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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 731, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066775

ABSTRACT

In the present study, 29 chemicals derived from tire wear were monitored by deploying Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) in four WWTPs and two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) located in a municipality in southern Ontario, Canada. Target analytes included 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG), the oxidation byproduct of N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-benzenediamine called 6PPD-quinone, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM), and 26 of HMMM's known transformation products (TPs). This study is the first to monitor all these target compounds in DWTPs, as well as to report data for the presence of 6PPD-quinone in WWTPs. HMMM and selected TPs of this compound were detected in POCIS deployed in the WWTPs and in the DWTPs. The maximum estimated time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of HMMM of 83.2 ± 25.2 ng/L was observed in the effluent of one of the WWTPs. The TWA concentrations were not determined for any of the other target analytes, as POCIS sampling rates have not been determined for these chemicals. The total mass of HMMM and its TPs accumulated on POCIS frequently exceeded 4000 ng and the masses were generally lower in WWTP effluents relative to the influents. For other target analytes, the amounts accumulated on POCIS deployed in WWTP effluents frequently exceeded the amounts accumulated on POCIS deployed in the influents. DPG was detected in POCIS deployed in both the WWTPs and the DWTPs, and 6PPD-quinone was detected in POCIS deployed in both the influent and the effluent of WWTPs. We speculate that these tire wear compounds are entering WWTPs through stormwater overflows into the sewers or from commercial sources (e.g., car washes). This study highlights the need for an assessment of both WWTPs and DWTPs as sinks and sources of these tire wear compounds and the efficacy of treatment processes to remove them from both wastewater and drinking water.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Environmental Monitoring , Ontario , Organic Chemicals , Quinones , Waste Water/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
2.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080505

ABSTRACT

In the present research, the removal of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and erythromycin (ERY), fluoxetine (FLX), amoxicillin (AMO), colistin (COL), ethynylestradiol (EE), and diclofenac (DIC) from surface water by coagulation is studied. The concentration of selected pharmaceuticals in 24 surface water samples originating from some rivers located in Lesser Poland Voivodeship and Silesia Voivodeship, Poland, was determined. The removal of TOC and pharmaceuticals was carried out using the application of Design of Experiments (DOE), Response Surface Methodology (RSM), and by addition of aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH) as a coagulant. The study found that the concentration ranges of ERY, FLX, AMO, COL, EE, and DIC in analyzed water samples were 7.58-412.32, 1.21-72.52, 1.22-68.55, 1.28-32.01, 5.36-45.56, 2.20-182.22 ng/L, respectively. In some cases, concentrations lower than 1 ng/L were determined. In optimal conditions of coagulation process of spiked surface water (pH = 6.5 ± 0.1, ACH dose = 0.35 mL/L, Time = 30 min; R2 = 0.8799, R2adj = 0.7998), the concentration of TOC, ERY, FLX, AMO, COL, EE, and DIC was decreased by 88.7, 36.4, 24.7, 29.0, 25.5, 35.4, 30.4%, respectively. Simultaneously, turbidity, color, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (Total N), and Ammonium-Nitrogen (N-NH4) were decreased by 96.2%, >98.0%, 97.8%, 70.0%, 88.7%, 37.5%, respectively. These findings suggest that ACH may be an optional reagent to remove studied pharmaceuticals from contaminated water.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Aluminum , Carbon , Dacarbazine , Nitrogen , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Water , Water Purification/methods
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(17)2022 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081143

ABSTRACT

In some sectors of the water resources management, the digital revolution process is slowed by some blocking factors such as costs, lack of digital expertise, resistance to change, etc. In addition, in the era of Big Data, many are the sources of information available in this field, but they are often not fully integrated. The adoption of different proprietary solutions to sense, collect and manage data is one of the main problems that hampers the availability of a fully integrated system. In this context, the aim of the project is to verify if a fully open, cost-effective and replicable digital ecosystem for lake monitoring can fill this gap and help the digitalization process using cloud based technology and an Automatic High-Frequency Monitoring System (AHFM) built using open hardware and software components. Once developed, the system is tested and validated in a real case scenario by integrating the historical databases and by checking the performance of the AHFM system. The solution applied the edge computing paradigm in order to move some computational work from server to the edge and fully exploiting the potential offered by low power consuming devices.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Lakes , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Software , Water Quality
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077048

