. Mostró una excelente confiabilidad para la claridad y relevancia de la estructura (0.94), el proceso (0.98) y el resultado (0.94); así como en relación con los dominios del modelo lógico de insumos (0,96), actividades (0,86), productos (0,98), resultados (0,86) e impacto (0,96). Conclusión los indicadores son válidos y confiables para evaluar la calidad de la atención prenatal, reflejando el impacto de esta atención en la gestión de la calidad. Implicaciones para la práctica El constructo presenta flexibilidad de aplicación para varias dimensiones territoriales como municipios, salud regional y estadual.


Abstract Objective to validate indicators for monitoring the quality of prenatal care. Method methodological study conducted in 2020 with 11 specialists of the maternal and child health care line of Paraná. The indicators were organized in domains of a logical model and in the triad structure, process, and result. The calculated agreement rate, content validity ratio, content validity index, and Cronbach's alpha reliability were analyzed. Results 35 indicators were elaborated, which after the validation procedures were readjusted for clarity, two were excluded. It showed excellent reliability for clarity and relevance of the structure (0.94), process (0.98), and result (0.94), as well as in relation to the domains of the logical model of inputs (0.96), activities (0.86), outputs (0.98), results (0.86), and impact (0.96). Conclusion the indicators are valid and reliable for evaluating the quality of prenatal care, reflecting the impact of this care on quality management. Implications for Practice The construct presents flexibility of application for several territorial dimensions such as municipalities, regional health, and state.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Quality Indicators, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Maternal-Child Health Services , Quality of Health Care , Health Evaluation , Maternal and Child Health , Clinical Governance , Evidence-Informed Policy
3.
Build Cities ; 2(1): 550-567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853832

ABSTRACT

Sustainable development is best supported by intersectoral policies informed by a range of evidence and knowledge types (e.g. scientific and lay). Given China's rapid urbanisation, scale and global importance in climate mitigation, this study investigates how evidence is perceived and used to inform urban health and sustainability policies at central and local levels. Well-informed senior professionals in government/scientific agencies (12 in Beijing and 11 in Ningbo) were interviewed. A thematic analysis is presented using deductive and inductive coding. Government agency participants described formal remits and processes determining the scope and use of evidence by different tiers of government. Academic evidence was influential when commissioned by government departments. Public opinion and economic priorities were two factors that also influenced the use or weight of evidence in policymaking. This study shows that scientific evidence produced or commissioned by government was routinely used to inform urban health and sustainability policy. Extensive and routine data collection is regularly used to inform cyclical policy processes, which improves adaptive capacity. This study contributes to knowledge on the 'cultures of evidence use'. Environmental governance can be further improved through increased data-sharing and use of diverse knowledge types.

4.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in general and oral health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with dentofacial deformity undergoing orthognathic surgery, and whether these changes vary according to type of deformity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective longitudinal multicenter study of patients with dentofacial deformities (n = 90). The Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), and Short-Form Health Survey version2 (SF-36v2) were self-completed by patients before surgery, 3 and 6 months after orthognathic surgery. Change was tested using paired t-test, and compared between Class II and Class III of dentofacial deformity by unpaired t-test. The magnitude of change was examined estimating the standardized response mean (SRM). RESULTS: The OQLQ and OHIP-14 showed statistically significant improvements 6 months after surgery, compared with the pre-surgical evaluation, but the SF-36v2 only in the physical component summary. The SRM was large in OQLQ oral function (-1.11) and dentofacial facial aesthetics (-0.76) dimensions, and moderate in most of OHIP-14 dimensions. Differences in mean change between Class II and III were statistically significant for global scores of OQLQ (-10.08 vs -20.30, p = 0.0271) and OHIP-14 (-3.79 vs -10.56, p = 0.0144). CONCLUSIONS: A significant improvement was observed in oral HRQoL and in the physical component of general health in patients with dentofacial deformities Class II and III after orthognathic surgery. Improvement was greater among Class III than in Class II patients. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These results provide patients, oral health care professionals, and planners with valuable information to make evidence-based decisions and facilitate shared clinical decision-making, taking into account the patients' perspective.

