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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248748, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793594

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of therapeutic strategies initiated at different stages of liver fibrosis using three direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), sofosbuvir-ledipasvir (SL), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir (GP), and elbasvir plus grazoprevir (E/G), for Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1. METHODS: We created an analytical decision model reflecting the progression of liver fibrosis stages to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative therapeutic strategies applied at different fibrosis stages. We compared six treatment strategies: treating all patients regardless of fibrosis stage (TA), treating individual patients with one of four treatments starting at four respective stages of liver fibrosis progression (F1S: withholding treatment at stage F0 and starting treatment from stage F1 or higher, and three successive options, F2S, F3S, and F4S), and administering no antiviral treatment (NoRx). We adopted a lifetime horizon and Japanese health insurance payers' perspective. RESULTS: The base case analysis showed that the incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gain of TA by SL, GP, and E/G compared with the strategies of starting treatments for patients with the advanced fibrosis stage, F2S, varied from 0.32 to 0.33, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were US$24,320, US$18,160 and US$17,410 per QALY, respectively. On the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve, TA was most likely to be cost-effective, with the three DAAs at the willingness to pay thresholds of US$50,000. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that administration of DAA treatment for all Japanese patients with genotype 1 CHC regardless of their liver fibrosis stage would be cost-effective under ordinary conditions.

2.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) and hepatitis B virus RNA (HBV RNA) are novel markers that reflect intrahepatic cccDNA and could be useful in the prediction of relapse after nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) discontinuation. AIM: To perform a systematic review on this issue. METHODS: Medline/Pubmed database was searched using text terms related to HBcrAg, RNA, NAs, discontinuation, and relapse. Included studies were those that enrolled adult patients who had been on NAs for more than 6 months with available information on end-of-treatment (EOT) HBcrAg and/or HBV RNA and relapse rates. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were included. Virological and clinical relapse rates ranged from 11-100% and 11-73%, respectively. Low or undetectable EOT HBcrAg levels were associated with low off-treatment relapse rates in most studies with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.69-0.70 for predicting virological relapse (VR) and 0.61-0.77 for predicting clinical relapse (CR). Undetectable EOT HBV RNA was associated with a lower risk of off-treatment relapse with AUROC of 0.65-0.76 for predicting VR and 0.66-0.73 for predicting CR. Combined EOT HBcrAg and HBV RNA performed better in predicting off-treatment relapse than either test alone with AUROC of 0.816-0.846 for predicting CR. None of the patients with double negative HBV RNA and HBcrAg developed clinical relapse. CONCLUSION: Combining HBcrAg with HBV RNA or HBsAg improved the discriminating abilities in the prediction of off-treatment relapse of each test. Patients with double-negative HBcrAg and HBV RNA at EOT had low risks of relapse and could be considered for NA discontinuation.

3.
4.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Italy, hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination is achievable; however, barriers remain to achieving the World Health Organization's elimination targets, and have become more pronounced with the spread of COVID-19. Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is a direct-acting antiviral therapy for HCV, approved for 8-week treatment in patients without cirrhosis, and with compensated cirrhosis (CC). Previously, 12 weeks of therapy was recommended for patients with CC. Shortened treatment may reduce the burden on healthcare resources, allowing more patients to be treated. This study presents the benefits that 8-week vs 12-week treatment with G/P may have in Italy. METHODS: A multicohort Markov model was used to assess the collective number of healthcare visits and time on treatment with 8-week vs 12-week G/P in the HCV-infected population of Italy from 2019 to 2030, using healthcare resource data from post-marketing observational studies of G/P. Increased treatment capacity and downstream clinical and economic benefits were also assessed assuming the reallocation of saved healthcare visits to treat more patients. RESULTS: Modeled outcomes showed that by 2030, 8-week treatment saved 27,006 years on therapy compared with 12-week treatment, with 21,065 fewer hepatologist visits. Reallocating these resources to treat more patients could increase capacity to treat 5064 (1.4%) more patients with 8 weeks of G/P, all with CC. This increased treatment capacity would further avoid 2257 cases of end-stage liver disease, 893 liver-related deaths, and provide net savings to the healthcare system of nearly €70 million. CONCLUSION: The modeled comparisons between 8- and 12-week treatment with G/P show that shorter treatment duration can lead to greater time and resource savings, both in terms of healthcare visits and downstream costs. These benefits have the potential to enable the treatment of more patients to overcome elimination barriers in Italy through programs aimed to engage and treat targeted HCV populations.

