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1.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2021 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2017, 785 million people globally lacked access to basic services of drinking water and 2 billion people lived without basic sanitation services. Most of these people live in low- and lower-middle-income countries in South Asia, South-East Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. To monitor the progress towards universal access to water and sanitation, this study aimed to predict the coverage of access to basic drinking water supply and sanitation (WSS) services as well as the reduction in the practice of open defecation by 2030, under two assumptions: following the current trends and accelerated poverty reduction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Households reporting access to basic WSS services and those practicing open defecation were extracted from 210 nationally representative Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Cluster Indicator Surveys (1994-2016) from 51 countries. A Bayesian hierarchical mixed effect linear regression model was developed to predict the indicators in 2030 at national, urban-rural, and wealth specific levels. A Bayesian regression model with accelerated reduction in poverty by 2030 was applied to assess the impact of poverty reduction on these indicators. Out of 51 countries, only nine (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Ghana, India, Nepal, Pakistan, The Philippines, Togo, and Vietnam) were predicted to reach over 90% coverage in access to basic services of drinking water by 2030. However, none of the countries were projected to achieve equivalent coverage for access to basic sanitation services. By 2030, 21 countries were projected to achieve the target of less than 10% households practicing open defecation. Urban-rural and wealth derived disparities in access to basic WSS services, especially sanitation, were more pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa than South Asia and South-East Asia. Access to basic sanitation services was projected to benefit more from poverty reduction than access to basic drinking water services. Households residing in rural settings were predicted to receive greater benefit from poverty reduction than urban populations in access to both basic WSS services. CONCLUSION: Achieving poverty eradication targets may have a substantial positive impact on access to basic water supply and sanitation services. However, many low- and lower-middle-income countries will struggle to achieve the goal of universal access to basic services, especially in the sanitation sector.

2.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804377

ABSTRACT

Since 2005, over 30 epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between nitrate in drinking water and adverse health outcomes. Conditions that lead to nitrate pollution in water, such as open defecation, the proximity of septic tanks to water sources, and the use of inorganic fertilizer, are rampant in Indonesia, which has experienced little research evaluating nitrate in drinking water. We conducted a health risk assessment for exposure to nitrate in drinking water and evaluated the nitrate concentration in key water sources in two villages of rural Central Java, Indonesia. The nitrate concentrations in the drinking water ranged from 3.55 mg/L to 26.75 mg/L as NO3-. Daily nitrate intake estimates, calculated at 50% and 95% exposure to the maximum nitrate concentration of the drinking water in both villages, were above the levels associated with birth defects, colorectal cancer, and thyroid conditions observed in other studies. There was a large variation in nitrate concentrations between and within the villages at different water sources. Further research into whether these health outcomes exist in rural Central Java, Indonesia will be required to better understand this risk.

3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740192

ABSTRACT

While the state of sanitation in Pakistan has improved in the last decade, a significant proportion of its population is still using inadequate sanitation or no toilet facility at all. Open defecation has decreased over the years; however, it has been replaced by poor quality sanitation in rural areas that might still cause diarrhoea and undernutrition. The research regarding inadequate sanitation in Pakistan, especially in terms of the sanitation ladder, remains limited. The present research thus fills this research gap by assessing the impact of different types of sanitation on the prevalence of stunting and underweight (moderate as well as severe) among under-five children in Pakistan using the nationally representative micro survey, Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (2017-18). The sanitation ladder comprises of piped to sewer (highest level, base) followed by flush to septic tank, flush to pit latrine, other improved, unimproved sanitation, and open defecation. In order to estimate the adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios of the determinants, this research uses logistic regressions are used to estimate adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios of the determinants. We show that toilets connected to piped sewerage network are rare in the rural areas of Pakistan and a large segment of the rural population is still practicing open defecation. The logistic regressions show that piped sewerage network and flush to septic tanks are associated with lowest odds (both adjusted and unadjusted) of stunting and underweight among under-five children. In multivariate regressions, pit latrines are associated with even higher adjusted odds of severe and moderate and severe stunting as well as underweight among under-five children, showing that poor quality pit latrines may bring the source of faecal contamination to the doorstep of the households. Therefore, interventions targeting reduction in open defecation should promote good quality toilets for sustainable long-term improvements in child health.