5.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 140, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of research evidence as an input for health decision-making is a need for most health systems. There are a number of approaches for promoting evidence use at different levels of the health system, but knowledge of their effectiveness is still scarce. The objective of this overview was to evaluate the effectiveness of knowledge communication and dissemination interventions, strategies or approaches targeting policy-makers and health managers. METHODS: This overview of systematic reviews used systematic review methods and was conducted according to a predefined and published protocol. A comprehensive electronic search of 13 databases and a manual search in four websites were conducted. Both published and unpublished reviews in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. A narrative synthesis was undertaken, and effectiveness statements were developed, informed by the evidence identified. RESULTS: We included 27 systematic reviews. Three studies included only a communication strategy, while eight only included dissemination strategies, and the remaining 16 included both. None of the selected reviews provided "sufficient evidence" for any of the strategies, while four provided some evidence for three communication and four dissemination strategies. Regarding communication strategies, the use of tailored and targeted messages seemed to successfully lead to changes in the decision-making practices of the target audience. Regarding dissemination strategies, interventions that aimed at improving only the reach of evidence did not have an impact on its use in decisions, while interventions aimed at enhancing users' ability to use and apply evidence had a positive effect on decision-making processes. Multifaceted dissemination strategies also demonstrated the potential for changing knowledge about evidence but not its implementation in decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions targeting health managers and policy-makers, as well as the mechanisms required for achieving impact. More studies are needed that are informed by theoretical frameworks or specific tools and using robust methods, standardized outcome measures and clear descriptions of the interventions. We found that passive communication increased access to evidence but had no effect on uptake. Some evidence indicated that the use of targeted messages, knowledge-brokering and user training was effective in promoting evidence use by managers and policy-makers.

