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1.
Eur J Oper Res ; 304(1): 42-56, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035055

ABSTRACT

A critical operations management problem in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is cognizance of (a) the number of all carriers at large (CaL) conveying the SARS-CoV-2, including asymptomatic ones and (b) the infection rate (IR). Both are random and unobservable, affecting the spread of the disease, patient arrivals to health care units (HCUs) and the number of deaths. A novel, inventory perspective of COVID-19 is proposed, with random inflow, random losses and retrials (recurrent cases) and delayed/distributed exit, with randomly varying fractions of the exit distribution. A minimal construal, it enables representation of COVID-19 evolution with close fit of national incidence profiles, including single and multiple pattern outbreaks, oscillatory, periodic or non-periodic evolution, followed by retraction, leveling off, or strong resurgence. Furthermore, based on asymptotic laws, the minimum number of variables that must be monitored for identifying CaL and IR is determined and a real-time identification method is presented. The method is data-driven, utilizing the entry rate to HCUs and scaled, or dimensionless variables, including the mean residence time of symptomatic carriers in CaL and the mean residence time in CaL of patients entering HCUs. As manifested by several robust case studies of national COVID-19 incidence profiles, it provides efficient identification in real-time under unbiased monitoring error, without relying on any model. The propagation factor, a stochastic process, is reconstructed from the identified trajectories of CaL and IR, enabling evaluation of control measures. The results are useful towards the design of policies restricting COVID-19 and encumbrance to HCUs and mitigating economic contraction.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(2): 284-288, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900404

ABSTRACT

In the last two years, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection has spread worldwide leading to the death of millions. Vaccination represents the key factor in the global strategy against this pandemic, but it also poses several problems, especially for vulnerable people such as patients with multiple sclerosis. In this review, we have briefly summarized the main findings of the safety, efficacy, and acceptability of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination for multiple sclerosis patients. Although the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines has progressively increased in the last year, a small but significant part of patients with multiple sclerosis still has relevant concerns about vaccination that make them hesitant about receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. Overall, available data suggest that the COVID-19 vaccination is safe and effective in multiple sclerosis patients, even though some pharmacological treatments such as anti-CD20 therapies or sphingosine l-phosphate receptor modulators can reduce the immune response to vaccination. Accordingly, COVID-19 vaccination should be strongly recommended for people with multiple sclerosis and, in patients treated with anti-CD20 therapies and sphingosine l-phosphate receptor modulators, and clinicians should evaluate the appropriate timing for vaccine administration. Further studies are necessary to understand the role of cellular immunity in COVID-19 vaccination and the possible usefulness of booster jabs. On the other hand, it is mandatory to learn more about the reasons why people refuse vaccination. This would help to design a more effective communication campaign aimed at increasing vaccination coverage among vulnerable people.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

ABSTRACT

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Pakistan/epidemiology , China , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(2): 1-14, dic. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1391902

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar as características das internações de recém-nascidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal do extremo sul do Brasil durante um curto período de tempo. Método: Estudo observacional, com 85 neonatos, por dados secundários de pacientes internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, nos meses de maio de 2020 a outubro de 2020. Resultados: A prevalência das internações foi do sexo masculino, com diagnóstico de prematuridade, que pesavam entre 1500g e 2499g, não receberam leite materno na primeira hora de vida, receberam visitas dos pais, colo e leite materno durante a internação. As mães tinham mais de 6 consultas de pré-natal e os bebês nasceram de cesárea. Conclusão: O atendimento prestado de forma holística, baseado na ciência e maneira humanizada aos recém-nascidos e aos pais, pode reduzir a mortalidade infantil, trazer maior segurança aos pais e confi ança na equipe assistencial, além de evitar complicações futuras no desenvolvimento infantil.