4.
Indian J Public Health ; 65(Supplement): S14-S17, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753586

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) accounts for 12 million cases and 1216 deaths annually in India. On July 13, 2016, an ADD outbreak was reported from Sawargaon village from Nagpur district, Maharashtra. Objective: The outbreak was investigated to describe the epidemiology and suggest control and preventive measures. Methods: A case was defined as a person experiencing at least one loose stool in Sawargaon village between July 9, 2016, and July 31, 2016. We searched for cases by enhanced passive surveillance. We collected stool samples for bacterial culture and tested water from multiple water sources for fecal coliforms. We also reviewed sanitary practices and rainfall data. Results: A total of 889 cases were identified, with 51% female, 280 hospitalizations (31%), and two deaths. The median age was 27 years (range 6 months to 90 years). Cases started on July 9, a week after heavy rains. District authorities started chlorination of water sources on July 13 and cases declined soon after. Two of nine stool samples tested positive for Vibrio cholera O1 serogroup. Of the 18 water samples collected, 16 (88%) samples from multiple sources, including wells, hand pumps, and taps, were positive for fecal coliforms. Of 1,885 households in the village, 450 (24%) households had no toilets and open defecation was commonly observed in the nearby river bed. Conclusions: This ADD outbreak was likely associated with drinking contaminated groundwater, which probably occurred after heavy rainfall in an area of open defecation. We recommended providing chlorinated drinking water, promoting safe sanitation practices, including building more public and private toilets, and enhancing diagnostic laboratory capacity.

5.
Indian J Public Health ; 65(Supplement): S46-S50, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753592

ABSTRACT

Background: Mandla District in Madhya Pradesh, India, reported a suspected cholera outbreak from Ghughri subdistrict on August 18, 2016. Objective: We investigated to determine risk factors and recommend control and prevention measures. Methods: We defined a case as >3 loose stools in 24 h in a Ghughri resident between July 20 and August 19, 2016. We identified cases by passive surveillance in health facilities and by a house-to-house survey in 28 highly affected villages. We conducted a 1:2 unmatched case-control study, collected stool samples for culture, and tested water sources for fecal contamination. Results: We identified 628 cases (61% female) from 96 villages; the median age was 27 years (range: 1 month-76 years). Illnesses began 7 days after rainfall with 259 (41%) hospitalizations and 14 (2%) deaths in people from remote villages who died before reaching a health facility; 12 (86%) worked in paddy fields. Illness was associated with drinking well water within paddy fields (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-8.0) and not washing hands with soap after defecation (OR = 6.1, CI = 1.7-21). Of 34 stool cultures, 11 (34%) tested positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. We observed open defecation in affected villages around paddy fields. Of 16 tested water sources in paddy fields, eight (50%) were protected, but 100% had fecal contamination. Conclusion: We recommended education regarding pit latrine sanitation and safe water, especially in paddy fields, provision of oral rehydration solution in remote villages, and chlorine tablets for point-of-use treatment of drinking water.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245463, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem that affects the health of primary school children in low- and middle-income countries where water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions are deficient. Since there is a paucity of information on the prevalence and associated factors of this problem among primary school children in Dessie City in Ethiopia, this study was designed to address these gaps. METHODS: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 407 stratified-sampled primary school children in five primary schools at Dessie City from April to June 2018. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire, an observation checklist and laboratory analysis of stool samples. Stool specimen from each study participant was collected using clean, properly labeled and leak-proof stool cup. A portion of stool from each study participant collected sample was processed using saline wet mount technique and examined by microscope. The remaining specimens were preserved with 10% formalin and transported to Dessie Comprehensive Specialized Hospital laboratory to be processed by using formol-ether concentration technique. Then, slide smears were prepared from each processed stool specimen and finally, it was microscopically examined with 10x as well as 40x objectives for the presence or absence of intestinal parasites. Factors significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis were determined using binary logistic regression model at 95% CI (confidence interval). Thus, bivariate (COR [crude odds ratio]) and multivariable (AOR [adjusted odds ratio]) logistic regression analyses were carried out. From the multivariable analysis, variables having a p-value of less than 0.05 were declared as factors significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis among primary school children. MAIN FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 16.0% (95% CI: 12.5-19.4%), of these, 50.8% were positive for protozoa, 32.2% for helminth infections and 16.9% for double co-infections. Entamoeba histolytica was the most prevalent parasite (29.2%), followed by Giardia lamblia (21.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%), Hymenolepis nana (9.2%) and Enterobius vermicularis (4.6%). Prevalence rates were similar among government (16.3%) and private (15.7%) school children. Water consumption was less than 5 liters per capita per day in 4 of the 5 schools. Thirty-eight (9.3%) of primary school students reported that they practiced open defecation. About two-thirds (285, 70.0%) said they always washed their hands after defecation. Mother's education (illiterate) (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.20-9.37), father's education (illiterate) (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.40-10.82), fathers who could read and write (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.25-7.86), handwashing before meal (sometimes) (AOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.11-4.17) and poor knowledge of WASH (AOR = 9.3; 95% CI: 2.17-16.70) were statistically associated with presence of intestinal parasitic infections. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in the study area among Grades 4-8 primary school children had public health significance. Factors significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis among primary school children's were illiterate mothers and fathers, irregular handwashing of children before meals, and poor knowledge of WASH. Health education to improve students' WASH knowledge and mass deworming for parasites are recommended as preventive measures; and improvements to the quality of WASH facilities in primary schools are strongly recommended to support these measures.