5.
Int J Drug Policy ; 94: 103203, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is highly prevalent among prisoners. The simplicity of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for hepatitis C makes it possible to use novel models of care to increase treatment uptake within prisons. We estimate the average non-drug cost of initiating a prisoner on treatment using real world data from the State-wide Hepatitis Program (SHP) in Victoria, Australia - a coordinated nurse-led model of care. METHODS: Data were considered from prisoners presenting to the SHP (following antibody-positive diagnosis) during the evaluation period, November 2015 to December 2016. All costs associated with the SHP were estimated, including staffing salaries, medical tests, pharmacy costs and overhead costs. DAA costs were excluded as in Australia an unlimited number are available, covered by a federal government risk-sharing agreement with pharmaceutical companies. The average non-drug cost of treatment initiation through the SHP was compared to equivalent costs from primary and hospital-based models of care in the community. RESULTS: The total non-drug cost accumulated by prisoners in the SHP was AUD$749,470 (uncertainty range: AUD$728,905-794,111). 659/803 were PCR positive, 424/659 had sentences long enough to be eligible for treatment, and 416/424 were initiated on treatment, resulting in an average non-drug cost of AUD$1,802 (95% CI: AUD$1799-1841) per prisoner initiated. A protocol change allowing prisoners with short sentences to start treatment reduced the average non-drug cost to AUD$1263 (95% CI: AUD$1263-1287) per prisoner initiating treatment - 11% and 56% cheaper than estimated equivalent costs in primary (AUD$1654) and hospital-based (AUD$2847) models of care in the community, respectively. CONCLUSION: Delivering hepatitis C treatment in prison using a nurse-led model of care is cheaper than delivering treatment in the community. These findings provide an economic rationale for implementing coordinated prison-based hepatitis C treatment programs.

6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734949

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is an essential way to prevent the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Various studies have been published on the cost-effectiveness of HBV vaccination, but since the results vary according to the target population and related health outcomes, this study examined the cost-effectiveness of the universal HBV vaccination in Iran. In this economic evaluation study, a decision tree with the Markov model was used to compare the universal HBV vaccination with a strategy of non-vaccination. Health states used in the model included healthy, chronic hepatitis B, compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Analyses were performed from a payer's perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per life-year gained, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained were calculated at a 5% annual discount rate. The sensitivity analysis was conducted using Monte Carlo simulation. Analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel and TreeAge Pro 2011 software. In 2017, the estimated cost per dose for any HBV vaccine was $3.20 USD. The universal HBV vaccination was economically advantageous compared to non-vaccination, and the estimated cost of this program per life-year and QALY gained were $6,319 and negative (-) $1,183.85 USD, respectively. Given the uncertainty of all parameters, the model remained robust and reliable. In Iran, the universal HBV vaccination strategy for both health outcomes of QALY and life-years gained was cost-effective and advantageous. The vaccination strategy saved money, increased life years and improved quality of life. Therefore, it is recommended that this program continues to be provided.

