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1.
Preprint in Portuguese | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-3333

ABSTRACT

The sensory and affective impact of a photograph in a journalistic story can mitigate the headline's message and even the content of the report as a whole, with the potential to lead the reader to countless parallel stories. These stories can overlap with the theme explored by the media, but they can also expand to various other issues, memories, events, authors unveiling to the reader other situational layers that transcend the sphere of simple reading, conducting to reflexivity. This text, therefore, intends to reflect carefully on health inequities, especially in relation to the distribution of vaccines against COVID-19 on the planet, based on an image published by France Presse in an article about a day with a huge amount of application of doses of vaccine against COVID-19 in India.


El impacto sensorial y afectivo de una fotografía en una historia periodística puede mitigar el mensaje principal de la notícia e incluso todo el contenido del informe en su conjunto, con el potencial de conducir al lector a innumerables historias paralelas. Estas historias pueden superponerse con el tema explorado por los medios de comunicación, pero también pueden expandirse a varios otros temas, recuerdos, eventos, autores que develan al lector otras capas situacionales que trascienden la esfera de la lectura simple, lo que promoviendo a la reflexividad. Este texto, por tanto, pretende reflexionar detenidamente sobre las inequidades en salud, especialmente en relación a la distribución de vacunas contra COVID-19 en el planeta, a partir de una imagen publicada por France Presse en un artículo sobre un día con un registro de aplicación de dosis de vacuna contra COVID-19 en India.


O impacto sensorial e afetivo de uma fotografia em uma matéria jornalística pode mitigar a mensagem da lide e até mesmo o conteúdo da reportagem como um todo, com potencial para conduzir o leitor a um sem-número de histórias paralelas. Essas histórias podem se imbricar ao tema explorado pela mídia, mas também podem se expandir para várias outras questões, memórias, eventos, autores desvelando para o leitor outras camadas situacionais que transcendem a esfera da simples leitura conduzindo à reflexividade. Este texto tem, portanto, a pretensão de refletir detidamente acerca das iniquidades em saúde, em especial em relação à distribuição de vacinas contra a COVID-19 no planeta, a partir de uma imagem publicada pela France Presse numa matéria sobre um dia com recorde de aplicação de doses da vacina contra a COVID-19 na Índia.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 150551, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627115

ABSTRACT

Exposure to urban greenspaces promotes a variety of mental health benefits. However, much of the evidence for these benefits is biased towards high-income countries. In contrast, urban areas in low-income settings that have the highest rates of urbanisation remain understudied. Given the increasing burden of mental ill-health associated with urbanisation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a clear need to better understand the role urban greenspaces play in mitigating mental ill-health. Here we use a novel combination of research methods (participatory video, focus groups and the Q-methodology) in a rapidly urbanising low-income city (Kathmandu, Nepal). We explored residents' perspectives on ecosystem services, and the pathways linking greenspaces to mental health. Residents indicated that greenspaces are linked to mental health through pathways such as reducing harm (exposure to air pollution and heat), restoring capacities (attention restoration and stress reduction), building capacities (encouraging physical activity, fostering social cohesion and child development) and causing harm (human - wildlife conflicts, gender discrimination). It is likely that a combination of such pathways triggers mental health impacts. Of all ecosystem services, cultural services such as providing settings for recreation, or intellectual or mental interactions with greenspaces involving analytical, symbolic, spiritual or religious activities were most preferred. Our findings emphasise that cultural ecosystem services provide a fundamental basic need which all people, including low-income residents, depend on to participate meaningfully in society. Urban greenspaces therefore play a pivotal role in reducing the burden of mental ill-health for low-income residents in LMICs. Greater efforts to increase the quantity, quality and accessibility of greenspaces may help to address current health inequalities in LMICs.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Mental Health , Child , Humans , Parks, Recreational , Poverty
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150929, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655624

