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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226321, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1354787

ABSTRACT

Aim: This cross-sectional observational study aimed to evaluate the influence of the Universities lockdown measures on academic perspectives and psychosocial aspects of Brazilian finalyear dental students. Methods: 268 undergraduate students regularly enrolled in a Dentistry course at public universities were asked about anxiety, depression, stress sensitivity, and their academic perspectives by using an online survey. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression, while the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) evaluated stress levels. The academic perspective was evaluated by five affirmatives regarding possible difficulties that will be faced when school reopens and after graduation. The possible association between fear of having COVID-19 with psychosocial outcomes and COVID-19 association with academic perspectives were analyzed by ANOVA and chisquare tests, respectively, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering possible associations between the fear of having COVID-19 and psychosocial aspects, significant values were found for anxiety (P = 0.018) and stress sensitivity (P = 0.002). Regarding students' academic perspectives, COVID-19 had significant impact on less opportunity to perform procedures (P = 0.023), additional expenses with personal protective equipment (P = 0.007), and concerns of consulting elderly people (P = 0.012). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased psychological impairments and enlarged concerns with learning and biosecurity, which might impact academic perspectives. Thus, being aware of these apprehensions, university professors and staff can improve the clinical training of final-year dental students in an empathetic way


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anxiety , Students, Dental , Depression , Pandemics , COVID-19
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361637

ABSTRACT

Aim: to identify which complications and prognosis of diabetic patients, hospitalized, who acquired COVID-19, through a systematic review. Methods: a systematic review based on the PRISMA flowchart, including cohort studies, available in Portuguese, English, Spanish, French, and Mandarin, published from 2019 to 2020, using the PICOS strategy, in the databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus and Science Direct, which in addition to the inclusion criteria after questionnaires to assess methodological quality and risk of bias. Results: of the 811 articles researched, 6 were included in this research. These studies showed that patients with COVID-19 and higher DM with worse prognosis, spent more time in the ICU, constantly needed indifference, greater complications when related to other comorbidities, high mortality rate, and glycemic control associated with advanced age directly affected patients. Outcomes even of non-diabetic subjects. Conclusion: this review identified the severity of the pathophysiological association is related to older age and biochemical and inflammatory factors linked to the two pathogens and that these subjects are more prone to specialized hospital care, which, however, result in high rates of hospital mortality.


Objetivo: identificar quais complicações e prognósticos dos pacientes diabéticos, internados, que adquiriram COVID-19, por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: foi realizada uma revisão sistemática baseada no fluxograma PRISMA, incluindo estudos de coorte, disponíveis em português, inglês, espanhol, francês e mandarim, publicados de 2019 a 2020, utilizando a estratégia PICOS, nas bases de dados: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus e Sciece Direct. Além dos critérios de inclusão passam por questionários para avaliar a qualidade metodológica e risco de viés. Resultados: dos 811 artigos pesquisados, 6 foram incluídos nesta pesquisa. Esses estudos mostraram que pacientes com COVID-19 e DM apresentam pior prognóstico, maior permanência em UTI, necessidade constante de ventilação invasiva, maiores complicações quando relacionadas a outras comorbidades, elevado índice de mortalidade, e o controle glicêmico associado à idade avançada afetavam diretamente os desfechos inclusive de pacientes não diabéticos. Conclusão: esta revisão identificou que a gravidade da associação fisiopatológica está relacionada à idade mais avançada e aos fatores bioquímicos e inflamatórios ligados aos dois patógenos e que esses sujeitos são mais propensos ao atendimento hospitalar especializado, o que, no entanto, resulta em altas taxas de mortalidade hospitalar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Strategies , Hospital Mortality , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycemic Control
3.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 20(1): 2628, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497897

