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Mar Pollut Bull ; 201: 116162, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401388


Here, we used distribution models to predict the size of the environmentally suitable area for shrimps of fishing interest that were impacted by the tailing plume from the collapse of the Fundão Dam, one of the largest ecological disasters ever to occur in Brazil. Species distribution models (SDMs) were generated for nine species of penaeid shrimp that occurred in the impacted region. Average temperature showed the highest percentage of contribution for SDMs. The environmental suitability of penaeids varied significantly in relation to the distance to the coast and mouth river. The area of environmental suitability of shrimps impacted by tailings plumes ranged from 27 to 47 %. Notably, three protected areas displayed suitable conditions, before the disaster, for until eight species. The results obtained by the SDMs approach provide crucial information for conservation and restoration efforts of coastal biodiversity in an impacted region with limited prior knowledge about biodiversity distribution.

Decapoda , Disasters , Animals , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Crustacea , Rivers , Biodiversity , Brazil
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 20(1): 117-132, 2024 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37128987


Previous studies of the Doce River basin (Brazil) seem to be contradictory regarding the contamination of soils with potentially harmful elements (PHE). This research aimed to perform an integrated assessment of PHE in the soil-plant-tailing system from the area most affected by the iron waste after the Fundão Dam disaster in 2015. Different fractions of PHE (exchangeable, nonexchangeable, reducible, and pseudo-total) were determined on deposited iron waste (DIW), soil waste mixture (SWM), and control soil (CS) samples. Total contents of PHE in Poaceae were also determined, and Allium cepa bioassays were performed to determine DIW and CS cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity to plants. The Fe and Mn contaminations were the only ones related to the deposition of DIW on floodplains, and other harmful element content (such as As, Hg, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb) was not found above baseline values for soils. In addition, a significant part of the Fe and Mn in DIW is readily available or subject to acidification and prolonged flood reduction processes. The high available content of Fe favored its excessive accumulation by Brachiaria. The DIW chemical conditions reduced biological functions of A. cepa under a controlled environment. However, more drastic effects, such as genetic damage, were not seen. The postdisaster action of covering DIW with CS resulted in undesirable enrichment of Pb on the floodplain soils. The integrated results allow the conclusion that the iron waste is not a time bomb for PHE contamination of soils between the Fundão and Risoleta Neves Hydroelectric Dam (~100 km away from Fundão). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2024;20:117-132. © 2023 SETAC.

Disasters , Metals, Heavy , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Brazil , Soil/chemistry , Lead , Iron , Plants , Rivers/chemistry , Metals, Heavy/analysis
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21669, 2023 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38066082


The 2020 environmental catastrophe in Pantanal has highlighted the fragility of environmental policies and practices for managing and fighting fires in this biome. Therefore, it is essential to know the causes and circumstances that potentiate these fires. This study aimed to: (I) assess the relationship between fire foci and carbon absorption (GPP), precipitation, and carbon dioxide (CO2) flux; (ii) analyze vegetation recovery using the differenced normalized burn ratio (ΔNBR) in Brazilian Pantanal between 2001 and 2022; and (iii) identify priority areas, where the highest intensities of fire foci have occurred, in order to guide public policies in Brazil to maintain local conservation. To this purpose, fire foci were detected using data from the MODIS MOD14/MYD14 algorithm, annual precipitation with CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data), and CO2 flux using the MODIS/MODO9A1 product, and Gross Primary Production (GPP) with the MODIS/MOD17A2 product. The severity of the burned area was also assessed using the ΔNBR index and the risk areas were determined using the averages of these images. During the time series studied, a total of 300,127 fire foci were detected throughout the Pantanal, where 2020 had the highest number of foci and the lowest accumulated precipitation. The years with the highest precipitation were 2014 and 2018. The year 2018 was also the second year with the highest GPP value. The Pettit test showed a trend for 2008 and 2011 as the points of change in the CO2 flux and GPP variables. Principal component analysis clustered fire foci and precipitation on opposite sides, as well as GPP and CO2 flux, while ΔNBR clustered HS, MHS and MLS classes with the years 2020, 2019, 2002 and 2021. There was a high negative correlation between fire foci × rainfall and GPP × CO2 flux. The years with the largest areas of High severity (HS), Moderate-high severity (MHS) and Moderate-low severity (MLS) classes were 2020 and 2019, respectively. The most vulnerable areas for severe fires were the municipalities of Cáceres, Poconé, and Corumbá. The major fire catastrophe in 2020 is correlated with the low precipitation in 2019, the high precipitation in 2018, and the increased GPP, as well government policies unfavorable to the environment.

