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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248748, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793594

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of therapeutic strategies initiated at different stages of liver fibrosis using three direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), sofosbuvir-ledipasvir (SL), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir (GP), and elbasvir plus grazoprevir (E/G), for Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1. METHODS: We created an analytical decision model reflecting the progression of liver fibrosis stages to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative therapeutic strategies applied at different fibrosis stages. We compared six treatment strategies: treating all patients regardless of fibrosis stage (TA), treating individual patients with one of four treatments starting at four respective stages of liver fibrosis progression (F1S: withholding treatment at stage F0 and starting treatment from stage F1 or higher, and three successive options, F2S, F3S, and F4S), and administering no antiviral treatment (NoRx). We adopted a lifetime horizon and Japanese health insurance payers' perspective. RESULTS: The base case analysis showed that the incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gain of TA by SL, GP, and E/G compared with the strategies of starting treatments for patients with the advanced fibrosis stage, F2S, varied from 0.32 to 0.33, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were US$24,320, US$18,160 and US$17,410 per QALY, respectively. On the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve, TA was most likely to be cost-effective, with the three DAAs at the willingness to pay thresholds of US$50,000. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that administration of DAA treatment for all Japanese patients with genotype 1 CHC regardless of their liver fibrosis stage would be cost-effective under ordinary conditions.

2.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) and hepatitis B virus RNA (HBV RNA) are novel markers that reflect intrahepatic cccDNA and could be useful in the prediction of relapse after nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) discontinuation. AIM: To perform a systematic review on this issue. METHODS: Medline/Pubmed database was searched using text terms related to HBcrAg, RNA, NAs, discontinuation, and relapse. Included studies were those that enrolled adult patients who had been on NAs for more than 6 months with available information on end-of-treatment (EOT) HBcrAg and/or HBV RNA and relapse rates. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were included. Virological and clinical relapse rates ranged from 11-100% and 11-73%, respectively. Low or undetectable EOT HBcrAg levels were associated with low off-treatment relapse rates in most studies with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.69-0.70 for predicting virological relapse (VR) and 0.61-0.77 for predicting clinical relapse (CR). Undetectable EOT HBV RNA was associated with a lower risk of off-treatment relapse with AUROC of 0.65-0.76 for predicting VR and 0.66-0.73 for predicting CR. Combined EOT HBcrAg and HBV RNA performed better in predicting off-treatment relapse than either test alone with AUROC of 0.816-0.846 for predicting CR. None of the patients with double negative HBV RNA and HBcrAg developed clinical relapse. CONCLUSION: Combining HBcrAg with HBV RNA or HBsAg improved the discriminating abilities in the prediction of off-treatment relapse of each test. Patients with double-negative HBcrAg and HBV RNA at EOT had low risks of relapse and could be considered for NA discontinuation.

3.
5.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Italy, hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination is achievable; however, barriers remain to achieving the World Health Organization's elimination targets, and have become more pronounced with the spread of COVID-19. Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is a direct-acting antiviral therapy for HCV, approved for 8-week treatment in patients without cirrhosis, and with compensated cirrhosis (CC). Previously, 12 weeks of therapy was recommended for patients with CC. Shortened treatment may reduce the burden on healthcare resources, allowing more patients to be treated. This study presents the benefits that 8-week vs 12-week treatment with G/P may have in Italy. METHODS: A multicohort Markov model was used to assess the collective number of healthcare visits and time on treatment with 8-week vs 12-week G/P in the HCV-infected population of Italy from 2019 to 2030, using healthcare resource data from post-marketing observational studies of G/P. Increased treatment capacity and downstream clinical and economic benefits were also assessed assuming the reallocation of saved healthcare visits to treat more patients. RESULTS: Modeled outcomes showed that by 2030, 8-week treatment saved 27,006 years on therapy compared with 12-week treatment, with 21,065 fewer hepatologist visits. Reallocating these resources to treat more patients could increase capacity to treat 5064 (1.4%) more patients with 8 weeks of G/P, all with CC. This increased treatment capacity would further avoid 2257 cases of end-stage liver disease, 893 liver-related deaths, and provide net savings to the healthcare system of nearly €70 million. CONCLUSION: The modeled comparisons between 8- and 12-week treatment with G/P show that shorter treatment duration can lead to greater time and resource savings, both in terms of healthcare visits and downstream costs. These benefits have the potential to enable the treatment of more patients to overcome elimination barriers in Italy through programs aimed to engage and treat targeted HCV populations.