ABSTRACT

In view of the water pollution issues caused by pathogenic microorganisms and harmful organic contaminants, nontoxic, environmentally friendly, and efficient antimicrobial agents are urgently required. Herein, a nickel-based Keggin polyoxomolybdate [Ni(L)(HL)]2H[PMo12O40] 4H2O (1, HL = 2-acetylpyrazine thiosemicarbazone) was prepared via a facile hydrothermal method and successfully characterized. Compound 1 exhibited high stability in a wide range of pH values from 4 to 10. 1 demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 0.0019-0.2400 µg/mL against four types of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens). Further time-kill studies indicated that 1 killed almost all (99.9%) of E. coli and S. aureus. Meanwhile, the possible antibacterial mechanism was explored, and the results indicate that the antibacterial properties of 1 originate from the synergistic effect between [Ni(L)(HL)]+ and [PMo12O40]3-. In addition, 1 presented effective adsorption of basic fuchsin (BF) dyes. The kinetic data fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model well, and the maximum adsorption efficiency for the BF dyes (29.81 mg/g) was determined by the data fit of the Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that BF adsorption was dominated by both chemical adsorption and multilayer adsorption. This work provides evidence that 1 has potential to effectively remove dyes and pathogenic bacteria from wastewater.


Subject(s)
Nickel , Water Purification , Adsorption , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Coloring Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Nickel/chemistry , Rosaniline Dyes/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus
5.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078183

ABSTRACT

Water is considered a major route for transmitting human-associated pathogens. Although microbial water quality indicators are used to test for the presence of waterborne pathogens in drinking water, the two are poorly correlated. The current study investigates the prevalence of thermophilic DNA markers specific for Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni and C. coli) in source water and throughout the water distribution systems of two First Nations communities in Manitoba, Canada. A total of 220 water samples were collected from various points of the drinking water distribution system (DWDS) between 2016 and 2018. Target Campylobacter spp. were always (100%) detected in a home with a fiberglass (CF) cistern, as well as the community standpipe (SP). The target bacteria were also frequently detected in treated water at the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) (78%), homes with polyethylene (CP) (60%) and concrete (CC) (58%) cisterns, homes with piped (P) water (43%) and water truck (T) samples (20%), with a maximum concentration of 1.9 × 103 cells 100 mL-1 (C. jejuni) and 5.6 × 105 cells 100 mL-1 (C. coli). Similarly, target bacteria were detected in 68% of the source water samples with a maximum concentration of 4.9 × 103 cells 100 mL-1 (C. jejuni) and 8.4 × 105 cells 100 mL-1 (C. coli). Neither target Campylobacter spp. was significantly associated with free and total chlorine concentrations in water. The study results indicate that there is an immediate need to monitor Campylobacter spp. in small communities of Canada and, particularly, to improve the DWDS in First Nations communities to minimize the risk of Campylobacter infection from drinking water sources. Further research is warranted in improving/developing processes and technologies to eliminate microbial contaminants from water.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter Infections , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Drinking Water , Bacteria , Campylobacter Infections/epidemiology , Campylobacter jejuni/genetics , Humans , Prevalence , Water Quality
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078364

ABSTRACT

Arsenic (As(III)), more toxic and with less affinity than arsenate (As(V)), is hard to remove from the aqueous phase due to the lack of efficient adsorbents. In this study, a core-shell structured MnO2@La(OH)3 nanocomposite was synthesized via a facile two-step precipitation method. Its removal performance and mechanisms for As(V) and As(III) were investigated through batch adsorption experiments and a series of analysis methods including the transformation kinetics of arsenic species in As(III) removal, FTIR, XRD and XPS. Solution pH could significantly influence the removal efficiencies of arsenic. The adsorption process of As(V) occurred rapidly in the first 5 h and then gradually decreased, whereas the As(III) removal rate was relatively slower. The maximum adsorption capacities of As(V) and As(III) were up to 138.9 and 139.9 mg/g at pH 4.0, respectively. For As(V) removal, the inner-sphere complexes of lanthanum arsenate were formed through the ligand exchange reactions and coprecipitation. The oxidation of As(III) to the less toxic As(V) by δ-MnO2 and subsequently the synergistic adsorption process by the lanthanum hydroxide on the MnO2@La(OH)3 nanocomposite to form lanthanum arsenate were the dominant mechanisms of As(III) removal. XPS analysis indicated that approximately 20.6% of Mn in the nanocomposite after As(III) removal were Mn(II). Furthermore, a small amount of Mn(II) and La(III) were released into solution during the process of As(III) removal. These results confirm its efficient performance in the arsenic-containing water treatment, such as As(III)-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation and As(V)-contaminated industrial wastewater.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Nanocomposites , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Adsorption , Arsenates , Arsenic/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Kinetics , Lanthanum , Manganese Compounds/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Purification/methods
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078388