7.
Korean J Radiol ; 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the 2018 Korean Liver Cancer Association-National Cancer Center (KLCA-NCC) Practice Guidelines (hereafter, PG) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, compared to the Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) version 2018 (hereafter, v2018). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2013 to October 2015, treatment-naïve hepatic lesions (≥ 1 cm) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B or cirrhosis were retrospectively evaluated. For each lesion, three radiologists independently analyzed the imaging features and classified the lesions into categories according to the 2018 KLCA-NCC PG and LI-RADS v2018. The imaging features and categories were determined by consensus. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to compare the per-lesion diagnostic performance of the 2018 KLCA-NCC PG and LI-RADS v2018 using the consensus data. RESULTS: In total, 422 lesions (234 HCCs, 45 non-HCC malignancies, and 143 benign lesions) from 387 patients (79% male; mean age, 59 years) were included. In all lesions, the definite HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a higher sensitivity and lower specificity than LR-5 (LI-RADS v2018) (87.2% [204/234] vs. 80.8% [189/234], p < 0.001; 86.2% [162/188] vs. 91.0% [171/188], p = 0.002). However, in lesions of size ≥ 2 cm, the definite HCC had a higher sensitivity than the LR-5 (86.8% [164/189] vs. 82.0 (155/189), p = 0.002) without a reduction in the specificity (80.0% [48/60] vs. 83.3% [50/60], p = 0.15). In all lesions, the sensitivity and specificity of the definite/probable HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) and LR-5/4 did not differ significantly (89.7% [210/234] vs. 91.5% [214/234], p = 0.204; 83.5% [157/188] vs. 79.3% [149/188], p = 0.071). CONCLUSION: For the diagnosis of HCC of size ≥ 2 cm, the definite HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a higher sensitivity than LR-5, without a reduction in specificity. The definite/probable HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a similar sensitivity and specificity to that those of the LR-5/4.

8.
J Viral Hepat ; 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759257

ABSTRACT

Modelling suggests hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination is possible among men who have sex with men (MSM), with key screening groups including HIV-diagnosed MSM and MSM using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Mathematical modelling was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of HCV case-finding strategies among MSM from the provider perspective, and to determine which interventions could achieve a 90% reduction in HCV incidence over 2015-2030. At baseline, we assumed symptomatic screening in HIV-negative MSM (including PrEP users) and 12-monthly screening among HIV-diagnosed MSM. Improved case-finding strategies included screening alongside HIV testing in HIV-negative MSM not using PrEP (PrEP non-users); 12/6/3-monthly screening in PrEP users; and 6-monthly screening in HIV-diagnosed MSM, with the cost-effectiveness being compared incrementally. Costs (GBP) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were assessed to estimate the mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with a time horizon to 2050, compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/QALY. From the baseline, the most incrementally cost-effective strategy is to firstly undertake: (1) 12-monthly HCV screening of PrEP users (gaining 6715 QALYs with ICER £1760/QALY), followed by (2) HCV screening among PrEP non-users alongside HIV testing (gaining 7048 QALYs with ICER £4972/QALY). Compared to the baseline, this combined strategy would cost £46.9 (95%CrI £25.3-£66.9) million and achieve the HCV elimination target in 100% of model runs. Additional screening incurs ICERs >£20,000/QALY compared to this combined strategy. In conclusion, HCV elimination can be achieved cost-effectively among UK MSM. Policymakers should consider scaling-up HCV screening in HIV-negative MSM, especially PrEP users, for achieving this target.

9.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(2): 101564, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740477

ABSTRACT

Significant steps must be taken to reduce the global incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and mortality from HCV infection to achieve the WHO goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. Proper epidemiological surveillance of the full continuum of care is essential for monitoring progress and identifying gaps that need to be addressed. The tools required for elimination have largely been established, and the issue at hand is more how they should best be implemented in different settings around the world. Documenting good practices allows for knowledge exchange to prevent transmission and improve health outcomes for people with HCV. This review found 13 well documented HCV good practices that have become the standard of care or that should become the standard of care as soon as possible. In 2013, highly effective direct-acting antiviral therapy became available, which has cure rates of over 95%. Together with this new therapy, evidence-based good practices can help countries eliminate viral hepatitis C.