6.
Int J Drug Policy ; 94: 103203, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is highly prevalent among prisoners. The simplicity of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for hepatitis C makes it possible to use novel models of care to increase treatment uptake within prisons. We estimate the average non-drug cost of initiating a prisoner on treatment using real world data from the State-wide Hepatitis Program (SHP) in Victoria, Australia - a coordinated nurse-led model of care. METHODS: Data were considered from prisoners presenting to the SHP (following antibody-positive diagnosis) during the evaluation period, November 2015 to December 2016. All costs associated with the SHP were estimated, including staffing salaries, medical tests, pharmacy costs and overhead costs. DAA costs were excluded as in Australia an unlimited number are available, covered by a federal government risk-sharing agreement with pharmaceutical companies. The average non-drug cost of treatment initiation through the SHP was compared to equivalent costs from primary and hospital-based models of care in the community. RESULTS: The total non-drug cost accumulated by prisoners in the SHP was AUD$749,470 (uncertainty range: AUD$728,905-794,111). 659/803 were PCR positive, 424/659 had sentences long enough to be eligible for treatment, and 416/424 were initiated on treatment, resulting in an average non-drug cost of AUD$1,802 (95% CI: AUD$1799-1841) per prisoner initiated. A protocol change allowing prisoners with short sentences to start treatment reduced the average non-drug cost to AUD$1263 (95% CI: AUD$1263-1287) per prisoner initiating treatment - 11% and 56% cheaper than estimated equivalent costs in primary (AUD$1654) and hospital-based (AUD$2847) models of care in the community, respectively. CONCLUSION: Delivering hepatitis C treatment in prison using a nurse-led model of care is cheaper than delivering treatment in the community. These findings provide an economic rationale for implementing coordinated prison-based hepatitis C treatment programs.

7.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased risk of hepatobiliary tract cancer. However, whether chronic HCV infection is also associated with elevated risk of other types of cancer is still unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted in order to investigate whether chronic HCV infection is positively associated with esophageal cancer. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using Embase and MEDLINE databases from inception to November 2019, with a search strategy that comprised the terms for "hepatitis C virus" and "cancer." Eligible studies were cohort studies consisting of patients with chronic HCV infection and comparators without HCV infection, and followed them for incident esophageal cancer. Hazard risk ratio, incidence rate ratio, relative risk or standardized incidence ratio of this association were extracted from each eligible study along with their 95% confidence intervals and were combined to calculate the pooled effect estimate using the random effect, generic inverse variance method. RESULTS: A total of 20,459 articles were identified using this search strategy. After 2 rounds of independent review, 7 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Chronic HCV infection was significantly associated with a higher incidence of esophageal cancer with the pooled relative risk of 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.17; I=39%). The funnel plot was relatively symmetric which was not suggestive of publication bias. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that there is a modest association between chronic HCV and incident esophageal cancer. However, more studies are needed to investigate the causality of this association.