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Internationally, pharmacists have shown a pivotal role in alleviating the unprecedented spread of the COVID-19 as they are the first touchpoint to patients. The aim of this study to evaluate the UAE pharmacists' knowledge about and practice in the global COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted during a period from August 2020 to January 2021. A well-designed standardized English-based questionnaire was developed based on current literature and employed for this study. Findings: The results showed that 45.7% of the participated pharmacists expected to have a good level of knowledge about COVID-19 transmission, symptoms and treatment. Among the participated community pharmacists, around 25.7% educated their patients and 17.0% counseled the public about the current available therapeutic options for managing COVID-19 symptom. Most practiced activities hospital pharmacists (17.4%) was exploring new drug therapies or uses, while few hospital pharmacists (13.0%) participated in the antimicrobial stewardship programs and monitored antibiotic uses for COVID-19 cases and co-infections. Pharmacists at age ≥40 years old and have an experience of ≥10 years in the pharmacy field were more knowledgeable about COVID-19 with higher scores (p <0.001 and p= 0.001; respectively). Conclusions: The study revealed an appropriate average knowledge and practice toward COVID-19 among community and hospital pharmacists.

4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 63: 103913, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has precipitated expansion of telemedicine in outpatient management of chronic diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies conducted pre-pandemic, when telehealth was an alternative to in-person consultations, represent a different setting to current practice. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of telehealth on MS outpatient care in a tertiary metropolitan hospital in Melbourne, Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: From March-December 2020, patients and clinicians in the MS outpatient clinic were surveyed regarding their attitudes towards telehealth. Scores on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) from telehealth and face-to-face appointments during the study period were compared to scores from face-to-face consultations before and after this period. Medical records were reviewed to compare management decisions made during telehealth versus face-to-face consultations. Diagnoses and treatment of MS relapses were compared to 2019. RESULTS: Telehealth was used in 73% of outpatient appointments. Patient satisfaction was generally high. Patients and clinicians preferred face-to-face consultations but were willing to use telehealth longer term. Overall, there were no significant delays in identifying patients experiencing disability worsening via telehealth, but EDSS increase was recorded in more face-to-face than telehealth appointments particularly for those with lower baseline disability. Disease-modifying therapy commencement rates were similar, but symptomatic therapy initiation and investigation requests occurred more frequently in face-to-face visits. Comparable numbers of MS relapses were diagnosed and treated with corticosteroids in 2019 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Patient satisfaction with telehealth was high, but both clinicians and patients preferred in-person appointments. Telehealth implementation did not lead to high rates of undetected disability worsening or undiagnosed acute relapses, but telehealth-based EDSS assessment may underestimate lower scores. Treatment inertia may affect some management decisions during telehealth consultations. Telehealth will likely play a role in outpatient settings beyond the COVID-19 pandemic with further studies on its long-term impact on clinical outcomes required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Telemedicine , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Pandemics , Recurrence
6.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 72: 103276, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672210

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Todescribe and evaluate reported missed nursing care in the critical care context during different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: A comparative cross-sectional design was used, comparing missed nursing care in three samples: before the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019, during the second wave of the pandemic in spring 2020, and during the third wave of the pandemic in fall 2021. SETTING: The study was conducted at critical care units at a university hospital, Sweden. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The MISSCARE Survey-Swedish version was used to collect data along with two study-specific questions concerning perception of patient safety and quality of care. RESULTS: Significantly more overtime hours and number of days absent due to illness were reported during the pandemic. The nurse/patient ratio was above the recommended level at all data collection time points. Most missed nursing care was reported in items concerning basic care. The most reported reasons for missed nursing care in all samples concerned inadequate staffing, urgent situations, and a rise in patient volume. Most nurses in all samples perceived the level of patient safety and quality of care as good, and the majority had no intention to leave their current position. CONCLUSION: The pandemic had a great impact on the critical care workforce but few elements of missed nursing care were affected. To measure and use missed nursing care as a quality indicator could be valuable for nursing managers, to inform them and improve their ability to meet changes in patient needs with different workforce approaches in critical care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Care , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682394