6.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55342

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To present and assess evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) on public policies and targeted programs which may have influenced variations in adolescent pregnancy or its proximate determinants, and to identify knowledge gaps that require further research. Methods. A systematic review was performed based on the 2015 PRISMA protocol. Five databases were searched for articles published between 2000 and 2019 that refer to at least one country in LAC. The outcomes of interest were adolescent pregnancy or its proximate determinants (sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and/or abortion). Only studies exploring correlations between the outcomes of interest and public policies or targeted programs were included in the analysis. Results. Thirty studies spanning 14 countries were selected for analysis. Twenty-three of these (77%) were not included in prior systematic reviews on adolescent pregnancy. Public policies related to conditional cash transfers and compulsory education have the strongest evidence of correlation with adolescent pregnancy prevention. Emerging research points to the potential positive impact of life-skills programs for adolescents. Evidence from public health policies and programs was limited. Conclusions. Further research which incorporates an intersectional analysis is needed to better understand which policies and programs could lead to steeper declines in adolescent pregnancy in the region. Evidence on effects of expanded family planning services and secondary school attainment upon adolescent pregnancy are particularly absent.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Presentar y evaluar evidencia de América Latina y el Caribe sobre las políticas públicas y los programas específicos que pueden haber influido en las variaciones en el embarazo en adolescentes o los factores determinantes relacionados, e identificar lagunas en el conocimiento que requieren más investigación. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con el protocolo PRISMA del 2015. Se llevaron a cabo búsquedas en cinco bases de datos en busca de artículos publicados entre el 2000 y el 2019 que se refirieran al menos a un país en América Latina y el Caribe. Los resultados de interés fueron embarazos en adolescentes o los factores determinantes relacionados (comportamiento sexual, uso de métodos anticonceptivos o aborto). Solo se incluyeron en el análisis estudios que exploraban las correlaciones entre los resultados de interés y las políticas públicas o programas específicos. Resultados. Se seleccionaron para el análisis 30 estudios que abarcaban catorce países. Veintitrés de estos (77%) no estaban incluidos en revisiones sistemáticas anteriores sobre el embarazo en adolescentes. Las políticas públicas relacionadas con las transferencias monetarias condicionadas y la educación obligatoria arrojan la evidencia más fuerte de su correlación con la prevención de embarazos en la adolescencia. La investigación emergente indica una posible repercusión positiva de los programas para el desarrollo de aptitudes para la vida cotidiana dirigidos a adolescentes. La evidencia de las políticas de salud pública y los programas era limitada. Conclusiones. Es necesario realizar investigaciones adicionales que incorporen un análisis interseccional para comprender mejor qué políticas y programas podrían conducir a un descenso más pronunciado del embarazo de adolescentes en la Región. La evidencia sobre los efectos de la ampliación de los servicios de planificación familiar y el nivel de estudios secundarios tras los embarazos en adolescentes es especialmente escasa.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Apresentar e avaliar evidências da América Latina e do Caribe (ALC) sobre políticas públicas e programas direcionados que podem ter influenciado as variações na gravidez na adolescência ou em seus determinantes imediatos e identificar lacunas de conhecimento que requerem mais pesquisas. Métodos. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática com base no protocolo PRISMA de 2015. Buscas foram feitas em cinco bases de dados de artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2019 que se referem a pelo menos um país da ALC. Os resultados de interesse foram a gravidez na adolescência ou seus determinantes imediatos (comportamento sexual, uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e/ou aborto). Somente os estudos que analisavam as correlações entre os resultados de interesse e políticas públicas ou programas direcionados foram incluídos nesta análise. Resultados. Trinta estudos englobando 14 países foram selecionados para a análise. Vinte e três deles (77%) não foram incluídos em revisões sistemáticas prévias sobre gravidez na adolescência. As políticas públicas relacionadas a transferências monetárias condicionais e à educação obrigatória têm as evidências mais sólidas de correlação com a prevenção de gravidez na adolescência. Pesquisas recentes apontam para o potencial impacto positivo de programas de habilidades para a vida para adolescentes. As evidências de políticas e programas de saúde pública foram limitadas. Conclusões. São necessárias mais pesquisas que incorporem uma análise cruzada para entender melhor quais políticas e programas levariam a uma maior diminuição da gravidez na adolescência na região. Particularmente, faltam evidências sobre os efeitos dos serviços ampliados de planejamento familiar e da conclusão do ensino médio na gravidez na adolescência.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy in Adolescence , Public Policy , Sexual and Reproductive Health , Evidence-Informed Policy , Americas , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Public Policy , Sexual and Reproductive Health , Evidence-Informed Policy , Americas , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Sexual and Reproductive Health , Evidence-Informed Policy , Americas
7.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 153, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, policy-makers face challenges to using evidence in health decision-making, particularly lack of interaction between research and policy. Knowledge-brokering mechanisms can fill research-policy gaps and facilitate evidence-informed policy-making. In Myanmar, the need to promote evidence-informed policy is significant, and thus a mechanism was set up for this purpose. This paper discusses lessons learned from the development of the Knowledge Broker Group-Myanmar (KBG-M), supported by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Applied Mental Health Research Group (JHU) and Community Partners International (CPI). METHODS: Sixteen stakeholders were interviewed to explore challenges in formulating evidence-informed policy. Two workshops were held: the first to further understand the needs of policy-makers and discuss knowledge-brokering approaches, and the second to co-create the KBG-M structure and process. The KBG-M was then envisioned as an independent body, with former officials of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MoHS) and representatives from the nongovernmental sector actively engaging in the health sector, with an official collaboration with the MoHS. RESULTS: A development task force that served as an advisory committee was established. Then, steps were taken to establish the KBG-M and obtain official recognition from the MoHS. Finally, when the technical agreement with the MoHS was nearly complete, the process stopped because of the military coup on 1 February 2021, and is now on hold indefinitely. CONCLUSIONS: Learning from this process may be helpful for future or current knowledge-brokering efforts, particularly in fragile, conflict-affected settings. Experienced and committed advisory committee members enhanced stakeholder relationships. Responsive coordination mechanisms allowed for adjustments to a changing bureaucratic landscape. Coordination with similar initiatives avoided overlap and identified areas needing technical support. Recommendations to continue the work of the KBG-M itself or similar platforms include the following: increase resilience to contextual changes by ensuring diverse partnerships, maintain advisory committee members experienced and influential in the policy-making process, ensure strong organizational and funding support for effective functioning and sustainability, have budget and timeline flexibility to allow sufficient time and resources for establishment, organize ongoing needs assessments to identify areas needing technical support and to develop responsive corrective approaches, and conduct information sharing and collaboration between stakeholders to ensure alignment.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Policy Making , Administrative Personnel , Humans , Myanmar , Public Health
8.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9475

ABSTRACT

Nos dias 29 e 30 de setembro de 2021, foi realizado o seminário virtual “Guias Alimentares baseados no nível de processamento dos alimentos: evidências científicas e implementação”, uma iniciativa da Coordenação Geral de Alimentação e Nutrição (CGAN) do Ministério da Saúde em parceria com a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/ Organização Mundial da Saúde (OPAS/OMS). O objetivo do seminário virtual foi disseminar evidências científicas recentes sobre o impacto do nível de processamento dos alimentos na saúde, na obesidade e outras doenças crônicas, bem como discutir estratégias de implementação e disseminação de Guias Alimentares baseados no nível de processamento dos alimentos nas Américas. O seminário faz parte das atividades da Rede de Ação sobre Guias Alimentares baseados no nível de processamento dos alimentos nas Américas, liderada pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, desde 2018, com o apoio da OPAS/OMS e da Organização das Nações Unidas para Agricultura e Alimentação (FAO). Em 2017, o Brasil foi o primeiro país a assumir compromissos para enfrentar todas as formas de desnutrição, considerando o papel dos sistemas alimentares, no âmbito da Década de Ação pela Nutrição das Nações Unidas (2016-2015).