ABSTRACT

Boron overabundance in aquatic environment raises severe concerns about the environment and human health because it is toxic to various crops and induces many human and animal diseases with long-term consequences. In response to the boron pollution of water resources and the difficulty of eliminating boron from water for production and living purposes, this article summarizes the progress in research on boron removal technology, addressing the following aspects: (1) the reasons for the difficulty of removing boron from water (boron chemistry); (2) ecological/biological toxicity and established regulations; (3) analysis of different existing processes (membrane processes, resin, adsorption, chemical precipitation, (electric) coagulation, extraction, and combined methods) in terms of their mechanisms, effectiveness, and limitations; (4) prospects for future studies and possible improvements in applicability and recyclability. The focus of this paper is thus to provide a comprehensive summary of reported deboronation processes to date, which will definitely identify directions for the development of boron removal technology in the future.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Adsorption , Boron/analysis , Humans , Technology , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Purification/methods
8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078495

ABSTRACT

The region of Puno, in Peru, is described as a region with some health conditions that may be associated with the water quality, such as a high index of anemia or cases of acute diarrhea in children. This study aimed at monitoring the drinking water quality of the city of Ilave, in Peru, and determining possible correlations between physical-chemical and microbiological parameters, and the water distribution conditions, such as the period of water availability. Physical-chemical parameters (turbidity, residual chlorine, temperature, conductivity, and pH), microbiological parameters (presence of coliforms), and heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Ni, Fe, and Cu) were determined. All the parameters quantified were within the maximum permissible limits according to Peruvian regulations, except for residual chlorine, which was, for all the treated water samples, below the recommended value of 0.5 mg/L. Coliforms that should be absent from drinking water were detected in all the household samples. These results demonstrate the need for the inclusion of additional steps of re-chlorination along the distribution system to guarantee the maintenance of residual levels of chlorine that assure the microbiological quality of water. The quality of the drinking water was not observed to correlate with the period of water availability.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Child , Chlorine/analysis , Humans , Peru/epidemiology , Quality Control , Water Microbiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Quality , Water Supply
9.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080126

ABSTRACT

The presence of triclosan in water is toxic to human beings, hazardous to the environment and creates side effects and problems because this is an endocrine-disturbing water pollutant. Therefore, there is a great need for the separation of this notorious water pollutant at an effective, economic and eco-friendly level. The interface sorption was achieved on synthesized ionic liquid-based nanocomposites. An N-methyl butyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid copper oxide nanocomposite was prepared using green methods and characterized by using proper spectroscopic methods. The nanocomposite was used to remove triclosan in water with the best conditions of time 30 min, concentration 100 µg/L, pH 8.0, dose 1.0 g/L and temperature 25 °C, with 90.2 µg/g removal capacity. The results obeyed Langmuir, Temkin and D-Rs isotherms with a first-order kinetic and liquid-film-diffusion kinetic model. The positive entropy value was 0.47 kJ/mol K, while the negative value of enthalpy was -0.11 kJ/mol. The negative values of free energy were -53.18, -74.17 and -76.14 kJ/mol at 20, 25 and 30 °C. These values confirmed exothermic and spontaneous sorption of triclosan. The combined effects of 3D parameters were also discussed. The supramolecular model was developed by simulation and chemical studies and suggested electrovalent bonding between triclosan and N-methyl butyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid. Finally, this method is assumed as valuable for the elimination of triclosan in water.


Subject(s)
Ionic Liquids , Nanocomposites , Triclosan , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Pollutants , Water Purification , Adsorption , Bromides , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Kinetics , Thermodynamics , Water/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry , Water Purification/methods
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 296: 119948, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088028

ABSTRACT

In this study, cellulose nanofiber (CNF) membranes for water treatment are prepared via in-situ hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in a CNF suspension. The in-situ carbonized CNFs were fabricated into the membranes via dead-end filtration under hydraulic pressure (1 bar). The in-situ carbonized CNF membranes showed high pure water flux (56.25 L·h-1·m-2) without critical flux drop for 12 h of membrane fabrication. The hydrochar chemically bonded with CNF enhanced the durability of CNF during membrane fabrication. Owing to the strong and stable electrostatic interaction between the target dye and hydrochar, the in-situ carbonized membrane also displayed excellent dye rejection for dilute and concentrated solutions, with high selectivity and good reusability. This study provides a successful strategy for fabricating an all-carbohydrate-based high-performance water treatment membrane.