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has involved healthcare workers (HCWs) both as caregivers and as patients. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the HCWs working in a third-level hospital in Central Italy who were infected with COVID-19 from March 2020 to April 2021. This research aims at identifying the physical and mental health outcomes of HCWs infected with COVID-19 who returned to work after the infection, the determinants of those outcomes, such as age and sex, and the identification of possible vulnerable professional groups. METHODS: A questionnaire about the acute illness, the experience of returning to work, and health perceptions after the disease was administered to 427 healthcare workers 3 months after recovering from the SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The majority interviewed (84.5%) reported symptoms at the time of the positive test, with no significant differences regarding age or sex, while a significant difference in the mean age was found regarding hospitalization (p < 0.001). At 3 months after the infection, females (p = 0.001), older workers (p < 0.001), and healthcare assistants (p < 0.001) were more likely to report persistent symptoms. Sex (p = 0.02) and age (p = 0.006) influenced the quality of sleep after the infection. At work, the nurses group reported increase in workload (p = 0.03) and worse relationships (p = 0.028). At 3 months after the infection, female workers perceived worse physical (p = 0.002) and mental (p < 0.001) health status according to the SF-12. A negative correlation was found between age and PCS score (p < 0.001) but not MCS score (p = 0.86). A significant difference in PCS score was found between nurses and physicians (p = 0.04) and between residents and all other groups (p < 0.001). Finally, the group of workers reporting sleep alterations showed lower PCS and MCS scores (p < 0.001) and working relationships had an impact on MCS scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Age, sex, and type of job had an impact on physical and mental outcomes. Organizing specific interventions, also tailored to professional sub-groups, should be a target for healthcare systems to protect and boost the physical and mental health of their workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Retrospective Studies , Return to Work , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Chemosphere ; 305: 135247, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688196

ABSTRACT

The significant issue affecting wastewater treatment is human faeces containing SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2, as a novel coronavirus, has expanded globally. While the current focus on the COVID-19 epidemic is rightly on preventing direct transmission, the risk of secondary transmission via wastewater should not be overlooked. Many researchers have demonstrated various methods and tools for preventing and declining this virus in wastewater treatment, especially for SARS-CoV-2 in human faeces. This research reports two people tested for 30 d, with written consent, at Mosa-Ebne-Jafar Hospital of Quchan, Iran, from September 1st to October 9th, 2021. The two people's conditions are the same. The Hyssop plant was used, which boosts the immune system's effectiveness and limonene, rosemary, caffeic acids and flavonoids, all biologically active compounds in this plant, cause improved breathing problems, colds, and especially for SARS-CoV-2. As a result, utilising the Hyssop plant can help in reducing SARS-CoV-2 in faeces. This plant's antioxidant properties effectively reduce SARS-CoV-2 in faeces by 30%; nevertheless, depending on the patient's condition. This plant is also beneficial for respiratory and digestive health.

9.
BJU Int ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689415

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of acute extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteric stones we present our experience of ESWL in 530 ureteric stone cases, in the largest UK series we are aware of to date. ESWL is underutilised in ureteric stone management. The Getting It Right First Time (GIRFT) report showed just four units nationally treated >10% of acute ureteric stones with ESWL. Despite guideline recommendations as a first-line treatment option, few large volume studies have been published. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data between December 2012 and February 2020 was performed. Data relating to patient demographics, stone characteristics, skin-to-stone distance, and treatment failure were collected. Cost analysis was conducted by the Trust's surgical financial manager. Multivariable analyses were performed to assess for predictors of ESWL success. RESULTS: A success rate of 68% (95% confidence interval 64%-72%) at 6 weeks was observed (n = 530). The median (interquartile range) number of treatment sessions was 2 (1, 2). Stone diameter was observed to be a predictor of ESWL success. The small number of stones treated of >13 mm or >1250 HU had an ~50% chance of successful treatment. Acute ureteric ESWL was less costly than acute ureterorenoscopy, consistent with findings from previous NHS studies. CONCLUSION: Acute ESWL is a safe, reliable, and financially viable treatment option for a wider spectrum of patients than reflected in international guidelines based on our large, heterogenous series. In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era, with theatre access reduced and concerns over aerosol generating procedures, acute ESWL remains an attractive first-line treatment option.