Objetivo: Evaluar las características de las hospitalizaciones de recién nacidos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales en el extremo sur de Brasil durante un corto período de tiempo. Método: Estudio observacional, con 85 neonatos, con base en datos secundarios de pacientes hospitalizados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales, de mayo de 2020 a octubre de 2020. Resultados: La prevalencia de hospitalizaciones fue del sexo masculino, con diagnóstico de prematuridad, que pesaron entre 1500g y 2499g, no recibió leche materna en la primera hora de vida, recibió visitas de los padres, regazo y leche materna durante la hospitalización. Las madres tuvieron más de 6 consultas prenatales y los bebés nacieron por cesárea. Conclusión: La atención brindada de forma holística, basada en la ciencia y de forma humanizada a los recién nacidos y a los padres, puede reducir la mortalidad infantil, brindar mayor seguridad a los padres y confi anza en el equipo de atención, además de prevenir futuras complicaciones en el desarrollo del niño.


Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of hospitalizations of newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit in the extreme south of Brazil during a short period of time. Method: Observational study, with 85 neonates, based on secondary data from patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, from May 2020 to October 2020. Results: The prevalence of hospitalizations was male, with a diagnosis of prematurity, who weighed between 1500g and 2499g, did not receive breast milk in the fi rst hour of life, received visits from parents, lap and breast milk during hospitalization. The mothers had more than 6 prenatal consultations and the babies were born by cesarean section. Conclusion: The care provided in a holistic way, based on science and in a humanized way to newborns and parents, can reduce infant mortality, bring greater security to parents and confidence in the care team, in addition to preventing future complications in child development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Quality of Health Care , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Infant Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Humanization of Assistance , Holistic Health
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e227017, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1393192

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic, fulminant deep fungal infection started emerging in India, known as Mucormycosis. This type of mucormycosis was termed as COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM). These patients had previous history of COVID-19 infection. Such cases were mainly reported in immunocompromised patients such as patients with poorly controlled diabetes and chronic renal diseases etc. Rhinomaxillary mucormycosis is an aggressive, fulminant, fatal deep fungal infection of head and neck region. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease; hence we present case series of rhinomaxillary mucormycosis to create awareness amongst dental surgeons


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Signs and Symptoms , Comorbidity , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mycoses/diagnosis
6.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361634

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: aplicar a modelagem logística da primeira onda da COVID-19, com índice nos países com 20 maiores Produto Interno Bruto (PIB). Métodos: foi utilizada a modelagem matemática de crescimento logístico, considerando os seguintes parâmetros: número cumulativo de casos (C), tamanho final da epidemia na onda única de um surto (K), taxa intrínseca de crescimento (y) e tempo de inflexão (τ). Resultados: o Brasil apresentou maior número de casos e mortalidade, e os Estados Unidos da América (EUA) maior número de casos absolutos. A Coreia do Sul evidenciou o menor ponto de inflexão de 15,3 dias, enquanto o maior foi da Indonésia, com 213,9 dias. Na análise entre o ponto de inflexão e casos acumulados (/100 mil habitantes), observou-se correlação positiva moderada significativa (r=0,629 e p=0,003); (r=0,532 e p=0,016). Conclusão: o reconhecimento do comportamento de uma epidemia por meio da modelagem matemática torna possível determinar a propagação de uma epidemia, visto que, com a possibilidade de captar a dinâmica de uma epidemia, torna-se possível prever a necessidade de medidas públicas antecipadas e, consequentemente, diminuição da mortalidade global.


Objective: to apply logistic modeling of the first wave of COVID-19 in countries with the 20 highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Methods: logistic growth mathematical modeling was used, considering the following parameters: cumulative number of cases (C), the final size of the epidemic in the single wave of an outbreak (K), intrinsic growth rate (y), and inflection time (τ). Results: Brazil showed the highest number of cases and mortality, and the United States of America (USA) had the highest number of absolute cases. South Korea showed the lowest inflection point of 15.3 days, while the highest infection point was Indonesia, with 213.9 days. In the analysis between the inflection point and cumulative cases (/100,000 population), a moderate significant positive correlation was observed (r=0.629 and p=0.003); (r=0.532 and p=0.016). Conclusion: the recognition of the behavior of an epidemic through mathematical modeling makes it possible to determine the spread of an epidemic, since, with the possibility of capturing the dynamics of an epidemic, it becomes possible to predict the need for anticipated public measures and, consequently, decrease in overall mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Logistic Models , Gross Domestic Product , Epidemics
7.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361637