ABSTRACT

Making cities safe, resilient and sustainable is one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Health risk, productivity loss and climate change caused by air pollution obstacles the present urban sustainable development, especially people living in middle-and low-income countries areas are most affected. The spatial models (such as SAR and SEM) are often considered to examine the driven factors and the spatial spillover effect of PM2.5 concentrations. Given that these spatial models assume spatially dependent second-order moments of the dependent variable without considering the possible autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity. This present study empirically examines the heterogeneous effects of economic development, secondary industry, FDI, population density, number of buses and urbanization on PM2.5 concentrations in 269 Chinese cities using the SAR, spARCH and SARspARCH, respectively. This newly proposed Spatial ARCH model is the first attempt to be applied to environmental research. The empirical results indicate that an increasing spatial correlation with PM2.5 concentration was observed among 269 cities during 2004-2016, and the most influential cities in high-high clustering are mainly located in North China. Furthermore, except for population density, the effects of other factors are heterogeneous on the time scale. Among those socioeconomic factors, population density shows the largest contribution to urban PM2.5 pollution, the effects of secondary industry, GDP and FDI may be overestimated in the absence of spatial neighbouring effects in mean or variance. The comparative analysis could provide new enlightenments for a deeper understanding of the socioeconomic impact on PM2.5 pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 99-114, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672829

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to systematically review and synthesize quantitative studies that assessed the association between socioeconomic inequalities and primary health care (PHC) utilization among older people living in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Six databases were searched, including Embase, Medline, Psych Info, Global Health, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI, to identify eligible studies. A narrative synthesis approach was used for evidence synthesis. A total of 20 eligible cross-sectional studies were included in this systematic review. The indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) identified included income level, education, employment/occupation, and health insurance. Most studies reported that higher income, higher educational levels and enrollment in health insurance plans were associated with increased PHC utilization. Several studies suggested that people who were unemployed and economically inactive in older age or who had worked in formal sectors were more likely to use PHC. Our findings suggest a pro-rich phenomenon of PHC utilization in older people living in LMICs, with results varying by indicators of SES and study settings.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Social Class , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Income , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
5.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 113974, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710764

ABSTRACT

In the context of carbon neutrality and the National Economic Circle Strategy, understanding regional disparities in carbon emissions from household consumption is conducive to regional coordination as well as high-quality and low-carbon development in China. In this study, a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model and structural decomposition analysis (SDA) are adopted to investigate the regional disparity change trends of embedded carbon emissions (ECEs) from urban households and the underlying drivers during the rapid economic development period from 2002 to 2012 in China. The results indicate that the eastern regions tended to have larger increments in total urban household ECEs, while the western regions tended to have faster growth rates. An increasing disparity and evident outsourcing pattern can be observed during the study period. The consumption level had a strong positive effect on urban household ECEs in all of the provinces, while the carbon efficiency, consumption pattern, production structure, and population size had differentiated offsetting effects on urban household ECEs in various provinces. The results obtained in this study are conducive to promoting joint efforts for carbon emission reduction and narrowing regional disparities.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Outsourced Services , Carbon/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , China , Economic Development
6.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105177, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statistics reveal that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) older adults experience health disparities and barriers to accessing healthcare because of discrimination and fear of disclosing sexual orientation. Nurses receive limited education on LGBTQ health issues and even less information specifically about LGBTQ older adults. This study exposed novice nurses to the documentary, Gen Silent, which details LGBTQ older adult experiences. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to increase participants' understanding of LGBTQ older adult health disparities and experiences. DESIGN: A one-group, pre-/post-test design was conducted to test the effect of the documentary on knowledge and attitudes about LGBTQ older adult issues. SETTINGS: The project was set in five academic and community-based hospitals located in the mid-Atlantic region. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 379 nurses attending a nurse residency program participated in the study. METHODS: A questionnaire including a 16-item standardized scale and an open-ended question asking how participants would change their practice was administered before and immediately after the intervention. We assessed change in pre- and post-test knowledge scores using Wilcoxon Sign Rank test and summarized themes of the open-ended question. RESULTS: Findings revealed statistically significant increases in 9 of the 16 items on the scale showing an increase of knowledge and inclusive attitude. Answers to the open-ended question revealed that most participants would ask patients for preferred pronouns and take steps to increase their own understanding of LGBTQ patients and their needs. CONCLUSION: This research supports the use of a documentary as an intervention to facilitate education related to LGBTQ older adults. Further research is needed exposing healthcare professionals of varied experience in diverse healthcare settings to LGBTQ education.