8.
Lancet Public Health ; 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and also have high levels of homelessness and unstable housing. We assessed whether homelessness or unstable housing is associated with an increased risk of HIV or HCV acquisition among PWID compared with PWID who are not homeless or are stably housed. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we updated an existing database of HIV and HCV incidence studies published between Jan 1, 2000, and June 13, 2017. Using the same strategy as for this existing database, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO for studies, including conference abstracts, published between June 13, 2017, and Sept 14, 2020, that estimated HIV or HCV incidence, or both, among community-recruited PWID. We only included studies reporting original results without restrictions to study design or language. We contacted authors of studies that reported HIV or HCV incidence, or both, but did not report on an association with homelessness or unstable housing, to request crude data and, where possible, adjusted effect estimates. We extracted effect estimates and pooled data using random-effects meta-analyses to quantify the associations between recent (current or within the past year) homelessness or unstable housing compared with not recent homelessness or unstable housing, and risk of HIV or HCV acquisition. We assessed risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and between-study heterogeneity using the I2 statistic and p value for heterogeneity. FINDINGS: We identified 14 351 references in our database search, of which 392 were subjected to full-text review alongside 277 studies from our existing database. Of these studies, 55 studies met inclusion criteria. We contacted the authors of 227 studies that reported HIV or HCV incidence in PWID but did not report association with the exposure of interest and obtained 48 unpublished estimates from 21 studies. After removal of duplicate data, we included 37 studies with 70 estimates (26 for HIV; 44 for HCV). Studies originated from 16 countries including in North America, Europe, Australia, east Africa, and Asia. Pooling unadjusted estimates, recent homelessness or unstable housing was associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV (crude relative risk [cRR] 1·55 [95% CI 1·23-1·95; p=0·0002]; I2= 62·7%; n=17) and HCV (1·65 [1·44-1·90; p<0·0001]; I2= 44·8%; n=28]) among PWID compared with those who were not homeless or were stably housed. Associations for both HIV and HCV persisted when pooling adjusted estimates (adjusted relative risk for HIV: 1·39 [95% CI 1·06-1·84; p=0·019]; I2= 65·5%; n=9; and for HCV: 1·64 [1·43-1·89; p<0·0001]; I2= 9·6%; n=14). For risk of HIV acquisition, the association for unstable housing (cRR 1·82 [1·13-2·95; p=0·014]; n=5) was higher than for homelessness (1·44 [1·13-1·83; p=0·0036]; n=12), whereas no difference was seen between these outcomes for risk of HCV acquisition (1·72 [1·48-1·99; p<0·0001] for unstable housing, 1·66 [1·37-2·00; p<0·0001] for homelessness). INTERPRETATION: Homelessness and unstable housing are associated with increased risk of HIV and HCV acquisition among PWID. Our findings support the development of interventions that simultaneously address homelessness and unstable housing and HIV and HCV transmission in this population. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Commonwealth Scholarship Commission.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(3): 694-702, 2021 Feb.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645037

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Compound Glycyrrhizin Injection(CGI) in improving liver damage in chronic hepatitis B(CHB). PubMed, Web of Science, SinoMed, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP databases were retrieved from their inception to February 10, 2020. The randomized controlled trial(RCT) of CGI in the treatment of CHB was included. Data were independently extracted by two authors, and the methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane bias risk assessment tool by other two authors. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 18 two-armed RCTs were included, involving 1 915 participants. The methodological quality of all studies included was generally low. In the comparison between CGI and diammonium glycyrrhizinate, the results showed that CGI was superior to the control group in improving the overall clinical effectiveness, but there was no statistical difference between the two groups in increasing ALT normalization rate, reducing ALT and AST level. In the comparison between CGI and diammonium glycyrrhizinate+other general hepatoprotective drugs, the results showed that CGI was superior to the control group in reducing AST level, while there was no statistical difference between the two groups in reducing ALT level and increasing overall clinical effectiveness. In the comparison between CGI+other commonly used drugs(including energy mixture, glutathione, vitamins, potassium magnesium aspartate) and diammonium glycyrrhizinate+other commonly used drugs, the results showed that CGI combined with other commonly used drugs was better than the control group in reducing ALT and AST level and improving the clinical total effective rate, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups in increasing the rate of ALT normalization. In the comparison between CGI+other commonly used drugs and other commonly used drugs, the results showed that CGI combined with other commonly used drugs was superior to the control group in reducing ALT and AST level and improving the overall clinical effectiveness. In the comparison between CGI+vitamins and diammonium glycyrrhizinate+potassium magnesium aspartate+vitamins, the results showed no statistical difference between the two groups in reducing AST level. A small number of studies included reported that CGI caused mild adverse reactions when used alone or in combination with other drugs. Based on the results, CGI has a certain effect in improving CHB liver damage, but the evidence is not enough to prove that CGI would cause serious adverse events. In the future, more well-designed and strictly-enforced RCT with an adequate sample size are needed to further evaluate the effect CGI in alleviating CHB liver damage.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247843, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir-sofosbuvir are both newer direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of hepatitis C. The high list prices for both drugs have led to concern about the budget impact for public drug coverage programs. Therefore, we studied the impact of public prescription drug coverage for both drugs on utilization, adherence, and public and private expenditure in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: We used provincial administrative claims data from January 2014 to June 2017 for all individuals historically tested for either hepatitis C and/or human immunodeficiency virus. Using interrupted time series analysis, we examined the impact of public insurance coverage on treatment uptake, adherence (proportion of days covered), and public and private expenditures. RESULTS: Over our study period, 4,462 treatment initiations were eligible for analysis (1,131 sofosbuvir and 3,331 ledipasvir-sofosbuvir, which include 19 patients initiated on both treatments). We found the start of public coverage for sofosbuvir and ledipasvir-sofosbuvir increased treatment uptake by 154%. Adherence rates were consistently high and did not change with public coverage. Finally, public expenditure increased after the policy change, and crowded out some private expenditure. CONCLUSION: Public coverage for high-cost drugs for hepatitis C dramatically increased use of these drugs, but did not reduce adherence. From a health policy perspective, public payers should be prepared for increased treatment uptake following the availability of public coverage. However, they should not be concerned that populations without private insurance coverage will be less adherent and not finish their treatment course.