10.
Lancet Digit Health ; 4(7): e542-e557, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Updatable estimates of COVID-19 onset, progression, and trajectories underpin pandemic mitigation efforts. To identify and characterise disease trajectories, we aimed to define and validate ten COVID-19 phenotypes from nationwide linked electronic health records (EHR) using an extensible framework. METHODS: In this cohort study, we used eight linked National Health Service (NHS) datasets for people in England alive on Jan 23, 2020. Data on COVID-19 testing, vaccination, primary and secondary care records, and death registrations were collected until Nov 30, 2021. We defined ten COVID-19 phenotypes reflecting clinically relevant stages of disease severity and encompassing five categories: positive SARS-CoV-2 test, primary care diagnosis, hospital admission, ventilation modality (four phenotypes), and death (three phenotypes). We constructed patient trajectories illustrating transition frequency and duration between phenotypes. Analyses were stratified by pandemic waves and vaccination status. FINDINGS: Among 57 032 174 individuals included in the cohort, 13 990 423 COVID-19 events were identified in 7 244 925 individuals, equating to an infection rate of 12·7% during the study period. Of 7 244 925 individuals, 460 737 (6·4%) were admitted to hospital and 158 020 (2·2%) died. Of 460 737 individuals who were admitted to hospital, 48 847 (10·6%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), 69 090 (15·0%) received non-invasive ventilation, and 25 928 (5·6%) received invasive ventilation. Among 384 135 patients who were admitted to hospital but did not require ventilation, mortality was higher in wave 1 (23 485 [30·4%] of 77 202 patients) than wave 2 (44 220 [23·1%] of 191 528 patients), but remained unchanged for patients admitted to the ICU. Mortality was highest among patients who received ventilatory support outside of the ICU in wave 1 (2569 [50·7%] of 5063 patients). 15 486 (9·8%) of 158 020 COVID-19-related deaths occurred within 28 days of the first COVID-19 event without a COVID-19 diagnoses on the death certificate. 10 884 (6·9%) of 158 020 deaths were identified exclusively from mortality data with no previous COVID-19 phenotype recorded. We observed longer patient trajectories in wave 2 than wave 1. INTERPRETATION: Our analyses illustrate the wide spectrum of disease trajectories as shown by differences in incidence, survival, and clinical pathways. We have provided a modular analytical framework that can be used to monitor the impact of the pandemic and generate evidence of clinical and policy relevance using multiple EHR sources. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation Data Science Centre, led by Health Data Research UK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Electronic Health Records , England/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
11.
J Comp Eff Res ; 11(11): 815-828, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699096

ABSTRACT

Aim: To analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on US healthcare resource utilization. Methods: Optum claims data were used to compare all-cause healthcare visits and healthcare spending for selected diseases between the prepandemic and pandemic periods. Telemedicine use was only assessed for the pandemic period owing to data availability. Results: During the first wave of the pandemic, all-cause healthcare visits across all selected disease areas displayed a rapid decline compared with the prepandemic period, followed by a period of recovery. A reduction in outpatient and home healthcare spending was observed, whereas inpatient and prescription spending increased. Conclusion: Changes in healthcare resource utilization trends were observed during the pandemic. The magnitude of these changes can inform subsequent studies that utilize COVID-19-era data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
12.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 25(4): 277-281, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703977

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the profile of critical care services internationally, as professionals around the globe have struggled to rise to the unprecedented challenge faced, both in terms of individual patient management and the sheer volume of patients that require treatment and management in intensive care. This review article sets out key priorities in nutritional interventions during the patient journey, both in the acute and recovery phases. RECENT FINDINGS: The current review covers the care of the acutely unwell patient, and the evidence base for nutritional interventions in the COVID-19 population. One of the biggest differences in caring for critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure from COVID-19 is often the time prior to intubation. This represents specific nutritional challenges, as does nursing patients in the prone position or in the setting of limited resources. This article goes on to discuss nutritional support for COVID-19 sufferers as they transition through hospital wards and into the community. SUMMARY: Nutritional support of patients with severe COVID-19 is essential. Given the longer duration of their critical illness, combined with hypermetabolism and energy expenditure, patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for malnutrition during and after their hospital stay.