ABSTRACT

Aim: to identify which complications and prognosis of diabetic patients, hospitalized, who acquired COVID-19, through a systematic review. Methods: a systematic review based on the PRISMA flowchart, including cohort studies, available in Portuguese, English, Spanish, French, and Mandarin, published from 2019 to 2020, using the PICOS strategy, in the databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus and Science Direct, which in addition to the inclusion criteria after questionnaires to assess methodological quality and risk of bias. Results: of the 811 articles researched, 6 were included in this research. These studies showed that patients with COVID-19 and higher DM with worse prognosis, spent more time in the ICU, constantly needed indifference, greater complications when related to other comorbidities, high mortality rate, and glycemic control associated with advanced age directly affected patients. Outcomes even of non-diabetic subjects. Conclusion: this review identified the severity of the pathophysiological association is related to older age and biochemical and inflammatory factors linked to the two pathogens and that these subjects are more prone to specialized hospital care, which, however, result in high rates of hospital mortality.


Objetivo: identificar quais complicações e prognósticos dos pacientes diabéticos, internados, que adquiriram COVID-19, por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: foi realizada uma revisão sistemática baseada no fluxograma PRISMA, incluindo estudos de coorte, disponíveis em português, inglês, espanhol, francês e mandarim, publicados de 2019 a 2020, utilizando a estratégia PICOS, nas bases de dados: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus e Sciece Direct. Além dos critérios de inclusão passam por questionários para avaliar a qualidade metodológica e risco de viés. Resultados: dos 811 artigos pesquisados, 6 foram incluídos nesta pesquisa. Esses estudos mostraram que pacientes com COVID-19 e DM apresentam pior prognóstico, maior permanência em UTI, necessidade constante de ventilação invasiva, maiores complicações quando relacionadas a outras comorbidades, elevado índice de mortalidade, e o controle glicêmico associado à idade avançada afetavam diretamente os desfechos inclusive de pacientes não diabéticos. Conclusão: esta revisão identificou que a gravidade da associação fisiopatológica está relacionada à idade mais avançada e aos fatores bioquímicos e inflamatórios ligados aos dois patógenos e que esses sujeitos são mais propensos ao atendimento hospitalar especializado, o que, no entanto, resulta em altas taxas de mortalidade hospitalar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Strategies , Hospital Mortality , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycemic Control
8.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 959577, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090095

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus behind the deadly COVID-19 pandemic, continues to spread globally even as vaccine strategies are proving effective in preventing hospitalizations and deaths. However, evolving variants of the virus appear to be more transmissive and vaccine efficacy toward them is waning. As a result, SARS-CoV-2 will continue to have a deadly impact on public health into the foreseeable future. One strategy to bypass the continuing problem of newer variants is to target host proteins required for viral replication. We have used this host-targeted antiviral (HTA) strategy that targets DDX3X (DDX3), a host DEAD-box RNA helicase that is usurped by SARS-CoV-2 for virus production. We demonstrated that targeting DDX3 with RK-33, a small molecule inhibitor, reduced the viral load in four isolates of SARS-CoV-2 (Lineage A, and Lineage B Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants) by one to three log orders in Calu-3 cells. Furthermore, proteomics and RNA-seq analyses indicated that most SARS-CoV-2 genes were downregulated by RK-33 treatment. Also, we show that the use of RK-33 decreases TMPRSS2 expression, which may be due to DDX3s ability to unwind G-quadraplex structures present in the TMPRSS2 promoter. The data presented support the use of RK-33 as an HTA strategy to control SARS-CoV-2 infection, irrespective of its mutational status, in humans.