7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 14, 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the ubiquity of polyparasitism, its health impacts have been inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of polyparasitism with Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) following sustained control measures, as well as evaluate the outcomes and clinical correlates of infection in school-aged children (SAC) living in the schistosomiasis endemic focus of Muyuka-Cameroon. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, urine, blood and stool samples were each collected from SAC (4-14 years) selected at random between March and June 2015. Microhaematuria in urine was detected using reagent strip and S. haematobium ova by filtration/microscopy methods. Plasmodium was detected using Giemsa-stained blood films and complete blood count was obtained using an auto-haematology analyser. STH in stool was detected by the Kato-Katz method. Categorical and continuous variables were compared as required, Kappa value estimated and the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) in the multivariate analysis was used to evaluate association of the risk factors with infection. RESULTS: Out of the 638 SAC examined, single infection was prevalent in 33.4% while polyparasitism was 19.9%. Prevalence of S. haematobium + Plasmodium was 7.8%; S. haematobium + STH was 0.8%; Plasmodium + STH was 0.8%; while S. haematobium + Plasmodium + STH was 0.9%. Higher preponderance of S. haematobium + Plasmodium infection occurred in females, those from Likoko, did not use potable water, practiced bathing in stream and carried out open defecation than their equivalents. However, being female (aOR = 2.38, P = 0.009) was the only significant risk factor identified. Anaemia was a common morbidity (74.3%) with a slight agreement with microscopy in predicting S. haematobium and Plasmodium infections. The sensitivity and specificity of haematuria (13.0%) in predicting S. haematobium infection was 46.5% and 100% with a moderate agreement with microscopy. Co-infection with S. haematobium and malaria parasite was significantly associated with threefold odds of history of fever in the last three days. CONCLUSIONS: Polyparasitism is a public health problem in Muyuka with females most at risk. Anaemia prevalence is exacerbated in co- and triple-infections and together with a history of fever are of value in predicting polyparasitism.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247417, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630884

ABSTRACT

The paper assessed access to WASH service in the Jariban district of Somalia. One hundred and sixty-seven households were sampled to administer a questionnaire. Central tendency and logistical regression were used to analyse the data in SPSS 26. The findings show that access to safe drinking water sources is 57.5%. Of the 42.5% of respondents who did not access safe drinking water source, only 10.8% confirmed that they treat drinking water at the point of use. The main reason for household water treatment was the positive mindset (.272) of the household head towards water treatment. The majority (80.2%) of the respondents access approximately 13 litres per person per day. Woman-headed households were more likely to treat water before drinking than male-headed households. Only 26.9% of the respondents accessed basic sanitation. Of the respondents, 55.7% did not share latrines, while 44.3% share resulting in open defecation. WASH access in the study area remains low, resulting in health-related risks, including diarrhoeal disease. The limitation is that the paper only focused on access to WASH facilities in fragile contexts. A cross-sectional analysis of biological, physical and chemical properties of water at the source and point of use is recommended for further research.