13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection policies at leading US medical centers in the context of the initial wave of the severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron variant. DESIGN: Electronic survey study eliciting hospital policies on masking, personal protective equipment, cohorting, airborne-infection isolation rooms (AIIRs), portable HEPA filters, and patient and employee testing. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: "Hospital epidemiologists from U.S. News top 20 hospitals and 10 hospitals in the CDC Prevention Epicenters program."  As it is currently written, it implies all 30 hospitals are from the CDC Prevention Epicenters program, but that only applies to 10 hospitals.  Alternatively, we could just say "Hospital epidemiologists from 30 leading US hospitals." METHODS: Survey results were reported using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of 30 hospital epidemiologists surveyed, 23 (77%) completed the survey between February 15 and March 3, 2022. Among the responding hospitals, 18 (78%) used medical masks for universal masking and 5 (22%) used N95 respirators. 16 hospitals (70%) required universal eye protection. 22 hospitals (96%) used N95s for routine COVID-19 care and 1 (4%) reserved N95s for aerosol-generating procedures. 2 responding hospitals (9%) utilized dedicated COVID-19 wards; 8 (35%) used mixed COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 units; and 13 (57%) used both dedicated and mixed units. 4 hospitals (17%) used AIIRs for all COVID-19 patients, 10 (43%) prioritized AIIRs for aerosol-generating procedures, 3 (13%) used alternate risk-stratification criteria (not based on aerosol-generating procedures), and 6 (26%) did not routinely use AIIRs. 9 hospitals (39%) did not use portable HEPA filters, but 14 (61%) used them for various indications, most commonly as substitutes for AIIRs when unavailable or for specific high-risk areas or situations. 21 hospitals (91%) tested asymptomatic patients on admission, but postadmission testing strategies and preferred specimen sites varied substantially. 5 hospitals (22%) required regular testing of unvaccinated employees and 1 hospital (4%) reported mandatory weekly testing even for vaccinated employees during the SARS-CoV-2 omicron surge. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infection control practices in leading hospitals vary substantially. Clearer public health guidance and transparency around hospital policies may facilitate more consistent national standards.

14.
Environ Res ; 213: 113665, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714690

ABSTRACT

More than 320 million people worldwide were affected by SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, which already caused more than 5.5 million deaths. COVID-19 spreads through air when an infected person breathes, coughs, or sneezes out droplets containing virus. Emerging variants like Omicron with positivity rate of 16 (highest among others) present a greater risk of virus spread, so all types of indoor environments become critically important. Strategically adopted Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) approach can significantly reduce the virus spread by early removal of contaminated aerosolized droplets. We modeled different HVAC configurations to characterize the diffusion of contaminated droplets cloud through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of sneeze in standard hospital room as indoor scenario. Injection of saliva droplets with characteristics of exhaled air from lungs was applied to mimic real sneeze. CFD simulations have been performed for three HVAC configurations at two Air Change per Hour (ACH) rates; 6 and 15 ACH. For the first time, use of air curtain at low flow rate has been examined. Simulations provide high fidelity spatial and temporal droplets cloud diffusion under different HVAC configurations, showing spread in room indoor environment up to 360 s. Over 92% of ejected sneeze mass is removed from room air within seconds while the remaining 8% or less becomes airborne with droplets (<50 µm size) and tends to spread uniformly with regular HVAC configuration. Low-speed air curtain accelerates decontamination by efficiently removing aerosolized 1-50 µm size droplets. Study investigates role of droplets removal mechanisms such as escape, evaporation, and deposition on surfaces. Interestingly, results show presence of contaminated droplets even after 5 min of sneeze, which can be effectively removed using low-speed air curtain. Study finds that high ventilation rate requirements can be optimized to modify earlier and new hospital designs to reduce the spread of airborne disease.

15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 533: 42-47, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) is a global public health emergency. Age and gender are two important factors related to the risk and outcome of various diseases. Cycle threshold (Ct) value is believed to have relation with age and gender. OBJECTIVE: This study has been conducted to investigates the association between SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold to age and gender of COVID-19 patients, to investigate whether the population-wide change of SARSCoV2 RTPCR Ct value over time is corelated to the number of new COVID19 cases and to investigate the dynamic of RdRp and N genes. METHODS: 72,811 individuals from second wave of COVID19, were observed in current study at Pure Health Lab, Mafraq Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE. RESULTS: 15,201/72,811 (21 %) positivity was observed. COVID-19 were more prevalent in males (59.35%) as compared to female (40.65%). The Positivity rate were significantly higher in Male than in Female cases (p-Value = 0.04). The Ct values for both targets of all the samples were ranged from 4.57 to 29.73. Longitudinal analysis showed significant increased during the study period from starting to end as were hypothesized. Interestingly, both the targets (RdRp and N) were present in age < 1 year. Which may indicate that mutated strains are not prevalent in children's < 1 year. CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant difference in viral loads in between age-groups. Males were tending to higher viral load compared to females. The findings have implications for preventive strategies.