9.
J Drug Deliv Sci Technol ; 76: 103764, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090183

ABSTRACT

The world has witnessed an extreme vulnerability of a pandemic during 2020; originated from China. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is infecting and beginning deaths in thousands to millions, creating of the global economic crisis. Biosurfactants (BSs) can carry the prevention, control and management of pandemic out through diverse approaches, such as pharmaceutical, therapeutic, hygienic and environmental. The microbiotas having virulent intrinsic properties towards starting as easily as spreading of diseases (huge morbidity and mortality) could be inhibited via BSs. Such elements could be recognised for their antimicrobial activity, capability to interact with the immune system via micelles formation and in nanoparticulate synthesis. However, they can be used for developing novel and more effective therapeutics, pharmaceuticals, non-toxic formulations, vaccines, and effective cleaning agents. Such approaches can be utilized for product development and implemented for managing and combating the pandemic conditions. This review emphasized on the potentiality of BSs as key components with several ways for protecting against unknown and known pathogens, including COVID-19.

10.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 8: 23337214221122523, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090315

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected populations served by Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), with high morbidity and mortality rates in ethnic minority older adults. In response to this pandemic, academic geriatric medicine teams through federally funded Geriatric Workforce Enhancement Program (GWEP) with FQHC partnership implemented new initiatives to improve the care for vulnerable older adults. Objectives: To describe how four FQHC/GWEP teams collaborated in caring for diverse communities of older adults during the pandemic. Methods: Four GWEPs have addressed pandemic response efforts with their respective FQHC partners. These collaborations to meet the increasing numbers of older adults seeking services, and the rising disparities exacerbated during the pandemic are delineated. Results: FQHC/GWEP partnerships enabled access to care, whether in-person or virtually to serve unmet needs of underserved older adults during the pandemic. Partnerships promoted COVID-19 education, testing, and vaccinations. Most FQHCs faced severe staffing shortages, and the digital divide challenged patients with barriers. GWEPs provided direct care, created educational materials, and developed telehealth programs. These partnerships addressed social determinants of health gaps caused by the pandemic. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that strong partnerships between GWEPs and FQHCs mitigate health inequities for vulnerable ethnic minority and rural older adults during pandemic crises.

11.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(5): e802, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090620

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Death certificate (DC) data provides a basis for public health policies and statistics and contributes to the evaluation of a pandemic's evolution. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the COVID-19-related DC completion. Methods: A descriptive-analytical study was conducted to review a total of 339 medical records and DCs issued for COVID-19 cases from February 20 to September 21, 2020. A univariate analysis (χ 2 as an unadjusted analysis) was performed, and multiple logistic regression models (odd ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] as adjusted analyses) were used to evaluate the associations between variables. Results: Errors in DCs were classified as major and minor. All of the 339 examined DCs were erroneous; more than half of DCs (57.8%) had at least one major error; all of them had at least one minor error. Improper sequencing (49.3%), unacceptable underlying causes of death (UCOD) (33.3%), recording more than one cause per line (20.1%), listing general conditions instead of specific terms (11.2%), illegible handwriting (8.3%), competing causes (6.2%), and mechanisms (3.8%) were most common major errors, respectively. Absence of time interval (100%), listing mechanism allying with UCOD (51.6%), using abbreviations (45.4%), missing major comorbidities (16.5%), and listing major comorbidities in part I (16.5%) were most common minor errors, respectively. Conclusion: The rate of both major and minor errors was high. Using automated tools for recording and selecting death cause(s), promoting certifiers' skills on DC completion, and applying quality control mechanisms in DC documentation can improve death data and statistics.