Subject(s)
Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Aged , Female , Gender Identity , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Sexual Behavior
7.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 239: 113876, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757280

ABSTRACT

Access to hygiene services remains one of the most urgent challenges facing countries, especially low-income ones. This has become much more critical in the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program globally monitors access to hygiene service levels. As data are in three parts with a constant sum and a positive value, they are compositional data. Inequality is monitored in disaggregated data; in the urban-rural case, this is done through a simple difference between the urban and rural service levels. However, this simple form of calculation does not take into account the characteristics of the data, which can lead to erroneous interpretations of the results. Therefore, we propose an alternative measure of inequality that uses a ternary diagram and does not infringe on the data properties. The results of the new urban-rural inequality measure show spatial heterogeneity. The highest inequality occurs in Colombia, with a value of 37.1 percentage points, and the lowest in Turkmenistan, with a value of zero. Our results also show that 73 of the 76 countries evaluated have higher basic hygiene services in urban areas than in rural areas. This means that urban households have more availability of a handwashing facility on-premises with soap and water than rural households. Likewise, by subdividing the ternary diagram into ternary parcels, we could group and rank the countries based on hygiene service conditions in a hierarchical order using tripartite information. Finally, our study finds that a multivariate measure of inequality can be important for the public policies of the sector with a general vision, which underscores the value of making evidence-based decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Hygiene , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 164: 106471, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773873

ABSTRACT

Cyclists are vulnerable road users and face disproportionately high rates of road trauma, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Behaviour of road users is a system outcome, and thus studying cyclist behaviours can identify problems in the whole road transport system and assist in generating long-lasting, cost-effective solutions to promote cyclist safety. This study aims to investigate the similarities and disparities of cycling behaviour among countries with different income levels and cycling prevalence, and the relationships among cyclist demographic characteristics, behaviours and crash involvement. It applies the Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ) to measure the behaviour of cyclists in three countries: Australia (high-income, emerging cycling country), China (mid-income, traditional cycling country) and Colombia (low-income, emerging cycling country). A total of 1094 cyclists (Australia 347, China 368, and Colombia 379) with a mean age of 31.8 years completed the online questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to examine the factorial structure of the CBQ. The results showed that the three-factor CBQ (i.e., Traffic Violations, Errors and Positive Behaviours) had a stable and uniform factorial structure across all three countries. Cyclists reported more frequent positive behaviours than risky behaviours across all three countries. The Australian cyclists reported more positive behaviours and fewer violations than cyclists from the other countries, which is likely to reflect the road environment, policy and enforcement differences. Male cyclists tended to engage in more risky riding than females and reported more crash involvement. Older cyclists reported less risky riding and less involvement in crashes than younger cyclists. Cyclists who rode more often reported more frequent risky riding. The study helps understand the prevalence of risky/positive cyclist behaviours among countries and provides insights for developing systematic countermeasures to improve cycling environment and cyclist safety.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Bicycling , Adult , Australia , Colombia , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 48(1): 259-270, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798951

ABSTRACT

This article provides an in-depth review of telemedicine and its use in pediatric rheumatology. Historical barriers to the use of telemedicine in pediatric chronic care are described, and recent policy changes that have supported the use of telemedicine are discussed. Future directions and suggestions for the evaluation of telemedicine in pediatric rheumatology care are provided with a special focus on clinical outcomes, its use in research, patient acceptability, and health equity.