Subject(s)
Nanofibers , Water Purification , Cellulose , Filtration , Membranes, Artificial
11.
Food Microbiol ; 108: 104098, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088114

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the bactericidal activity of plasma-activated water (PAW) generated with a remote discharge reactor against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. PAW-40, -80, and -120, prepared by activating distilled water for 40, 80, and 120 min, respectively, showed inactivation activity against pathogenic bacteria, which increased as the activation time increased due to decrease in pH and increase in oxidation-reduction potential and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) of PAW. In addition, Gram-positive bacteria L. monocytogenes showed superior resistance to PAW than Gram-negative bacteria E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Compared with E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium, L. monocytogens exhibited less cell membrane damage, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular ROS accumulation after PAW treatment, which indicated that L. monocytogenes exhibited greater resistance because the thick cell wall buffered RONS diffusion into the cell. PAW also showed a control effect on the pathogenic bacteria on cherry tomato, and the effect was maintained throughout five repeated applications; thus, proposing high reusability of PAW. The results of this study propose that PAW generated with a remote discharge reactor can be utilized for pathogen control and provides basic data for related research and practical industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli O157 , Listeria monocytogenes , Water Purification , Cell Membrane , Escherichia coli O157/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation , Listeria monocytogenes/physiology , Reactive Oxygen Species
12.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014341

ABSTRACT

Tannery industries are one of the extensive industrial activities which are the major source of chromium contamination in the environment. Chromium contamination has been an increasing threat to the environment and human health. Therefore, the removal of chromium ions is necessary to save human society. This study is oriented toward the preparation of a new triazole Schiff base derivatives for the remediation of chromium ions. 4,4'-((1E)-1,2-bis ((1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) imino)ethane-1,2-diyl) diphenol was prepared by the interaction between 3-Amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole and 4,4'-Dihydroxybenzil. Then, the produced Schiff base underwent a phosphorylation reaction to produce the adsorbent (TIHP), which confirmed its structure via the different tools FTIR, TGA, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, GC-MS, and Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR). The newly synthesized adsorbent (TIHP) was used to remove chromium oxyanions (Cr(VI)) from an aqueous solution. The batch technique was used to test many controlling factors, including the pH of the working aqueous solution, the amount of adsorbent dose, the initial concentration of Cr(VI), the interaction time, and the temperature. The desorption behaviour of Cr(VI) changes when it is exposed to the suggested foreign ions. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) adsorption on the new adsorbent was 307.07 mg/g at room temperature. Freundlich's isotherm model fits the adsorption isotherms perfectly. The kinetic results were well-constrained by the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic studies establish that the adsorption type was exothermic and naturally spontaneous.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Adsorption , Chromium/chemistry , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Kinetics , Schiff Bases , Triazoles , Waste Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry , Water Purification/methods
13.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014453

ABSTRACT

Advanced wastewater treatment such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) reduces the load of organic micropollutants entering the aquatic environment. Since mobile and persistent compounds accumulate in water cycles, treatment strategies need to be evaluated for the removal of (very) polar compounds. Thereby, non-targeted analysis gives a global picture of the molecular fingerprint (including these very polar molecules) of water samples. Target and non-target screening were conducted using polarity-extended chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry. Samples treated with different types and concentrations of PAC were compared to untreated samples. Molecular features were extracted from the analytical data to determine fold changes, perform a principal component analysis and for significance testing. The results suggest that a part of the polar target analytes was adsorbed but also some byproducts might be formed or desorbed from the PAC.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Adsorption , Charcoal/chemistry , Powders , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Waste Water/chemistry , Water/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry , Water Purification/methods
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 963257, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36033732