11.
CMAJ Open ; 9(1): E167-E174, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-quality estimates of health care costs are required to understand the burden of illness and to inform economic models. We estimated the costs associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from the public payer perspective in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: In this population-based retrospective cohort study, we identified patients aged 18-105 years diagnosed with chronic HCV infection in Ontario from 2003 to 2014 using linked administrative data. We allocated the time from diagnosis until death or the end of follow-up (Dec. 31, 2016) to 9 mutually exclusive health states using validated algorithms: no cirrhosis, no cirrhosis (RNA negative) (i.e., cured HCV infection), compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, both decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, terminal (liver-related) and terminal (non-liver-related). We estimated direct medical costs (in 2018 Canadian dollars) per 30 days per health state and used regression models to identify predictors of the costs. RESULTS: We identified 48 239 patients with chronic hepatitis C, of whom 30 763 (63.8%) were men and 35 891 (74.4%) were aged 30-59 years at diagnosis. The mean 30-day costs were $798 (95% confidence interval [CI] $780-$816) (n = 43 568) for no cirrhosis, $661 (95% CI $630-$692) (n = 6422) for no cirrhosis (RNA negative), $1487 (95% CI $1375-$1599) (n = 4970) for compensated cirrhosis, $3659 (95% CI $3279-$4039) (n = 3151) for decompensated cirrhosis, $4238 (95% CI $3480-$4996) (n = 550) for hepatocellular carcinoma, $8753 (95% CI $7130-$10 377) (n = 485) for both decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, $4539 (95% CI $3746-$5333) (n = 372) for liver transplantation, $11 202 (95% CI $10 645-$11 760) (n = 3201) for terminal (liver-related) and $8801 (95% CI $8331-$9271) (n = 5278) for terminal (non-liver-related) health states. Comorbidity was the most significant predictor of total costs for all health states. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the financial burden of HCV infection is substantially higher than previously estimated in Canada. Our comprehensive, up-to-date cost estimates for clinically defined health states of HCV infection should be useful for future economic evaluations related to this disorder.

12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734949

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is an essential way to prevent the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Various studies have been published on the cost-effectiveness of HBV vaccination, but since the results vary according to the target population and related health outcomes, this study examined the cost-effectiveness of the universal HBV vaccination in Iran. In this economic evaluation study, a decision tree with the Markov model was used to compare the universal HBV vaccination with a strategy of non-vaccination. Health states used in the model included healthy, chronic hepatitis B, compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Analyses were performed from a payer's perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per life-year gained, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained were calculated at a 5% annual discount rate. The sensitivity analysis was conducted using Monte Carlo simulation. Analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel and TreeAge Pro 2011 software. In 2017, the estimated cost per dose for any HBV vaccine was $3.20 USD. The universal HBV vaccination was economically advantageous compared to non-vaccination, and the estimated cost of this program per life-year and QALY gained were $6,319 and negative (-) $1,183.85 USD, respectively. Given the uncertainty of all parameters, the model remained robust and reliable. In Iran, the universal HBV vaccination strategy for both health outcomes of QALY and life-years gained was cost-effective and advantageous. The vaccination strategy saved money, increased life years and improved quality of life. Therefore, it is recommended that this program continues to be provided.