12.
Front Oncol ; 12: 879876, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091146

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccination reduces risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 severity and death. However, the rate of seroconversion after COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients requiring systemic anticancer treatment is poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of seroconversion after COVID-19 vaccination in advanced skin cancer patients under active systemic anticancer treatment. Methods: This prospective single-center study of a consecutive sample of advanced skin cancer patients was performed from May 2020 until October 2021. Inclusion criteria were systemic treatment for advanced skin cancer, known COVID-19 vaccination status, repetitive anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG serum quantification and first and second COVID-19 vaccination. Primary outcome was the rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG seroconversion after complete COVID-19 vaccination. Results: Of 60 patients with advanced skin cancers, 52 patients (86.7%) received immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI), seven (11.7%) targeted agents (TT), one (1.7%) chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 12.7 months. During study progress ten patients had died from skin cancer prior to vaccination completion, six patients were lost to follow-up and three patients had refused vaccination. 41 patients completed COVID-19 vaccination with two doses and known serological status. Of those, serum testing revealed n=3 patients (7.3%) as anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG positive prior to vaccination, n=32 patients (78.0%) showed a seroconversion, n=6 patients (14.6%) did not achieve a seroconversion. Patients failing serological response were immunocompromised due to concomitant hematological malignancy, previous chemotherapy or autoimmune disease requiring immunosuppressive comedications. Immunosuppressive comedication due to severe adverse events of ICI therapy did not impair seroconversion following COVID-19 vaccination. Of 41 completely vaccinated patients, 35 (85.4%) were under treatment with ICI, five (12.2%) with TT, and one (2.4%) with chemotherapy. 27 patients (65.9%) were treated non adjuvantly. Of these patients, 13 patients had achieved objective response (complete/partial response) as best tumor response (48.2%). Conclusion and relevance: Rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG seroconversion in advanced skin cancer patients under systemic anticancer treatment after complete COVID-19 vaccination is comparable to other cancer entities. An impaired serological response was observed in patients who were immunocompromised due to concomitant diseases or previous chemotherapies. Immunosuppressive comedication due to severe adverse events of ICI did not impair the serological response to COVID-19 vaccination.

13.
J Intell Inf Syst ; : 1-17, 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091222

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has emerged as the greatest threat in recent times, causing extensive mortality and morbidity in the entire world. India is among the highly affected countries suffering severe disruptions due this pandemic. To overcome the adverse effects of COVID-19, vaccination has been identified as the most effective preventive measure globally. However, a growing amount of hesitancy has been observed among the general public regarding the efficacy and possible side-effects of vaccination. Such hesitancy may proved to be the greatest hindrance towards combating this deadly pandemic. This paper introduces a multimodal deep learning method for Indian Twitter user classification, leveraging both content-based and network-based features. To explore the fundamental features of different modalities, improvisations of transformer models, BERT and GraphBERT are utilized to encode the textual and network structure information. The proposed approach thus integrates multiple data representations, utilizing the advances in both transformer based deep learning as well as multimodal learning. Experimental results demonstrates the efficacy of proposed approach over state of the art approaches. Aggregated feature representations from multiple modalities embed additional information that improves the classification results. The findings of the proposed model has been further utilized to perform a study on the dynamics of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in India.

14.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 966586, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091454

ABSTRACT

The dual-use risk of infectious disease research using enhanced potential pandemic pathogens (ePPP), particularly gain-of-function (GOF) research, has been debated since 2011. As of now, research is supported on the condition that the research plan is reviewed and the actual experiment is supervised. However, the kinds of research conducted and what benefits they have brought to our society have not been adequately verified. Nevertheless, due to the COVID-19 pandemic that began at the end of 2019 and caused numerous deaths and wide economic disruption, the importance of infectious disease control from an international perspective has been recognized. Although complete control of the pandemic is still far off, positive signs include generating epidemiological trends based on genome analysis, therapeutic drug and vaccine development, clinical patient management, and public health policy interventions. In this context, the time has come to reconsider the true significance of GOF research on ePPP and the state of research governance in the post-COVID-19 era. In particular, the risks of such research are clearer than before, whereas its benefits seem less apparent. In this paper, we summarize the history of discussions on such GOF research, its significance in the light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, and the direction we shall take in the future.