ABSTRACT

Aims: Antidepressants have aroused wide public concern due to their widespread presence in water and their harm to human health and environment. This study was designed to evaluate the contribution of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to the presence of antidepressants in the surface water. Methods: Data was evaluated by analyzing water samples collected from the influent, effluent, upstream and downstream of the WWTPs on the rivers of interest in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Besides, the study also assessed the impact of the release of antidepressants from WWTPs to the surface water on the drinking water. An automatic solid-phase extraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to detect antidepressants. Results: The most abundant compound was venlafaxine, followed by citalopram, sertraline, and fluvoxamine with concentrations between 0.6 and 87 ng/L. Antidepressants showed maximum concentrations at the effluent outlets of the WWTPs, and greater concentrations were found downstream than upstream of the WWTPs in Qiantang River. The results of source water and finished water showed that the detection concentration was lower than the detection limit of the method. Conclusions: The less impact of the release of antidepressants from WWTPs to the surface water on the drinking water was identified. Nevertheless, these compounds were hardly removed by wastewater treatment processes. Thus, their risks deserve close attention.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Antidepressive Agents , China , Chromatography, Liquid , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(16): 11718-11728, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917327

ABSTRACT

With the fast development of modern industries, scarcity of freshwater resources caused by heavy metal pollution (i.e., Hg2+) has become a severe issue for human beings. Herein, a 3D-MoS2 sponge as an excellent absorbent is fabricated for mercury removal due to its multidimensional adsorption pathways, which decreases the biomagnification effect of methylmercury in water bodies. Furthermore, a secondary water purification strategy is employed to harvest drinkable water with the exhausted adsorbents, thus alleviating the crisis of drinking water shortage. Compared to the conventional landfill treatment, the exhausted MoS2 sponge absorbents are further functionalized with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) layer to prevent the heavy metals from leaking and enhance the hydrophilicity for photothermal conversion. The fabricated evaporator displays excellent evaporation rates of ∼1.45 kg m-2 h-1 under sunlight irradiation and produces freshwater with Hg2+ under the WHO drinking water standard at 0.001 mg L-1. These results not only assist in avoiding the biodeposition effect of mercury in water but also provide an environment-friendly strategy to recycle hazardous adsorbents for water purification.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Mercury , Metals, Heavy , Solar Energy , Water Purification , Humans , Molybdenum , Sunlight , Water Purification/methods
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(16): 11589-11601, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929822

ABSTRACT

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a very selective oxidant that reacts with electron-rich moieties such as activated amines and thus can degrade specific N-containing micropollutants. N-containing heterocycles (NCHs) are among the most frequent moieties of pharmaceuticals. In this study, the reactions of ClO2 with ritalinic acid and cetirizine, two abundant micropollutants, and model compounds representing their NCH moiety were investigated. The pH-dependent apparent reaction rates of all NCHs with ClO2 were measured and modeled. This model showed that neutral amines are the most important species having reaction rates between 800 and 3200 M-1 s-1, while cationic amines are not reactive. Ritalinic acid, cetirizine, and their representative model compounds showed a high stoichiometric ratio of ≈5 moles ClO2 consumption per degraded ritalinic acid and ≈4 moles ClO2 consumption per degraded cetirizine, respectively. Investigation of chlorine-containing byproducts of ClO2 showed that all investigated NCHs mostly react by electron transfer and form above 80% chlorite. The reactions of the model compounds were well comparable with cetirizine and ritalinic acid, indicating that the model compounds indeed represented the reaction centers of cetirizine and ritalinic acid. Using the calculated apparent reaction rate constants, micropollutant degradation during ClO2 treatment of surface water was predicted for ritalinic acid and cetirizine with -8 to -15% and 13 to -22% error, respectively. The results indicate that in ClO2-based treatment, piperidine-containing micropollutants such as ritalinic acid can be considered not degradable, while piperazine-containing compounds such as cetirizine can be moderately degraded. This shows that NCH model compounds could be used to predict micropollutant degradation.


Subject(s)
Chlorine Compounds , Water Purification , Amines , Cetirizine , Chlorine , Disinfection , Nitrogen , Oxides , Water
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012457

ABSTRACT

Solar-driven steam generation for desalination is a facile, sustainable, and energy-saving approach to produce clean freshwater. However, the complicated fabrication process, high cost, potential environmental impact, and salt crystallization of conventional evaporators limit their large-scale application. Herein, we present a sustainable Janus evaporator based on a biopolymer sponge from the water hyacinth petiole (WHP) for high-performance solar steam generation. The freeze-dried WHP maintained its original porous structure and aligned channels well, and therefore holds the capability for rapid water transport due to strong capillary action. The WHP coated with carbon nanotubes/ethyl cellulose paste on its surface (WHP-C) gains a good photothermal property, thus achieving an efficient solar steam generation with a rate of 1.50 kg m-2 h-1 under 1 sun irradiation. Moreover, the WHP-C after hydrophobic modification by fluorocarbon (WHP-CH) is endowed with high water repellency and exhibits good salt resistance during long-term solar desalination. Additionally, we demonstrate that a stable wet surface that enables efficient water supply and vapor escape is also significant to the successive desalination of a solar evaporator. Our work provides new insights into the high-value utilization of biomass waste, i.e., water hyacinth, and the development of sustainable interfacial solar evaporators for the environmentally friendly production of freshwater.