13.
Korean J Radiol ; 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the 2018 Korean Liver Cancer Association-National Cancer Center (KLCA-NCC) Practice Guidelines (hereafter, PG) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, compared to the Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) version 2018 (hereafter, v2018). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2013 to October 2015, treatment-naïve hepatic lesions (≥ 1 cm) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B or cirrhosis were retrospectively evaluated. For each lesion, three radiologists independently analyzed the imaging features and classified the lesions into categories according to the 2018 KLCA-NCC PG and LI-RADS v2018. The imaging features and categories were determined by consensus. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to compare the per-lesion diagnostic performance of the 2018 KLCA-NCC PG and LI-RADS v2018 using the consensus data. RESULTS: In total, 422 lesions (234 HCCs, 45 non-HCC malignancies, and 143 benign lesions) from 387 patients (79% male; mean age, 59 years) were included. In all lesions, the definite HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a higher sensitivity and lower specificity than LR-5 (LI-RADS v2018) (87.2% [204/234] vs. 80.8% [189/234], p < 0.001; 86.2% [162/188] vs. 91.0% [171/188], p = 0.002). However, in lesions of size ≥ 2 cm, the definite HCC had a higher sensitivity than the LR-5 (86.8% [164/189] vs. 82.0 (155/189), p = 0.002) without a reduction in the specificity (80.0% [48/60] vs. 83.3% [50/60], p = 0.15). In all lesions, the sensitivity and specificity of the definite/probable HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) and LR-5/4 did not differ significantly (89.7% [210/234] vs. 91.5% [214/234], p = 0.204; 83.5% [157/188] vs. 79.3% [149/188], p = 0.071). CONCLUSION: For the diagnosis of HCC of size ≥ 2 cm, the definite HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a higher sensitivity than LR-5, without a reduction in specificity. The definite/probable HCC (2018 KLCA-NCC PG) had a similar sensitivity and specificity to that those of the LR-5/4.

14.
Dig Dis ; 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721872

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Advancing age, comorbidity, and financial burden have been observed in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients globally. As Japan is leading the world in aging demographics, similar real-world data are urgently needed for its CHB population to inform all stakeholders. METHODS: This cross-sectional study characterized the demographics, comorbidities, and healthcare costs of a large Japanese real-world adult (≥18 years) CHB patient (ICD-10: B18.1) population from the Medical Data Vision database from 01/01/2012 to 31/12/2016. Comorbidities were identified by ICD-10 codes and the annual point-prevalence and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score were calculated. Annual mean and median all-cause healthcare utilization and costs per-patient were calculated. Comparison tests were conducted for CCI scores, prevalence of comorbidities and healthcare resource utilization and costs. RESULTS: We identified 11,125 CHB patients. Between 2012 and 2016, the mean age increased from 62.0±13.3 to 65.2±13.2 years, and the percentage of those aged ≥65 years increased from 45.6% to 60.7%. The prevalence of cirrhosis remained similar (5.8% in 2012 and 5.6% in 2016, p=0.69) while hepatocellular carcinoma decreased from 6.3% to 4.5% (p<0.01). The prevalence of non-liver comorbidities increased (40.9% to 52.0% for cancer (p<0.01), 12.1% to 17.7% for osteoporosis (p<0.01), and 10.7% to 15.0% for renal impairment (p<0.01). Healthcare resource utilization and costs also increased, with a 119.3% increase in the median total healthcare costs from ¥229,143 in 2012 to ¥502,467 in 2016 (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The CHB population of Japan is predominantly elderly and carry a high non-liver comorbidity burden, while incurring increasing healthcare costs.