16.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(5): 449-453, 2022 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients infected with novel coronavirus Omicron variant in Shanghai, as to provide a reference for epidemic prevention, clinical diagnosis, and treatment. METHODS: Altogether 4 264 novel coronavirus Omicron variant-infected patients with positive results of nucleic acid admitted to Shanghai New International Expo Center N3 Mobile Cabin Hospital from April 2 to May 7, 2022, were included. The demographic and baseline clinical characteristics, treatment strategy, prognosis, and different factors affecting the length of hospital stay were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 4 264 novel coronavirus variant Omicron-infected cases were collected, including 3 111 cases (73.0%) asymptomatic infections and 1 153 cases (27.0%) mild infections. The overall median age was 45 (33, 55) years old with a range from 2 years old to 81 years old. The male to female ratio was 1.37:1. Altogether 3 305 cases (77.5%) had been vaccinated, of which 3 166 cases completed more than 2 doses. The upper respiratory tract symptoms such as cough and expectoration were the most common clinical manifestations of these infected patients. During the course of the disease, patients with asymptomatic infection were mainly treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, 55.1%) and clinical observation (36.8%), and those with mild infection were mainly treated with TCM (42.2%) or integrated Chinese and Western medicine (30.4%). All patients were cured and discharged. The overall median length of hospital stay and the negative conversion time of nucleic acid were 9 (6, 10) days and 8 (5, 9) days, respectively. Compared with the asymptomatic infected patients, the hospitalization duration and the nucleic acid negative conversion time of the mildly infected patients were slightly longer [days: 10 (8, 11) vs. 9 (5, 10); 8 (6, 10) vs. 7 (4, 9), both P < 0.001]. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the increasing age and mild infection were associated with longer hospitalization duration, and the treatment of TCM or integrated Chinese and Western medicine was associated with shortened length of hospital stay (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The current novel coronavirus Omicron variant epidemic in Shanghai mainly caused asymptomatic and mild infections. The young and middle-aged population had a relatively high infection rate. The upper respiratory tract symptoms such as cough and expectoration were the most common clinical symptoms. Elderly and confirmed patients had prolonged hospitalization duration, while for patients receiving TCM treatment, the hospitalization duration was shortened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cough , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has greatly impacted medical students' clinical education. This study evaluates the usefulness of a rapidly implemented on-site simulation programme deployed to supplement our disrupted curriculum. METHODS: Students on surgical rotations received 4-hour tutor-led simulated patient sessions (involving mannikins with remote audio-visual observation) respecting hospital and public health protocols. Attitudes were questionnaire-assessed before and after. Independent, blinded, nonacademic clinicians scored students' clinical competencies by observing real patient interactions using the surgical ward assessment tool in a representative sample versus those completing same duration medicine clinical rotations without simulation (Mann-Whitney U testing, p < 0.05 denoting significance) with all students receiving the same surgical e-learning resources and didactic teaching. RESULTS: A total of 220 students underwent simulation training, comprising 96 hours of scheduled direct teaching. Prior to commencement, 15 students (7% of 191 completing the survey) admitted anxiety, mainly due to clinical inexperience, with only two (1%) anxious re on-site spreading/contracting of COVID-19. A total of 66 students (30%, 38 females and 29 graduate entrants) underwent formal competency assessment by clinicians from ten specialties at two clinical sites. Those who received simulation training (n = 35) were judged significantly better at history taking (p = 0.004) and test ordering (p = 0.01) but not clinical examination, patient drug chart assessment, or differential diagnosis formulation. Of 75 students providing subsequent feedback, 88% stated simulation beneficial (notably for history taking and physical examination skills in 63%) with 83% advocating for more. CONCLUSION: Our rapidly implemented simulation programme for undergraduate medical students helped mitigate pandemic restrictions, enabling improved competence despite necessarily reduced clinical activity encouraging further development.