Subject(s)
Eichhornia , Nanotubes, Carbon , Water Purification , Porosity , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Steam
18.
J Chem Phys ; 157(7): 074102, 2022 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987588

ABSTRACT

Electrocatalysis provides a potential solution to NO3 - pollution in wastewater by converting it to innocuous N2 gas. However, materials with excellent catalytic activity are typically limited to expensive precious metals, hindering their commercial viability. In response to this challenge, we have conducted the most extensive computational search to date for electrocatalysts that can facilitate NO3 - reduction reaction, starting with 59 390 candidate bimetallic alloys from the Materials Project and Automatic-Flow databases. Using a joint machine learning- and computation-based screening strategy, we evaluated our candidates based on corrosion resistance, catalytic activity, N2 selectivity, cost, and the ability to synthesize. We found that only 20 materials will satisfy all criteria in our screening strategy, all of which contain varying amounts of Cu. Our proposed list of candidates is consistent with previous materials investigated in the literature, with the exception of Cu-Co and Cu-Ag based compounds that merit further investigation.


Subject(s)
Water Purification , Corrosion , Machine Learning , Metals
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 848: 157723, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914596

ABSTRACT

Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption is one of the best available technologies for removing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from drinking water. However, GAC processes in full-scale drinking water treatment plants frequently encounter unstable, even negative removal efficiency on PFASs due to the lack of understanding between the GAC characteristics and the PFASs polluted water quality conditions. In this study, the scenarios of raw water pre-chlorination and emergency contamination by multiple PFASs were simulated to evaluate the PFASs control performance by in-service GAC with different properties and ages. The results showed that the adsorption of a relatively longer-chain PFAS by the in-service GAC can be achieved by replacing the pre-adsorbed natural organic matter (NOM). The increased lower molecular weight NOM after pre-chlorination could compete with PFASs for adsorption sites and exacerbate the pore blockage, thus significantly weakening the PFASs removal ability of in-service GAC. When multiple PFASs entered the water by emergency contamination, the PFASs with stronger hydrophobicity could replace the PFASs with less hydrophobicity that had previously been adsorbed on GAC. GAC with a higher proportion of micropores had a lower risk of PFASs leakage facing the water quality changes.

20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(8): 87002, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in public water systems (PWS) are an unintended consequence resulting from reactions between mostly chlorine-based disinfectants and organic and inorganic compounds in source waters. Epidemiology studies have shown that exposure to DBP (specifically trihalomethanes) was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to characterize the relative differences in exposures and estimated potential bladder cancer risks for people served by different strata of PWS in the United States and to evaluate uncertainties associated with these estimates. METHODS: We stratified PWS by source water type (surface vs. groundwater) and population served (large, medium, and small) and calculated population-weighted mean trihalomethane-4 (THM4) concentrations for each stratum. For each stratum, we calculated a population attributable risk (PAR) for bladder cancer using odds ratios derived from published pooled epidemiology estimates as a function of the mean THM4 concentration and the fraction of the total U.S. population served by each stratum of systems. We then applied the stratum-specific PARs to the total annual number of new bladder cancer cases in the U.S. population to estimate bladder cancer incidence in each stratum. RESULTS: Our results show that approximately 8,000 of the 79,000 annual bladder cancer cases in the United States were potentially attributable to DBPs in drinking water systems. The estimated attributable cases vary based on source water type and system size. Approximately 74% of the estimated attributable cases were from surface water systems serving populations of >10,000 people. We also identified several uncertainties that may affect the results from this study, primarily related to the use of THM4 as a surrogate measure for DBPs relevant to bladder cancer. DISCUSSION: Despite significant reductions in exposure over the past several decades, our study suggests that ∼10% of the bladder cancer cases in the United States may still be attributed to exposure to DBPs found in drinking water systems. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9985.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Drinking Water , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Disinfectants/analysis , Disinfection , Halogenation , Humans , Trihalomethanes/analysis , Trihalomethanes/toxicity , United States/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/chemically induced , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
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