15.
Microb Pathog ; 154: 104828, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, hepatitis B and schistosomiasis (Mansoni) together affect about 300 million people; which cause hepatic disorders worldwide. Given that little is known about co-infections with hepatitis B and schistosoma mansoni, the present study investigates these two health problems alone and together and their possible correlation. METHODS: A search was conducted for reports published between January 1990 and October 2020 by using Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science databases; Out of a total of 20 studies, 14 cross-sectional studies (6329 people) and 6 case-control studies (2138 individual) were reviewed. The pooled prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), S.mansoni infections, and their co-infections; heterogeneity and the Odds Ratio (OR) were evaluated by Stata 11.2. FINDINGS: Among the included studies in the inclusion criteria, the pooled prevalence of hepatitis B, S. mansoni was 34% (95% CI, 0.23-0.46), 41% (95% CI, 0.24-0.59) and their co-infections was 18% (95% CI, 0.11-0.25) by regions. The hepatitis B and S. mansoni correlation was significant in populations with schistosoma compared to control group (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.36-3.30). COMMENTARY: Our results showed that in addition to the high global prevalence of hepatitis B- S. mansoni (co) infections in the included studies, there is a significant association between them, especially in people suffering from schistosoma. These results highlight the importance of integrated interventions measurements against coexistence of parasitic and viral diseases. We know that more research studies need to be done in this field and global monitoring should be considered for the co-infection of these two important complications.

16.
J Viral Hepat ; 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759257

ABSTRACT

Modelling suggests hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination is possible among men who have sex with men (MSM), with key screening groups including HIV-diagnosed MSM and MSM using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Mathematical modelling was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of HCV case-finding strategies among MSM from the provider perspective, and to determine which interventions could achieve a 90% reduction in HCV incidence over 2015-2030. At baseline, we assumed symptomatic screening in HIV-negative MSM (including PrEP users) and 12-monthly screening among HIV-diagnosed MSM. Improved case-finding strategies included screening alongside HIV testing in HIV-negative MSM not using PrEP (PrEP non-users); 12/6/3-monthly screening in PrEP users; and 6-monthly screening in HIV-diagnosed MSM, with the cost-effectiveness being compared incrementally. Costs (GBP) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were assessed to estimate the mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with a time horizon to 2050, compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/QALY. From the baseline, the most incrementally cost-effective strategy is to firstly undertake: (1) 12-monthly HCV screening of PrEP users (gaining 6715 QALYs with ICER £1760/QALY), followed by (2) HCV screening among PrEP non-users alongside HIV testing (gaining 7048 QALYs with ICER £4972/QALY). Compared to the baseline, this combined strategy would cost £46.9 (95%CrI £25.3-£66.9) million and achieve the HCV elimination target in 100% of model runs. Additional screening incurs ICERs >£20,000/QALY compared to this combined strategy. In conclusion, HCV elimination can be achieved cost-effectively among UK MSM. Policymakers should consider scaling-up HCV screening in HIV-negative MSM, especially PrEP users, for achieving this target.

17.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(2): 101564, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740477

ABSTRACT

Significant steps must be taken to reduce the global incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and mortality from HCV infection to achieve the WHO goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. Proper epidemiological surveillance of the full continuum of care is essential for monitoring progress and identifying gaps that need to be addressed. The tools required for elimination have largely been established, and the issue at hand is more how they should best be implemented in different settings around the world. Documenting good practices allows for knowledge exchange to prevent transmission and improve health outcomes for people with HCV. This review found 13 well documented HCV good practices that have become the standard of care or that should become the standard of care as soon as possible. In 2013, highly effective direct-acting antiviral therapy became available, which has cure rates of over 95%. Together with this new therapy, evidence-based good practices can help countries eliminate viral hepatitis C.