Subject(s)
Rheumatology , Telemedicine , Child , Humans
10.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 48(1): 331-342, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798956

ABSTRACT

Implementation science is the study of processes that promote reliable uptake of evidence-based practices into clinical care. The integration of implementation science and health disparities research approaches has been proposed as a method to reduce health inequity through detection, understanding, and implementation of health equity-focused interventions. In this review, we provide an argument for the study of implementation science in pediatric rheumatology in light of previously observed health disparities, present a framework for the study of health equity and implementation science in pediatric rheumatology, and propose next steps to accelerate action.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Rheumatology , Child , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Implementation Science , Research Design
11.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 23(1): 88-100, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452296

ABSTRACT

Some groups of women are more vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV) due to particular risks and/or experiences: women with disabilities, elderly women, and immigrant women (DEI). Too often, their reality goes unnoticed, especially for those belonging to more than one of these groups. In this literature review, researchers used an intersectional approach to document the similarities and differences in how DEI women experience IPV, in terms of forms and consequences, as well as related risk factors, explanatory theories, and prevention strategies. Researchers selected 56 articles for review based on the following inclusion criteria: studies on adults living in a situation of IPV, studies on one of the three demographics under study (DEI), studies about one or multiple research questions, and studies based on empirical data relying on research methodology in either French or English. Researchers evaluated each selected article for its quality according to a chart that was specially developed for this review. The results highlight existing "intersections" between these groups to help understand the influence of belonging to more than one vulnerability group on these women's experiences with IPV. The importance to better training social workers and developing policies and programs that target the social determinants of health to prevent IPV experienced by DEI is also discussed.

12.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(Suppl 1): S82-S90, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487923

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Achieving a meaningful reduction in health inequities will require not only policy and programmatic changes but also an increased understanding of structural racism and its deleterious impact on health and well-being. One way to enhance understanding is to actively promote "perspective transformation" (PT) around race among health equity stakeholders. Experiences of PT are defined as moments or events that bring about a deepened understanding of racism and that may result in new ways of thinking and acting. OBJECTIVE: To identify catalysts and effects of PT among health equity stakeholders. DESIGN: Semistructured, in-person interviews were conducted with stakeholders (n = 50) as part of a 2-phase, mixed-methods study (n = 170). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using a mixed-methods software platform. SETTING: Health Improvement Partnership-Cuyahoga (HIP-Cuyahoga), a regional health and equity initiative in Greater Cleveland, Ohio. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of participants in HIP-Cuyahoga spanning 5 groups: metro-wide decision makers, public health professionals, clinicians, community leaders, and community members. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of interviewees reported at least one discrete experience that catalyzed PT, as defined earlier. Three catalysts were especially common: witnessing, learning, and personally experiencing racism. A fourth, less common catalyst involved getting uncomfortable during discussions of race and racism. Experiences of PT resulted in common effects including acquiring new terms, concepts, and frameworks; carrying the conversation forward; finding fellow travelers; and feeling energized and motivated to confront structural racism and its consequences. People of color tended to experience PT, and its catalysts and effects, differently than White interviewees. CONCLUSIONS: Many health equity stakeholders have experienced PT around racism and its impact. Experiencing PT is associated with new skills, capacities, and motivations to confront racism and its impact on health and well-being. Understanding how different groups experience PT can help advance efforts to promote health equity.

13.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E146-E154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810071

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: There is growing evidence that social factors contribute disproportionately to health outcomes in the United States as compared with health care services. As a result, nonprofit hospitals are incorporating strategies to address social needs into their Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-mandated community benefit work. Much of the research base on this subject, however, has focused on the efforts of adult-serving hospitals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether communities surrounding children's hospitals are unique with regard to social needs and categorize how children's hospitals are addressing social needs in their IRS-mandated community benefit work. METHODS: Using county-level health and economic data, we compared community characteristics of children's hospital counties with the national average. We then coded and analyzed the community benefit reports of all nonprofit children's hospitals in the United States to categorize the different strategies that hospitals adopt to address social needs. RESULTS: Children's hospitals (N = 168) serve communities with greater social needs than the national average. In terms of community benefit investments, children's hospitals were more likely to identify social needs in their community health needs assessment than adult-serving hospitals, but still less than half identified or addressed 1 or more social needs. Children's hospitals were more likely to adopt interventions that address broader population health rather than strategies that focus on clinical services or children and adolescents in particular. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric health care institutions have a profound opportunity to reduce health disparities by altering the social environments in which children develop. Policy makers and scholars should provide support and resources to increase community benefit investments in this area.