9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556039

ABSTRACT

Access to improved sanitation and hygiene may improve child nutritional status by reducing exposure to enteric pathogens. We evaluated this relationship as part of the Community Health with Azithromycin Trial, a community-randomized trial of azithromycin versus placebo for the prevention of child mortality in rural Burkina Faso. Before the baseline study visit, a door-to-door household survey was conducted for all households in the study area. During the baseline study census, which occurred approximately 9 months after the household survey, a mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurement was obtained from each child. We evaluated the relationship between household improved latrine use compared with unimproved latrines or open defecation and MUAC in children aged 6-59 months. Among 32,172 children with household survey data and MUAC measurements, 931 (2.9%) had an MUAC less than 12.5 cm and were classified as having moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). The odds of MAM were higher in children living in households with an unimproved latrine than those with an improved latrine (adjusted odds ratio: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.31). Children in households with unimproved latrines and households that practiced open defection had approximate 0.15 cm reduced MUAC compared with those in households with an improved latrine. There was a small, but statistically significant, association between improved latrine and nutritional status in preschool children as measured by MUAC.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(6): 4064-4076, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635639

ABSTRACT

Improving the effectiveness of rural sanitation interventions is critical for meeting the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals and improving public health. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is the most widely used rural sanitation intervention globally; however, evidence shows that CLTS does not work equally well everywhere. Contextual factors outside the control of implementers may partially determine CLTS outcomes, although the extent of these influences is poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the extent to which 18 contextual factors from readily available datasets can help predict the achievement and sustainability of open-defecation-free (ODF) status in Cambodia, Ghana, Liberia, and Zambia. Using multilevel logistic regressions, we found that the predictors of CLTS performance varied between countries, with the exception of small community size. Accessibility and literacy levels were correlated with CLTS outcomes, but the direction of correlation differed between countries. To translate findings into practical guidance for CLTS implementers, we used classification and regression trees to identify a "split point" for each contextual factor significantly associated with ODF achievement. We also identified the combinations of factors conducive to a minimum of 50% ODF achievement. This study demonstrates that publicly available, high-resolution datasets on accessibility, socioeconomic, and environmental factors can be leveraged to target CLTS activities to the most favorable contexts.