15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 873596, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091533

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination, one of the most important and effective ways of preventing infectious diseases, has recently been used to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The present meta-analysis study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in reducing the incidence, hospitalization, and mortality from COVID-19. Methods: A systematic search was performed independently in Scopus, PubMed via Medline, ProQuest, and Google Scholar electronic databases as well as preprint servers using the keywords under study. We used random-effect models and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using I 2 and χ2 statistics. In addition, the Pooled Vaccine Effectiveness (PVE) obtained from the studies was calculated by converting based on the type of outcome. Results: A total of 54 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The PVE against SARS-COV 2 infection were 71% [odds ratio (OR) = 0.29, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.23-0.36] in the first dose and 87% (OR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.08-0.21) in the second dose. The PVE for preventing hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection was 73% (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.18-0.41) in the first dose and 89% (OR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.07-0.17) in the second dose. With regard to the type of vaccine, mRNA-1273 and combined studies in the first dose and ChAdOx1 and mRNA-1273 in the second dose had the highest effectiveness in preventing infection. Regarding the COVID-19-related mortality, PVE was 68% (HR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.23-0.45) in the first dose and 92% (HR = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.02-0.29) in the second dose. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis indicated that vaccination against COVID-19 with BNT162b2 mRNA, mRNA-1273, and ChAdOx1, and also their combination, was associated with a favorable effectiveness against SARS-CoV2 incidence rate, hospitalization, and mortality rate in the first and second doses in different populations. We suggest that to prevent the severe form of the disease in the future, and, in particular, in the coming epidemic picks, vaccination could be the best strategy to prevent the severe form of the disease. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier [CRD42021289937].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 959567, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091566

ABSTRACT

Responding rapidly to emerging public health crises is vital to reducing their escalation, spread, and impact on population health. These responses, however, are challenging and disparate processes for researchers and practitioners. Researchers often develop new interventions that take significant time and resources, with little exportability. In contrast, community-serving systems are often poorly equipped to properly adopt new interventions or adapt existing ones in a data-driven way during crises' onset and escalation. This results in significant delays in deploying evidence-based interventions (EBIs) with notable public health consequences. This prolonged timeline for EBI development and implementation results in significant morbidity and mortality that is costly and preventable. As public health emergencies have demonstrated (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic), the negative consequences often exacerbate existing health disparities. Implementation science has the potential to bridge the extant gap between research and practice, and enhance equity in rapid public health responses, but is underutilized. For the field to have a greater "real-world" impact, it needs to be more rapid, iterative, participatory, and work within the timeframes of community-serving systems. This paper focuses on rapid adaptation as a developing implementation science area to facilitate system responses during public health crises. We highlight frameworks to guide rapid adaptation for optimizing existing EBIs when responding to urgent public health issues. We also explore the economic implications of rapid adaptation. Resource limitations are frequently a central reason for implementation failure; thus, we consider the economic impacts of rapid adaptation. Finally, we provide examples and propose directions for future research and application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Implementation Science , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 965562, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091682

ABSTRACT

The pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused emerging challenges for healthcare systems regarding the assistance to the older adult population which, added to the increased life expectancy, may be exposing frail older adults to an increased risk of unfavorable health outcomes. Frailty has a pathogenesis of multifactorial etiology and is defined as a condition characterized by progressive decline in physiological function, weakness, decreased strength, and reduced resilience to stressors, leading to vulnerability and an increased risk of fractures, falls, institutionalization, and death. In the context of COVID-19, frail older adults accounted for approximately 51% of hospitalized patients with confirmed cases and elevated risk of mortality in-hospital. In addition, frailty may be associated with recent "excess mortality" reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) in terms of the full death toll associated directly (due to the disease) or indirectly (due to the pandemic's impact on health systems and society) to COVID-19. Therefore, this mini review aimed to provide a summarized discussion from meta-analyses data regarding the impact of frailty in community-dwelling older adults hospitalized with COVID-19 on short-term mortality risk.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 970494, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091793