10.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(1): 25-40, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541021

ABSTRACT

The age-adjusted incidence of primary liver cancer (PLC) has been declining in China. However, PLC cases in China account for 55% globally. The disease burden is still high and the 5-year survival rate was not improved significantly in the past two decades. This guideline outlines PLC screening in the risk populations, both in hospital and community. Liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B are the main causes of PLC in China. For better PLC surveillance and screening in clinical practices, it is recommended to stratify population at the risk into 4 risk levels, namely, low-risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk, and extremely high-risk.The lifelong surveillance is suggested for those at the risk of PLC. The intervals and tools for surveillance and screening are recommended based on the risk levels. Abdominal ultrasonography combined with serum alpha-fetoprotein examination (routine surveillance) every 6 months is recommended for those at a high risk of PLC.Routine surveillance every 3 months and enhanced CT/MRI examination every 6-12 months are recommended for those at an extremely high risk of PLC. The surveillance interval can be extended every 1 year or longer for those at a low-risk or at an intermediate-risk of PLC, because their annual incidence of PLC is very low. The cost-effectiveness of these recommendations remains to be evaluated.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Neoplasms , China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(2)2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627360

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Over half of those hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV coinfected live in low-income and middle-income countries, and many remain undiagnosed or untreated. In 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) established a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment programme for people HCV/HIV coinfected in Myanmar. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the real-world cost and cost-effectiveness of this programme, and potential cost-effectiveness if implemented by the Ministry of Health (MoH). METHODS: Costs (patient-level microcosting) and treatment outcomes were collected from the MSF prospective cohort study in Dawei, Myanmar. A Markov model was used to assess cost-effectiveness of the programme compared with no HCV treatment from a health provider perspective. Estimated lifetime and healthcare costs (in 2017 US$) and health outcomes (in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)) were simulated to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), compared with a willingness-to-pay threshold of per capita Gross Domestic Product in Myanmar ($1250). We evaluated cost-effectiveness with updated quality-assured generic DAA prices and potential cost-effectiveness of a proposed simplified treatment protocol with updated DAA prices if implemented by the MoH. RESULTS: From November 2016 to October 2017, 122 with HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were treated with DAAs (46% with cirrhosis), 96% (n=117) achieved sustained virological response. Mean treatment costs were $1229 (without cirrhosis) and $1971 (with cirrhosis), with DAA drugs being the largest contributor to cost. Compared with no treatment, the program was cost-effective (ICER $634/DALY averted); more so with updated prices for quality-assured generic DAAs (ICER $488/DALY averted). A simplified treatment protocol delivered by the MoH could be cost-effective if associated with similar outcomes (ICER $316/DALY averted). CONCLUSIONS: Using MSF programme data, the DAA treatment programme for HCV among HIV-coinfected individuals is cost-effective in Myanmar, and even more so with updated DAA prices. A simplified treatment protocol could enhance cost-effectiveness if further rollout demonstrates it is not associated with worse treatment outcomes.

12.
J Viral Hepat ; 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555102

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of treating chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with direct-acting agents (DAA) on the use of healthcare resources. We included all patients treated with DAA for CHC from January 2015 to December 2017 in Catalonia whose medical records from 12 months before to 24 months after treatment were available. Data were obtained from the Catalan Health Surveillance System. A total of 12,199 patients in Catalonia were treated with DAA for CHC. Of these, 11.3% had no-minimal fibrosis (F0-F1), 24.0% had moderate fibrosis (F2), 50.3% had significant fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3-F4), and 14.4% had decompensated cirrhosis. Use of healthcare resources decreased from the pre-treatment period to the post-treatment period for the following: hospital admissions due to complications of cirrhosis, from 0.19 to 0.12 per month per 100 patients (RR 0.57; 95% CI 0.47-0.68); length of hospital stay, from 12.9 to 12.2 days (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.91-0.94); outpatient visits, from 65.0 to 49.2 (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.74-0.75); and number of medication containers per patient per month, from 13.9 to 12.5 (RR 0.837; 95% CI 0.835-0.838). However, the number of invoices for antineoplastic treatment increased after DAA treatment, especially for patients with high morbidity or advanced fibrosis stage. In conclusion, a decrease in health resource use was seen in CHC patients treated with DAA, as measured by length of hospital stay, number of admissions due to cirrhosis complications, outpatient visits and overall drug invoicing. However, use of antineoplastic drugs increased significantly, especially in patients with cirrhosis and high morbidity.