11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 26, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 1000 children die each year due to preventable water and sanitation-related diarrheal diseases. Six in 10 people lacked access to safely managed sanitation facilities in 2015. Numerous community- and school-based approaches have been implemented to eradicate open defecation practices, promote latrine ownership, improve situation sanitation, and reduce waterborne disease. OBJECTIVE: Given that current evidence for sanitation interventions seem promising, the aim of this study was to systematically summarize existing research on the effectiveness of community- and school-based randomized controlled sanitation intervention in improving (1) free open defecation (safe feces disposal), (2) latrine usage, (3) latrine coverage or access, and (4) improved latrine coverage or access. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, WHO Global Health Library (GHL), Virtual Health Library (VHL), POPLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Google Scholar up to 26 April 2019. Original randomized clinical trials addressing community-based or school-based intervention that reported feces disposal and latrine coverage were deemed eligible. More than two researchers independently contributed to screening of papers, data extraction, and bias assessment. We conducted a meta-analysis by random-effects model. The risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Eighteen papers that matched all criteria and 16 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Compared to the control, the sanitation intervention significantly increased safe feces disposal (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.51-3.19, p < 0.05, I2 = 97.28), latrine usage (OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11, p < 0.05, I2 = 91.52), latrine coverage or access (OR 3.95, 95% CI 2.08-7.50, p < 0.05, I2 = 99.07), and improved latrine coverage or access (OR 3.68, 95% CI 1.52-8.91, p < 0.05, I2 = 99.11). A combination of education and latrine construction was more effective compared to educational intervention alone. CONCLUSION: Our study showed strong evidence for both community- and school-based sanitation interventions as effective for the safe disposal of human excreta. The finding suggests major implications for health policy and design of future intervention in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Sanitation/instrumentation , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Toilet Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e19349, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Water access, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) remain a public health concern in Indonesia. Proper WASH practices can decrease risk of stunting, wasting, and disease in children under the age of 2. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is to examine if using technology to access health information and services among Indonesian women affects knowledge and behaviors regarding handwashing and defecation practices. METHODS: Our study is an interview-based cross-sectional survey. Participants included 1734 mothers of children under 2 years of age. These women were randomly selected and interviewed as part of a 3-stage cluster sampling technique. Our study uses data regarding WASH knowledge which includes benefits of handwashing with soap, 5 critical times of handwashing, risks of open defecation, media of disease transmission, defecation locations, and risks of open defecation. Data regarding WASH behaviors were also included: handwashing with soap, type of latrine used at home, and where defecation took place. This investigation used adjusted and unadjusted logistic and linear regression models to determine differences in WASH outcomes between those who use technology to access health information and services and those who did not. RESULTS: One result is that Indonesian women with children under 2 years of age who use technology to access health information and services are more likely to know the advantages of proper handwashing (odds ratio [OR] 2.603, 95% CI 1.666-4.067) and know the 5 critical times of handwashing (OR 1.217, 95% CI 0.969-1.528). Women who use technology to access health information are also more likely to know the risks of open defecation (OR 1.627, 95% CI 1.170-2.264) and use a type of toilet (such as a gooseneck or squat toilet) that limits risk (OR 3.858, 95% CI 2.628-5.665) compared to women who did not use technology to access health information. CONCLUSIONS: Using technology to access health information and services was associated with an increase in handwashing and defecation knowledge. In the future, promoting mothers of children under 2 years of age to access health information through technology might be used to increase handwashing and defecation knowledge as well as safe defecation practices. However, further research should be done to determine how technology may increase the frequency of recommended handwashing behaviors.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 112, 2021 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still among the major public health issues in developing countries. Assessing the prevalence of IPIs and potential risk factors in different localities is essential to enhance control strategies. To date, no prevalence assessment study was conducted in Debre Berhan town. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of IPIs and associated habit and culture-related risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Debre Berhan town, Northeast Ethiopia. METHOD: School based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2017. A total of 645 children aged 6-15 years were selected from six primary schools in Debre Berhan town via a multistage random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data about sociodemographic and potential risk factor variables. Fresh stool samples were collected from each child and examined using direct smear and formal-ether concentration technique. RESULT: Among the 645 children participated in the study, 341 (52.9%) were infected by one or more intestinal parasites. Helminths (33.8%) were more prevalent than protozoa (20%). Double parasitic infection rate was 0.9%. The predominant parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (22.6%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (18.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (5.7%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age of child (6-9 years), family size (above 5), mother's illiteracy and primary education, father's illiteracy, urban-farmer father, manual-worker father, not washing hands before eating, unclean fingers, open defecation site (ODS) near residence, latrine type, cultural response to dropped food (cleaning and eating; 'kiss and replace'), habit of playing with waste water, habit of playing with soil, habit of sucking fingers and habit of eating when playing were significantly associated with IPIs (p< 0.05). Likewise, age (6-9 years), mother's illiteracy, urban-farmer father, not washing hands before eating, ODS near residence, tradition of cleaning and eating dropped food, habit of playing with soil, sucking fingers and eating when playing were identified as significant risk factors of A. lumbricoides infection. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of IPIs among the study participants demands improvement of environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, and health education regarding the potential habit and culture-related risk factors.