ABSTRACT

The worldwide outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in early 2020 caused numerous deaths and unprecedented measures to control its spread. We employed our Computational Analysis of Novel Drug Opportunities (CANDO) multiscale therapeutic discovery, repurposing, and design platform to identify small molecule inhibitors of the virus to treat its resulting indication, COVID-19. Initially, few experimental studies existed on SARS-CoV-2, so we optimized our drug candidate prediction pipelines using results from two independent high-throughput screens against prevalent human coronaviruses. Ranked lists of candidate drugs were generated using our open source cando.py software based on viral protein inhibition and proteomic interaction similarity. For the former viral protein inhibition pipeline, we computed interaction scores between all compounds in the corresponding candidate library and eighteen SARS-CoV proteins using an interaction scoring protocol with extensive parameter optimization which was then applied to the SARS-CoV-2 proteome for prediction. For the latter similarity based pipeline, we computed interaction scores between all compounds and human protein structures in our libraries then used a consensus scoring approach to identify candidates with highly similar proteomic interaction signatures to multiple known anti-coronavirus actives. We published our ranked candidate lists at the very beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, 51 of our 276 predictions have demonstrated anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in published clinical and experimental studies. These results illustrate the ability of our platform to rapidly respond to emergent pathogens and provide greater evidence that treating compounds in a multitarget context more accurately describes their behavior in biological systems.

19.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 779942, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091817

ABSTRACT

Background: Although increasing clinical trials studying Shenfu injection (SFI) comprising panaxoside 0.8 mg/ml extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. and aconitine 0.1 mg/ml extracted from Aconitum carmichaeli Debeaux for elderly patients with severe pneumonia on biomarkers associated with COVID-19 progression are emerging, there is no evidence-based evaluation for the effect of SFI on elderly severe pneumonia. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of SFI on elderly patients with severe pneumonia providing hints for treating critical COVID-19, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Nine databases, namely, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Wanfang, Chongqing VIP Database, CNKI, and SinoMed were used to search clinical trials reporting the effect of SFI as an adjuvant for elderly severe pneumonia on outcomes of interest. Primary outcomes were total effective rate, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, mortality, and safety. Secondary outcomes were predictors associated with COVID-19 progression. Duplicated or irrelevant articles with unavailable data were excluded. Cochrane Collaboration's tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias by two reviewers independently. All data were analyzed by Rev Man 5.4. Continuous variables were shown as weighted mean difference (WMD) or standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), whereas dichotomous data were calculated as the risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Results: We included 20 studies with 1, 909 participants, and the pooled data showed that compared with standard control, SFI could improve the total effective rate (RR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.14-1.37, and n = 689), APACHE II score (WMD = -2.95, 95% CI = -3.35, -2.56, and n = 809), and predictors associated with COVID-19 progression (brain natriuretic peptide, creatine kinase, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, sE-selectin, von Willebrand factor, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet counts, D-Dimer, procalcitonin, and WBC count). SFI may reduce mortality (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.37-0.73, and n = 429) and safety concerns (RR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.17-0.51, and n = 150) for elderly severe pneumonia. Conclusion: SFI as an adjuvant may improve the total effective rate, APACHE II score, gas exchange, and predictors associated with COVID-19 progression, reducing mortality and safety concerns for elderly patients with severe pneumonia.

20.
Her Russ Acad Sci ; 92(4): 404-411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091855

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterized by a severe course in approximately 5‒10% of patients, who require admittance to the intensive care unit and mechanical ventilation, which is associated with a very high risk of a poor prognosis. At present, in real clinical practice, in managing severe patients with COVID-19, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is widely used (in some countries, up to 60% of all methods of respiratory support). In most studies on the effectiveness of NIV in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19, the need for tracheal intubation and hospital mortality with the use of NIV averaged 20-30%, which suggests the rather high efficiency of this method. The COVID-19 pandemic has given a powerful impetus to the widespread use of prone positioning among nonintubated patients with acute respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. Several studies have shown that prone positioning can reduce the need for mechanical ventilation and hospital mortality. Medications that have proven effective in severe forms of COVID-19 include remdesivir, systemic glucocorticoids, tocilizumab, baricitinib, and anticoagulants. Among the new promising areas of drug therapy, noteworthy is the use of thiol-containing drugs (N-acetylcysteine), inhaled surfactant, and inhaled prostacyclin analogues.

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