14.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E85-E91, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956288

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated the restrictions on preexisting conditions for health care coverage. Little is known about the effects of the ACA on health care access among individuals with chronic health conditions. OBJECTIVE: To determine how the implementations of the ACA affected health care access for adults with chronic health conditions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from respondents aged 18 to 64 years to the 2011-2017 nationally representative Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BFRSS) who reported preexisting chronic health conditions (n = 1 133 609). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the changes in health care access from 2011-2013 (before the ACA) to 2015-2017 (after the ACA), overall and by sociodemographic groups. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Self-reported access to health care coverage, skipped doctor visits because of cost issues, and having a routine checkup in the past 12 months. RESULTS: The percentage of adults with chronic health conditions having no health care coverage declined from 19.7% before the ACA to 11.9% after the ACA (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.5], P < .001), the percentage of skipped doctor visits because of cost declined from 24.6% to 20.0% (AOR = 0.8, P < .001), and the percentage with an annual routine checkup increased from 69.6% to 72.5% (AOR = 1.1, P < .001). The improvements in health care access were pronounced across sociodemographic groups after the ACA, especially among some disadvantaged groups (ie, young adults, non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics, and those with low income and low education). However, substantial disparities in health care access persisted, especially among individuals with low socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies substantial improvements in health care access among adults with chronic health conditions after ACA implementation, especially among disadvantaged populations.

15.
Health Commun ; 37(1): 127-130, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962425

ABSTRACT

In this defining moments essay, the author describes a day in her life as a woman living with uterine fibroids. As a Black woman scholar, the author found unwell and bloody bodies are counterproductive to some academic institutions, which make little to no room for the deep, intersectional stories of wounded, healing and recovering academics. Not only is the journey toward healing one that has often been muted, but it has been silent in many journal spaces, though the fibroid condition is a very common epidemic often leading to other health conditions and procedures. This essay discusses how the shared stories found in collective racial, gender, and faith identification work together to address health disparities among specific intersectional identities with the Strong Black Woman image and true strength in mind. In the end, the author urges Black women scholars to participate in loud healing to counter the spiral of silence present in many research spaces and Black bodies.

16.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(1): 148-157, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This research has two primary goals: to examine the relationship between urban residence and trajectories of depressive symptoms and to investigate whether this relationship differs by social isolation and loneliness. METHOD: Data are from 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged 51+ (n = 3,346 females and 2,441 males). We conduct latent growth curve analysis to predict both baseline and trajectories of depression based on urban or rural residency. RESULTS: Residing in urban or rural areas is neither significantly associated with baseline nor the development of late-life depressive symptoms. For females, the relationship between urban residence and baseline depressive symptoms is explained by socioeconomic factors. DISCUSSION: Findings of this study serve to better understand how social and geographic contexts shape long-term well-being of older adults.

17.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E291-E298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797504