14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498840

ABSTRACT

Open defecation (OD) is still a significant public health challenge worldwide. In Timor-Leste, where an estimated 20% of the population practiced OD in 2017, increasing access and use of improved sanitation facilities is a government priority. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) has become a popular strategy to end OD since its inception in 2000, but evidence on the uptake of CLTS and related interventions and the long-term sustainability of OD-free (ODF) communities is limited. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach, encompassing quantitative monitoring and evaluation data from water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) agencies, and semi-structured interviews with staff working for these organizations and the government Department of Environmental Health, to examine sanitation interventions in Timor-Leste. Recommendations from WASH practitioners on how sanitation strategies can be optimized to ensure ODF sustainability are presented. Whilst uptake of interventions is generally good in Timor-Leste, lack of consistent monitoring and evaluation following intervention delivery may contribute to the observed slippage back to OD practices. Stakeholder views suggest that long-term support and monitoring after ODF certification are needed to sustain ODF communities.

15.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 52, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With visceral leishmaniasis (VL) incidence at its lowest level since the 1960s, increasing attention has turned to early detection and investigation of outbreaks. METHODS: Outbreak investigations were triggered by recognition of case clusters in the VL surveillance system established for the elimination program. Investigations included ascertainment of all VL cases by date of fever onset, household mapping and structured collection of risk factor data. RESULTS: VL outbreaks were investigated in 13 villages in 10 blocks of 7 districts. Data were collected for 20,670 individuals, of whom 272 were diagnosed with VL between 2012 and 2019. Risk was significantly higher among 10-19 year-olds and adults 35 or older compared to children younger than 10 years. Outbreak confirmation triggered vector control activities and heightened surveillance. VL cases strongly clustered in tolas (hamlets within villages) in which > 66% of residents self-identified as scheduled caste or scheduled tribe (SC/ST); 79.8% of VL cases occurred in SC/ST tolas whereas only 24.2% of the population resided in them. Other significant risk factors included being an unskilled non-agricultural laborer, migration for work in a brick kiln, living in a kuccha (mud brick) house, household crowding, habitually sleeping outside or on the ground, and open defecation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the importance of sensitive surveillance with triggers for case cluster detection and rapid, careful outbreak investigations to better respond to ongoing and new transmission. The strong association with SC/ST tolas suggests that efforts should focus on enhanced surveillance in these disadvantaged communities.

16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 19179-19185, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394408

ABSTRACT

With the growing awareness of the linkage among open defecation (OD), environment, and health, it is important to understand the factors responsible for OD. It is a necessary step toward developing a strategy to end open defecation for ensuring a better environment and human health. There is no such study available for Pakistan. The study, therefore, aims to bridge this gap. Using household data of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2017-2018, an association of OD with potential predictors, analysis of variance, and a logistic regression model are employed to develop the evidence. The results suggest that place of residence, education, poverty status, social norms, geopolitical regions, and living space significantly predict the OD behavior in Pakistan. This study recommends two things: first is to facilitate the households and communities to own latrines, second is to change the behavior through intervention. However, political commitment and effective administration will be key to ascertain ending OD.


Subject(s)
Defecation , Sanitation , Humans , Pakistan , Rural Population , Toilet Facilities
17.
Econ Hum Biol ; 40: 100944, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316572

ABSTRACT

Close to 100 million Indonesians lack access to improved sanitation, while 33 million live without improved drinking water. Indonesia is home to the second largest number of open defecators in the world, behind India. Repeated exposure to fecal pathogens, especially common in areas where open defecation is practiced, can cause poor absorption and nutrient loss through diarrhea and poor gut function, leading to undernutrition, growth stunting and irreversible impairment of health, development, learning and earnings - the effects of which outlast a lifetime. Using data from a sample of over six thousand children in the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), a household socioeconomic panel representative of over 80 percent of the Indonesian population, we examine the relationship between poor household and community water and sanitation services and childhood stunting and cognitive development. We find that children living in households that have access to improved sanitation when they are under 2 years of age are approximately 5 percentage points less likely to end up being stunted. Community rates of sanitation are also important. Children living in open defecation free communities during this critical development window are more than 10 percentage points less likely to be stunted, than children in communities where all other households defecate in the open. Further, cognitive test scores are adversely affected by open defecation. These findings suggest that owning a toilet and living in a community where most of one's neighbors own a toilet are important drivers of child growth and development.