13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(8): 269-272, 2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630818

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Transmission of the virus most commonly occurs through the fecal-oral route after close contact with an infected person. Widespread outbreaks of hepatitis A among persons who use illicit drugs (injection and noninjection drugs) have increased in recent years (1). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine hepatitis A vaccination for children and persons at increased risk for infection or severe disease, and, since 1996, has recommended hepatitis A vaccination for persons who use illicit drugs (2). Vaccinating persons who are at-risk for HAV infection is a mainstay of the public health response for stopping ongoing person-to-person transmission and preventing future outbreaks (1). In response to a large hepatitis A outbreak in West Virginia, an analysis was conducted to assess total hepatitis A-related medical costs during January 1, 2018-July 31, 2019, among West Virginia Medicaid beneficiaries with a confirmed diagnosis of HAV infection. Among the analysis population, direct clinical costs ranged from an estimated $1.4 million to $5.6 million. Direct clinical costs among a subset of the Medicaid population with a diagnosis of a comorbid substance use disorder ranged from an estimated $1.0 million to $4.4 million during the study period. In addition to insight on preventing illness, hospitalization, and death, the results from this study highlight the potential financial cost jurisdictions might incur when ACIP recommendations for hepatitis A vaccination, especially among persons who use illicit drugs, are not followed (2).


Subject(s)
Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis A/economics , Medicaid/economics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States , West Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245896, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571196

ABSTRACT

In Australian prisons approximately 20% of inmates are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), providing an important population for targeted treatment and prevention. A dynamic mathematical model of HCV transmission was used to assess the impact of increasing direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment uptake on HCV incidence and prevalence in the prisons in New South Wales, Australia, and to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternate treatment strategies. We developed four separate models reflecting different average prison lengths of stay (LOS) of 2, 6, 24, and 36 months. Each model considered four DAA treatment coverage scenarios of 10% (status-quo), 25%, 50%, and 90% over 2016-2045. For each model and scenario, we estimated the lifetime burden of disease, costs and changes in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in prison and in the community during 2016-2075. Costs and QALYs were discounted 3.5% annually and adjusted to 2015 Australian dollars. Compared to treating 10% of infected prisoners, increasing DAA coverage to 25%, 50%, and 90% reduced HCV incidence in prisons by 9-33% (2-months LOS), 26-65% (6-months LOS), 37-70% (24-months LOS), and 35-65% (36-months LOS). DAA treatment was highly cost-effective among all LOS models at conservative willingness-to-pay thresholds. DAA therapy became increasingly cost-effective with increasing coverage. Compared to 10% treatment coverage, the incremental cost per QALY ranged from $497-$569 (2-months LOS), -$280-$323 (6-months LOS), -$432-$426 (24-months LOS), and -$245-$477 (36-months LOS). Treating more than 25% of HCV-infected prisoners with DAA therapy is highly cost-effective. This study shows that treating HCV-infected prisoners is highly cost-effective and should be a government priority for the global HCV elimination effort.