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The Public Health Accreditation Board requires accredited local health departments (LHDs) to complete community health improvement plans (CHIPs). Evidence suggests that participatory planning frameworks, cross-sector collaboration, social determinants of health (SDOHs), and steering organizations are integral to effective public health planning. However, little is known about the degree to which LHDs incorporate these aspects during the CHIP process. OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of planning methods, SDOHs, cross-sector partnerships, and steering organizations during the CHIP development process among nationally accredited LHDs and to identify whether LHD jurisdictional size or region is associated with differences in use. DESIGN: The most recent CHIPs from 93% of all nationally accredited LHDs (n = 195) were qualitatively reviewed and numerically coded for each of the planning components to calculate frequency and degree of use. Differences in use of each component by LHDs' jurisdictional size and region were tested using the chi-square test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of CHIP planning frameworks, SDOH inclusion, cross-sector partnerships, and steering organizations. RESULTS: One-half of LHDs (53%) reported use of Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships, but nearly one-fourth of LHDs did not use any planning framework. LHDs with a large jurisdictional size (>500 000) were significantly more likely to include SDOHs to a high degree than LHDs with mid- (100 000-499 999) to small- (<99 999) jurisdictional size (P < .01). Similarly, large LHDs were more likely to include cross-sector partners except for the category community members, which were rarely (10%) included. Mid-sized LHDs were more likely to lead the CHIP steering committee (61%) than small (29%) and large (9%) LHDs (P < .01). Differences in use of the 4 components by region were less significant. CONCLUSIONS: Jurisdictional size, rather than region, was more strongly associated with LHD approaches to CHIP development. More studies are needed to determine how differences influence CHIP implementation and impact.

18.
Violence Against Women ; 28(1): 169-193, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851562

ABSTRACT

In China, women who domestically relocate from rural or less developed regions to major cities are at a higher risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) than their non-migrant counterparts. Few studies have focused on Chinese domestic migrant women's help-seeking for IPV and their use of different sources of support. The present study aimed to identify factors that influence migrant women's help-seeking decisions. In addition, we also examined factors that contribute to migrant women's use of diverse sources of support for IPV. A sample of 280 migrant women victimized by IPV in the past year at the time of the survey was drawn from a larger cross-sectional study conducted in four major urban cities in China, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen. Using a multinomial logistic regression model and a zero-inflated Poisson model, we found that factors influencing migrant women's help-seeking decisions and their use of diverse sources of support included socioeconomic factors, IPV type, relationship-related factors, knowledge of China's first anti-Domestic Violence Law, and perception of the effectiveness of current policies. We discuss implications for future research and interventions.

19.
West J Nurs Res ; 44(1): 94-100, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882769

ABSTRACT

Participation by people of color in research studies is important for generalizability and to mitigate health disparities. Barriers to recruitment are well documented, but less well known is how to succeed. This paper describes successful strategies for recruitment and retention of pregnant Black women for a multisite study of preterm birth. Recruiters provided input on strategies. Participant level strategies include: commitment to being respectful, friendly, and reliable; addressing concerns regarding confidentiality; acknowledging competing priorities; and when possible, matching recruiters by gender and race. Clinical level strategies include: the formation of a good working relationship with the clinical staff; prioritizing clinical care above research activities; and obtaining access to the electronic medical record systems. Protocol level strategies include: a wide enrollment window; coordinating biospecimen collection with the clinical laboratory tests; collecting survey data on an electronic tablet; text messaging; and providing compensation for the time needed to complete study activities.

20.
Patient Educ Couns ; 105(1): 62-73, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study communicative tasks executed and related strategies used by patients, health professionals, and medical interpreters. METHODS: English proficient and limited English proficient emergency department patients were observed. The content of patient-hospital staff communication was documented via pen and paper. Key themes and differences across interpreter types were established through qualitative analysis. Themes and differences across interpreter type were vetted and updated through member checking interviews. RESULTS: 6 English proficient and 9 limited English proficient patients were observed. Key themes in communicative tasks included: establishing, maintaining, updating, and repairing understanding and rapport. All tasks were observed with English proficient and limited English proficient patients. The difference with limited English proficient patients was that medical interpreters played an active role in completing communicative tasks. Telephone-based interpreters faced challenges in facilitating communicative tasks based on thematic comparisons with in-person interpreters, including issues hearing and lost information due to the lack of visual cues. CONCLUSIONS: Professional interpreters play an important role in communication between language discordant patients and health professionals that goes beyond verbatim translation. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Training for interpreters and health professionals, and the design of tools for facilitating language discordant communication, should consider the role of interpreters beyond verbatim translation.

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