18.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 232: 113682, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360500

ABSTRACT

We conducted cost effectiveness analyses of four different CLTS interventions implemented in Ethiopia and Ghana. In each country, a pilot approach in which additional local actors were trained in CLTS facilitation was compared to the conventional approach. Data were collected using bottom-up costing, household surveys, and observations. We assessed variability of cost effectiveness from a societal perspective for latrine ownership and latrine use outcomes in different contexts. Cost effectiveness ranged from $34-$1897 per household ($5.85-$563 per person) gaining access to a private latrine or stopping open defecation, depending on the intervention, context, and outcome considered. For three out of four interventions, CLTS appeared more cost effective at reducing open defecation than at increasing latrine ownership, although sensitivity analysis revealed considerable variation. The pilot approaches were more cost effective at reducing open defecation than conventional approaches in Ethiopia, but not in Ghana. CLTS has been promoted as a low-cost means of improving the ownership and use of sanitation facilities. In our study, the cost of CLTS per household gaining latrine access was slightly higher than in other studies, and the cost of CLTS per household stopping OD was slightly lower than in other studies. Our results show that aggregate measures mask considerable variability in costs and outcomes, and thus the importance of considering and reporting context and uncertainty in economic analysis of sanitation interventions.

19.
Environ Chem Lett ; : 1-9, 2020 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281530

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 has infected over 46 million people in 219 countries and territories. Following evidence of viral loadings and infectivity of feces of infected individuals, public health authorities have suggested to take precautions on the transmission of COVID-19 via fecal-associated routes. Recent discussions on fecal transmission of COVID-19 have mainly focused on municipal sewage. Yet, a widely neglected aspect in containing the virus is that a major part of the population in developing regions do not have access to private, clean sanitary facilities. Therefore, we hypothesize that open defecation and the prevalent use of squat toilets are additional risk factors in those communities. Here, we review fecal transmission of COVID-19, the practices of open defecation, and the resultant routes of transmission of fecal pathogens. Also, we highlight the open design of common squat toilets and the potential exposure to fecal droplets and residues. We observed that at least 20 countries reporting more than 10,000 confirmed infections have 5-26% of their population practicing open defecation. We illustrate the potential routes of transmission of COVID-19 and other fecal pathogens via human feces in communities practicing open defecation. Here, poor hand hygiene, contaminated shoes and objects, mechanical vectors, and outdoor human activities can all contribute to fecal transmission. Other risk factors include squat pans with lidless designs and open flushing mechanisms, in-cubicle open waste bins, and the lack of water-sealing U-traps in squat toilets.

20.
J Biosoc Sci ; : 1-18, 2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308331

ABSTRACT

This study used a series of individual-level datasets from National Family Health Surveys conducted in 1998-99, 2005-06 and 2015-16 to assess the factors behind the reduction in childhood stunting and underweight in India between the years 1998-99 and 2015-16. A multivariable decomposition regression analysis was performed. Results showed that the prevalence of childhood stunting declined from 49.4% in 1998-99 to 34.9% in 2015-16. Over the same period, the prevalence of childhood underweight declined from 41.9% in 1998-99 to 33.1% in 2015-16. The reduction in the prevalence of stunting was found to be contributed largely by a reduction in the combined prevalence of stunting and underweight (60%), followed by stunted only (21%) and the combined prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting (19%). Likewise, the reduction in the prevalence of underweight was contributed by a reduction in the combined prevalence of stunting and underweight and the combined prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting. Results of the decomposition analysis showed that over the period 1998-99 to 2015-16, improvement in wealth status and maternal education led to 13% and 12% declines, respectively, in childhood stunting and to 31% and 19% declines, respectively, in childhood underweight. Furthermore, reductions in childhood stunting and underweight were due to an increased average number of antenatal care visits, lower average birth order, decreased share of children with below-average birth size, increased use of clean fuel for cooking and a reduction in the practice of open defecation. These findings suggest that further reduction in the prevalence of childhood stunting and underweight could be attained through more equitable household economic growth, investment in girl's education, greater access to improved toilet facilities, more widespread use of clean fuel for cooking, reduction in average birth order, increased antenatal care visits and greater consumption of IFA tablets by pregnant women. Policymakers need to prioritize these measures to further reduce malnutrition among Indian children.

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