15.
Trials ; 22(1): 147, 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Russia has a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. In 2018, over one million persons were living with HIV (PLWH); over a third were women. A high proportion of HIV-infected women are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and many consume alcohol, which adversely affects HIV and HCV treatment and prognosis. Despite the triple epidemics of alcohol use, HIV and HCV, and the need for interventions to reduce alcohol use among HIV/HCV co-infected women, evidence-based alcohol reduction interventions for this vulnerable population are limited. To address this gap, we developed a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a computer-based intervention to reduce alcohol consumption among HIV/HCV co-infected women in clinical care. METHODS: In this two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial, we propose to evaluate the efficacy of a culturally adapted alcohol reduction intervention delivered via a computer for HIV/HCV co-infected Russian women. The study population consists of women 21-45 years old with confirmed HIV/HCV co-infection who currently use alcohol. Intervention efficacy is assessed by a novel alcohol biomarker, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and biomarkers of HIV and HCV disease progression. Women are randomized to trial conditions in a 1:1 allocation ratio, using a computer-generated algorithm to develop the assignment sequence and concealment of allocation techniques to minimize assignment bias. Women are randomized to either (1) the computer-based alcohol reduction intervention or (2) the standard-of-care control condition. We will use an intent-to-treat analysis and logistic and linear generalized estimating equations to evaluate intervention efficacy, relative to the standard of care, in enhancing the proportion of women with a laboratory-confirmed negative EtG at each research study visit over the 9-month follow-up period. Additional analyses will evaluate intervention effects on HIV (viral load and CD4+ levels) and HCV markers of disease progression (FibroScan). DISCUSSION: The proposed trial design and analysis provides an appropriate conceptual and methodological framework to assess the efficacy of the computer-based intervention. We propose to recruit 200 participants. The intervention, if efficacious, may be an efficient and cost-effective alcohol reduction strategy that is scalable and can be readily disseminated and integrated into clinical care in Russia to reduce women's alcohol consumption and enhance HIV/HCV prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03362476 . Registered on 5 December 2017.

16.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 3, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598383

ABSTRACT

Background: The Egyptian National Committee of Viral Hepatitis program is the leading national hepatitis C virus (HCV) management program globally. However, limited data is available about the effect of the new directly acting antiviral agents on the cardiovascular system. Objectives: Our study aimed to assess the safety of the relatively new directly acting antiviral agents approved by the National Health Committee in Egypt to treat patients infected with hepatitis C virus who have midrange left ventricular ejection fraction. Methods: This multicenter study included 400 successive patients with an ejection fraction (40-49%) from May 2017 to December 2019. We classified them into two groups: Group I (Child A), who received Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir for twelve weeks, and Group II (Child B), who received Sofosbuvir, Daclatasvir, and Ribavirin for twelve weeks. Patients were evaluated for their symptoms, ejection fraction, brain natriuretic peptide, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance levels, and Holter monitoring (just before the start of treatment and within three days after completing therapy). Results: We found New York Heart Association Class, ejection fraction, brain natriuretic peptide, premature ventricular contractions burden, as well as highest and lowest heart rate did not show a statistically significant difference in both groups after treatment. The treatment did not cause bradycardia or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin levels declined, with improved insulin resistance after treatment in both groups. Both low and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased after treatment in Group II. Conclusions: Both regimens of directly acting antiviral agents used in Egypt to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection are safe in patients with New York Heart Association Class I and II with midrange left ventricular ejection fraction (40-49%). There are beneficial metabolic changes following HCV clearance as an improvement of insulin resistance.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23961, 2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545977

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This protocol is for a meta analysis that aims to systematically review the diagnostic value of anti-hepatitis B virus in serum tested by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with hepatitis B. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following electronic databases will be searched from inception to Mar 2021: PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and Wanfang Database. All study about enzyme linked immunosorbent assay reagents have been published at home and abroad to diagnose hepatitis B virus will be included. MetaDisc 1.4 soft will used to calculate pooled effect size in sensitivity, specifi city, likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and summary receiver operating characteristic curve, and area under the curve as well. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required, as the data are not individualized. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication and/or presented at relevant conferences. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2020100051.