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Food Guide , Industrialized Foods , Evidence-Informed Policy , Food Security , Child Nutrition , Feeding Behavior
9.
Open educational resource in Portuguese | CVSP - Regional | ID: oer-3982

ABSTRACT

Encontro da Rede de Referencistas Serviços e Produtos - BVS


Subject(s)
GRADE Approach , Evidence-Informed Policy , Translational Medical Research
10.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48546

ABSTRACT

Essa plataforma é produto do Programa de Cátedras Brasil - Inovação da ENAP e fruto de uma parceria entre GNova e Instituto Veredas. O Mapa de Evidências para boas práticas e intervenções em sistemas prisionais é resultado das Bolsas de Inovação promovidas pelo GNova e pela Enap, que fomentam o desenvolvimento de pesquisas e de protótipos para promover inovação na gestão e implementação de políticas públicas.


Subject(s)
Evidence-Informed Policy , Prison Sanitation , Prisons
11.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9386

ABSTRACT

Vídeo explicando a processo de construção do projeto Espie na Bahia.


Subject(s)
, Telemedicine , Health Human Resource Training , Evidence-Informed Policy
12.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9387

ABSTRACT

A Coalizão Brasileira pelas Evidências é uma rede que está em construção, contando com mais de 40 instituições que trabalham com o tema de intervenções sociais informadas por evidências. A rede visa unir organizações que atuam nessa área em uma comunidade de compartilhamento de saberes, práticas, apoio e oportunidades. A Coalizão tem financiamento-semente da Partnership for Evidence and Equity in Responsive Social Systems (PEERSS), rede internacional que facilita o uso de evidências por formuladores de políticas e atores-chave para esclarecer problemas e causas prioritárias de desenvolvimento, definir opções para abordá-los e identificar considerações de implementação na África, América Latina e Caribe e Ásia, contando também com parceiros no Canadá, Líbano e Reino Unido.


Subject(s)
Health Human Resource Training , Evidence-Informed Policy , Intersectoral Collaboration
13.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9389

ABSTRACT

Eliane Maria Medeiros Leal fala sobre uso de Evidências em Saúde na gestão de saúde municipal.


Subject(s)
Evidence-Informed Policy , , Local Health Systems/organization & administration
14.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9391

ABSTRACT

Relato da Coordenadora Adjunta Lis Cardoso Marinho, Núcleo de estudos pesquisa e extensão em educação permanente para o SUS, sobre como a rede EVIPNET ajudou a diminuir a mortalidade materna em seu estado.


Subject(s)
Evidence-Informed Policy , , Local Health Systems , Maternal Death/prevention & control
15.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9395

ABSTRACT

Relato de Péricles Lopes Dourado, Biomédico, e Luciana Vieira, subsecretária de Saúde do Estado de Goiás, sobre uso de Evidências em Saúde na Secretária de Saúde do Estado de Goiás.


Subject(s)
Evidence-Informed Policy , Health Manager , Intersectoral Collaboration
16.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9399

ABSTRACT

Priscilla Souza, CGPClin, sobre uso de Evidências em Saúde sobre o uso de Trombectomia em casos de AVC.


Subject(s)
Thrombectomy/standards , Stroke/therapy , Evidence-Informed Policy
17.
Environ Manage ; 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800133

ABSTRACT

Natural resources management (NRM) is complex and relies on decisions supported by evidence, including Western-based science (WBS) and Indigenous and local knowledge. However, it has been shown that there is a disconnect between WBS and its application, whereby managers often draw on non-empirical sources of information (i.e., intuition or advice from colleagues). This article focuses on the role of WBS in decisions made in management of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the province of British Columbia, Canada. We conducted open-ended interviews with NRM branches of Indigenous and parliamentary governments, as well as with nongovernmental stakeholder groups, to examine (a) sources of WBS consulted in decision-making and (b) barriers to accessing WBS by managers. We found that respondents involved with NRM relied on a diverse set of sources for WBS, seldom relying exclusively on one source. However, respondents relied more on internal sources (government databases) compared to external ones (peer-reviewed journal articles). We also found that respondents described WBS as valuable and generally accessible, yet barriers were identified with respect to the interface and organization of government grey data and literature, paywalls associated with peer-reviewed journals and articles, and institutional capacity, time, and support. We recommend strategies and tools to facilitate accessibility of WBS in support of bridging the knowledge-action divide, including increased publishing of open access data/articles, systematic reviews, use of knowledge brokers, specialized WBS training, and knowledge co-production. It is our hope that identification of barriers and the implementation of improved access to WBS will result in more effective NRM by giving managers access to the tools and knowledge they need for evidence-based decision-making.