18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of our study was to characterize the performance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prediction models in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients through meta-analysis followed by external validation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of current literature, followed by external validation in independent multi-center cohort with 986 patients with CHB undergoing entecavir treatment (median follow-up: 4.7 years). Model performance to predict HCC within 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was assessed using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration index. Subgroup analysis were conducted by treatment status, cirrhotic, race and baseline alanine aminotransferase. RESULTS: We identified 14 models with 123,885 patients (5,452 HCC cases), with REACH-B, CU-HCC, GAG-HCC, PAGE-B and mPAGE-B models being broadly externally validated. Discrimination was generally acceptable for all models, with pooled AUC ranging from 0.70 (95% CI, 0.63-0.76 for REACH-B) to 0.83 (95% CI, 0.78-0.87 for REAL-B) for 3-year, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.64-0.73 for REACH-B) to 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77-0.85 for REAL-B) for 5-year and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.58-0.80 for PAGE-B) to 0.81 (95% CI, 0.78-0.84 for REAL-B and 0.77-0.86 for AASL-HCC) for 10-year prediction. However, calibration performance was poorly reported in most studies. In external validation cohort, REAL-B showed highest discrimination with 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69-0.83) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70-0.81) for 3 and 5-year prediction. The REAL-B model was also well calibrated in the external validation cohort (3-year Brier score 0.066). Results were consistent in subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In a systematic review of available HCC models, the REAL-B model exhibited best discrimination and calibration.

19.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(1): 25-40, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541021

ABSTRACT

The age-adjusted incidence of primary liver cancer (PLC) has been declining in China. However, PLC cases in China account for 55% globally. The disease burden is still high and the 5-year survival rate was not improved significantly in the past two decades. This guideline outlines PLC screening in the risk populations, both in hospital and community. Liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B are the main causes of PLC in China. For better PLC surveillance and screening in clinical practices, it is recommended to stratify population at the risk into 4 risk levels, namely, low-risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk, and extremely high-risk.The lifelong surveillance is suggested for those at the risk of PLC. The intervals and tools for surveillance and screening are recommended based on the risk levels. Abdominal ultrasonography combined with serum alpha-fetoprotein examination (routine surveillance) every 6 months is recommended for those at a high risk of PLC.Routine surveillance every 3 months and enhanced CT/MRI examination every 6-12 months are recommended for those at an extremely high risk of PLC. The surveillance interval can be extended every 1 year or longer for those at a low-risk or at an intermediate-risk of PLC, because their annual incidence of PLC is very low. The cost-effectiveness of these recommendations remains to be evaluated.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Neoplasms , China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(2)2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627360

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Over half of those hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV coinfected live in low-income and middle-income countries, and many remain undiagnosed or untreated. In 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) established a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment programme for people HCV/HIV coinfected in Myanmar. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the real-world cost and cost-effectiveness of this programme, and potential cost-effectiveness if implemented by the Ministry of Health (MoH). METHODS: Costs (patient-level microcosting) and treatment outcomes were collected from the MSF prospective cohort study in Dawei, Myanmar. A Markov model was used to assess cost-effectiveness of the programme compared with no HCV treatment from a health provider perspective. Estimated lifetime and healthcare costs (in 2017 US$) and health outcomes (in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)) were simulated to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), compared with a willingness-to-pay threshold of per capita Gross Domestic Product in Myanmar ($1250). We evaluated cost-effectiveness with updated quality-assured generic DAA prices and potential cost-effectiveness of a proposed simplified treatment protocol with updated DAA prices if implemented by the MoH. RESULTS: From November 2016 to October 2017, 122 with HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were treated with DAAs (46% with cirrhosis), 96% (n=117) achieved sustained virological response. Mean treatment costs were $1229 (without cirrhosis) and $1971 (with cirrhosis), with DAA drugs being the largest contributor to cost. Compared with no treatment, the program was cost-effective (ICER $634/DALY averted); more so with updated prices for quality-assured generic DAAs (ICER $488/DALY averted). A simplified treatment protocol delivered by the MoH could be cost-effective if associated with similar outcomes (ICER $316/DALY averted). CONCLUSIONS: Using MSF programme data, the DAA treatment programme for HCV among HIV-coinfected individuals is cost-effective in Myanmar, and even more so with updated DAA prices. A simplified treatment protocol could enhance cost-effectiveness if further rollout demonstrates it is not associated with worse treatment outcomes.

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