Subject(s)
Clinical Protocols , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/enzymology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Hepatitis B virus/pathogenicity , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 157, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is transmitted from mother to child which can be prevented via birth dose vaccine combined with three follow up hepatitis B vaccines, hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIG), and maternal antiviral treatment with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF). This study evaluates the cost effectiveness of six strategies to prevent perinatal HBV transmission in a resource limited setting (RLS) on the Thailand-Myanmar border. METHODS: The cost effectiveness of six strategies was tested by a decision tree model in R. All strategies included birth and follow up vaccinations and compared cost per infection averted against two willingness to pay thresholds: one-half and one gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Strategies were: 1) Vaccine only, 2) HBIG after rapid diagnostic test (RDT): infants born to HBsAg+ are given HBIG, 3) TDF after RDT: HBsAg+ women are given TDF, 4) TDF after HBeAg test: HBeAg+ women are given TDF, 5) TDF after high HBV DNA: women with HBV DNA > 200,000 are given TDF, 6) HBIG & TDF after high HBV DNA: women with HBV DNA > 200,000 are given TDF and their infants are given HBIG. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted on the cost-effective strategies. RESULTS: Vaccine only was the least costly option with TDF after HBeAg test strategy as the only cost-effective alternative. TDF after HBeAg test had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$1062; which would not be considered cost-effective with the lower threshold of one-half GDP per capita. The one-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the results were reasonably robust to changes in single parameter values. The PSA showed that TDF after HBeAg test had an 84% likelihood of being cost effective at a willingness to pay threshold of one GDP per capita per infection averted. CONCLUSIONS: We found that TDF after HBeAg test has the potential to be cost-effective if TDF proves effective locally to prevent perinatal HBV transmission. The cost of TDF treatment and reliability of the RDT could be barriers to implementing this strategy. While TDF after RDT may be a more feasible strategy to implement in RLS, TDF after HBeAg test is a less costly option.

19.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e042280, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite treatment availability, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) public health burden is rising in India due to lack of timely diagnosis. Therefore, we aim to assess incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for one-time universal screening followed by treatment of people infected with HCV as compared with a no screening policy in Punjab, India. STUDY DESIGN: Decision tree integrated with Markov model was developed to simulate disease progression. A societal perspective and a 3% annual discount rate were considered to assess incremental cost per QALY gained. In addition, budgetary impact was also assessed with a payer's perspective and time horizon of 5 years. STUDY SETTING: Screening services were assumed to be delivered as a facility-based intervention where active screening for HCV cases would be performed at 22 district hospitals in the state of Punjab, which will act as integrated testing as well as treatment sites for HCV. INTERVENTION: Two intervention scenarios were compared with no universal screening and treatment (routine care). Scenario I-screening with ELISA followed by confirmatory HCV-RNA quantification and treatment. Scenario II-screening with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit followed by confirmatory HCV-RNA quantification and treatment. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Lifetime costs; life years and QALY gained; and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for each of the above-mentioned intervention scenario as compared with the routine care. RESULTS: Screening with ELISA and RDT, respectively, results in a gain of 0.028 (0.008 to 0.06) and 0.027 (0.008 to 0.061) QALY per person with costs decreased by -1810 Indian rupees (-3376 to -867) and -1812 Indian rupees (-3468 to -850) when compared with no screening. One-time universal screening of all those ≥18 years at a base coverage of 30%, with ELISA and RDT, would cost 8.5 and 8.3 times more, respectively, when compared with screening the age group of the cohort 40-45 years old. CONCLUSION: One-time universal screening followed by HCV treatment is a dominant strategy as compared with no screening. However, budget impact of screening of all ≥18-year-old people seems unsustainable. Thus, in view of findings from both cost-effectiveness and budget impact, we recommend beginning with screening the age cohort with RDT around mean age of disease presentation, that is, 40-45 years, instead of all ≥18-year-old people.

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