18.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(12): 3759-3781, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss consisting of a characteristic receding frontal hairline in men and diffuse hair thinning in women, with frontal hairline retention, and can impact an individual's quality of life. The condition is primarily mediated by 5-alpha-reductase and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which causes hair follicles to undergo miniaturization and shortening of successive anagen cycles. Although a variety of medical, surgical, light-based and nutraceutical treatment options are available to slow or reverse the progression of AGA, it can be challenging to select appropriate therapies for this chronic condition. AIMS: To highlight treatment options for androgenetic alopecia taking into consideration the efficacy, side effect profiles, practicality of treatment (compliance), and costs to help clinicians offer ethically appropriate treatment regimens to their patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted using electronic databases (Medline, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, EBSCO) and textbooks, in addition to the authors' and other practitioners' clinical experiences in treating androgenetic alopecia, and the findings are presented here. RESULTS: Although topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and low-level light therapy are the only FDA-approved therapies to treat AGA, they are just a fraction of the treatment options available, including other oral and topical modalities, hormonal therapies, nutraceuticals, PRP and exosome treatments, and hair transplantation. DISCUSSION: Androgenetic alopecia therapy remains challenging as treatment selection involves ethical, evidence-based decision-making and consideration of each individual patient's needs, compliance, budget, extent of hair loss, and aesthetic goals, independent of potential financial benefits to the practitioners.

19.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 136, 2021 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ability to successfully transfer knowledge across international boundaries to improve health across the European Region is dependent on an in-depth understanding of the many factors involved in policy creation. Across countries we can observe various approaches to evidence usage in the policy-making process. This study, which was a part of the Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA) project assessing patterns of children's primary care in Europe, focused on how and what kind of evidence is used in child health policy-making processes in European countries and how it is applied to inform policy and practice. METHOD: In this study, a qualitative approach was used. The data were analysed in accordance with the thematic analysis protocol. The MOCHA project methodology relies on experienced country agents (CA) recruited for the project and paid to deliver child health data in each of 30 European countries. CAs are national experts in the child health field who defined the country-specific structured information and data. A questionnaire designed as a semi-structured survey instrument asked CAs to indicate the sources of evidence used in the policy-making process and what needed to be in place to support evidence uptake in policy and practice. RESULTS: In our data we observed two approaches to evidence usage in child health policy formulation. The scientific approach in our understanding refers to the so-called bottom-up initiatives of academia which identify and respond to the population's needs. Institutional approaches can be informed by scientific resources as well; however, the driving forces here are governmental institutions, whose decisions and choices are based not only on the population needs but also on political, economic and organizational factors. The evidence used in Europe can also be of an external or internal nature. Various factors can affect the use of evidence in child health policy-making. Facilitators are correlated with strong scientific culture development, whereas barriers are defined by a poor tradition of implementing changes based on reliable evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Focusing on the facilitators and actively working to reduce the barriers can perceivably lead to faster and more robust policy-making, including the development of a culture of scientific grounding in policy creation.


Subject(s)
Child Health , Policy Making , Child , Europe , Health Policy , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769533

ABSTRACT

The use of research in public health policymaking is one of the prerequisites for successfully implemented health policies which have better population health as an outcome. This policy process is influenced by the actors involved under the policy umbrella, with inter-related contextual factors and specific structural and institutional circumstances. Our study investigates how policymakers' research capacities influence the use of research in the health policy process and identify areas where capacity-building interventions give the most meaning and impact. Furthermore, we investigate policymakers' research engagement and use this to inform public health policy in the public sector in Denmark. We collect and report data using Seeking, Engaging with, and Evaluation Research (SEER) methodology. Policymakers are reported to have research capacity, but it is questionable how those competences have actually been used in policymaking. Decision-makers were often not aware or did not know about the existing organizational tools and systems for research engagement and use and two third of respondents had not been part of any research activities or had any collaboration with researchers. Overall, research use in public health policymaking and evaluation was limited. As a conclusion, we propose that capacity-building interventions for increasing research use and collaboration in EIPM should be context-oriented, measurable, and sustainable in developing individual and organizational competences.


Subject(s)
Policy Making , Public Health , Capacity Building , Health Policy , Humans , Research Personnel
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