18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894700, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734170

ABSTRACT

The Korean government decided to schedule heterologous vaccinations on dialysis patients for early achievement of immunization against Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19). However, the effects of heterologous immunizations in hemodialysis (HD) patients are unclear. One hundred (HD) patients from Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital and Kyung Hee Medical Center and 100 hospital workers from Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital were enrolled in this study. The HD patients received the mixing schedule of ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 vaccinations at 10-week intervals, while hospital workers received two doses of ChAdOx1 vaccines at 12-week intervals. Serum IgG to a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was measured 1 month after the first dose, 2 months and 4 months after the second dose. The median [interquartile range] anti-RBD IgG was 82.1[34.5, 176.6] AU/ml in HD patients and 197.1[124.0, 346.0] AU/ml in hospital workers (P < 0.001) after the first dose. The percentage of positive responses (IgG > 50 AU/ml) was 65.0% and 96.0% among the both group, respectively (P < 0.001). The anti-RBD IgG levels increased significantly by 2528.8 [1327.6, 5795.1] AU/ml with a 100.0% positive response rate in HD patients 2 months after the second dose, which was higher than those in hospital workers 981.4[581.5, 1891.4] AU/ml (P < 0.001). Moreover, anti-RBD IgG remains constantly high, and positive response remains 100% in HD patients 4 months after the second dose. This study suggests that heterologous vaccinations with ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 can be an alternative solution on HD patients for early and strong induction of humoral response.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129152, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739698

ABSTRACT

Although airborne transmission has been considered as a possible route for the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the role that aerosols play in SARS-CoV-2 transmission is still controversial. This study evaluated the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 isolation wards at Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong by both on-site sampling and numerical analysis. A total of 838 air samples and 1176 surface samples were collected, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected using the RT-PCR method. Testing revealed that 2.3% of the air samples and 9.3% of the surface samples were positive, indicating that the isolation wards were contaminated with the virus. The dispersion and deposition of exhaled particles in the wards were calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The calculated accumulated number of particles collected at the air sampling points was closely correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 positive rates from the field sampling, which confirmed the possibility of airborne transmission. Furthermore, three potential intervention strategies, i.e., the use of curtains, ceiling-mounted air cleaners, and periodic ventilation, were numerically investigated to explore effective control measures in isolation wards. According to the results, the use of ceiling-mounted air cleaners is effective in reducing the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in such wards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Viral
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 3)2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750344

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, hospitals in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) have faced significant challenges in providing essential services, while simultaneously combatting this pandemic and responding to new and ongoing shocks and emergencies. Despite these challenges, policy-makers and hospital managers adapted their hospital responses to maintain operations and continue providing essential health services in resource-restraint and fragile and conflict affected, offering valuable insights to others in similar contexts. The aim of this paper is to share the lessons learnt from hospital responses to COVID-19 from the EMR. To do this, we triangulated findings from literature review, open-ended online surveys and 46 in-depth key informant interviews from 18 EMR countries. Qualitative findings from semistructured key informant interviews along with the open-ended survey responses resulted in nine major themes for lessons learnt in the EMR. These themes include Preparedness, Leadership and Coordination, Communication, Human Resources, Supplies and Logistics, Surge Capacity and Essential Services, Clinical Management (including Rapid Identification, Diagnosis and Isolation), Infection Prevention and Control, and Information and Research. Each of the nine themes (domains) included 4-6 major subthemes offering key insights into the regional hospital response to health emergencies. Resilient hospitals are those that can provide holistic, adaptable, primary-care-based health systems to deliver high-quality, effective and people-centred health services and respond to future outbreaks. Both bottom-up and top-down approaches are needed to strengthen collaboration between policy-makers, hospitals, front-line workers and communities to mitigate the continued spread of SARS CoV2, build resilient hospital systems and improve public health preparedness and emergency response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health
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