Environ Monit Assess ; 195(12): 1449, 2023 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945782


The oil spill environmental sensitivity index is a key tool for preventing and dealing with environmental disasters caused by oil spills. This study aims to review the available literature on the subject and highlight the importance of methodological advances to improve how the index is applied in continental areas, especially in regions crossed by pipelines. Most current mapping techniques focus on coastal areas and fail to consider the stretches of land that are vulnerable to geodynamic natural disasters. In this context, the need to implement environmental sensitivity indices specific for pipelines has become urgent. This study also presents an overview of the main accidents around the world and a detailed analysis of the history of Brazilian disasters related to oil spills along continental stretches, with a focus on pipelines and natural disasters. In addition, this work highlights the importance of carrying out new research in mountainous areas of Brazil and is aimed at preventing Natechs (natural hazard triggering technological disasters) and improving contingency plans. As a result, several pathways have been identified, which involves the necessity of resolving gaps in terrestrial environmental sensitivity mapping methodologies, particularly as applied to pipelines. Furthermore, solutions must be capable of integrating terrestrial, fluvial, coastal, and maritime environmental sensitivity mapping techniques. Moreover, the need to implement dynamic risk monitoring systems in real time is critical to help manage such a complex problem.

Disasters , Petroleum Pollution , Environmental Monitoring , Disasters/prevention & control , Brazil
Mar Pollut Bull ; 194(Pt B): 115445, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37639916


Our work aims to purify, characterize and evaluate a laccase from by-products of the shrimp farming industry (Litopenaeus vannamei) for the degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 2019 oil spill in Brazilian coast. The enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography and characterized as thermostable, with activity above 90 °C and at alkaline pH. In addition, the laccase was also tolerant to copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, hexane and methanol, with significant enzymatic activation in acetone and 10 mM mercury. Concerning PAHs' degradation, the enzyme degraded 42.40 % of the total compounds, degrading >50 % of fluorene, C4-naphthalenes, C3-naphthalenes, C2-naphthalenes, anthracene, acenaphthene, 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene. Thus, this laccase demonstrated important characteristics for bioremediation of marine environments contaminated by crude oil spills, representing a viable and ecological alternative for these purposes.

Disasters , Petroleum Pollution , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Brazil , Laccase , Biodegradation, Environmental , Naphthalenes
Burns ; 49(5): 1201-1208, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195491


INTRODUCTION: To optimize the early care of burned patients, protocols were developed that guide pre-hospital care and the need to transfer to a specialized burn treatment unit. Burn disasters are an important public health concern in developed and developing nations. Among the early steps in disaster preparedness is the understanding of geographic locations and capacity of burn care facilities. We aimed to map and classify medical facilities that provide burn care in Brazil and to undertake a location-allocation analysis to identify which could be targeted to increase capacity. METHODS: A review of burn hospitalizations was conducted using Brazilian Ministry of Health data. Capacity was defined by number of burn patients admitted each year and bed type. Spatial population data per one-square kilometer were obtained from World Pop as a raster dataset. A road network dataset using Open Street Map data was created to conduct the drive time analysis. Location/allocation analysis was conducted to identify the proportion of Brazil's population living within 2- and 6-hours' drive time of a burn care capable hospital, stratified by the level of hospital capacity. Hospitals were ranked according to number of additional people served. RESULTS: We found 26.471 burn admissions. Of these, 3.508(13,2 %) were ICU admissions. A total of 735(2,7 %) hospital deaths occurred under the selected burn codes. In all, 1.273 facilities admitted burn patients, and 263(20,7 %) reported ICU admissions of burn patients. Seventeen hospitals were classified as maximum capacity facilities. Additional 23 hospitals were identified as potential targets for capacity building. Most maximum capacity hospitals are clustered in the Southeast of Brazil. Currently, 40.8 % of the Brazilian population live within 2 h of a maximum capacity facility. A large part of the population lives farther than 6 h away from a maximum capacity hospital. Most of the potential targets for capacity building are located near the coast of Brazil. DISCUSSION: We mapped and classified facilities that provide public burn care in Brazil. We identified public facilities that could be targeted to increase capacity to improve access for patients in the event of a burn disaster. Mapping, planning, and coordinating response is key for optimal outcomes in Mass Casualties Incidents. Cataloging and understanding local resources is a crucial first step in disaster management. Inequality in profiles can determine specific regional needs. Specialized burn centers are rare in regions other than the southeast. Health equity should be considered when planning disaster preparedness initiatives. Location-allocation modelling may assist in universal and equitable burn care service offerings. CONCLUSION: This study proposes an initial step in the classification and mapping of available burn treatment centers and population coverage in Brazil.

Burns , Disaster Planning , Mass Casualty Incidents , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Burns/epidemiology , Burns/therapy , Burn Units
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250370, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1440796


A atuação em situações de emergências e desastres apresentam-se como um dos grandes desafios na atuação dos profissionais da Psicologia, demandando intervenções singulares, desde o primeiro contato com as vítimas e o com entorno afetado pelo ocorrido, passando pelo trabalho interdisciplinar e interinstitucional junto aos órgãos públicos de segurança, justiça, assistência e saúde. O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar, por meio da experiência na assistência às vítimas na Escola Estadual Raul Brasil, as particularidades e adversidades enfrentadas durante o primeiro semestre de intervenções emergenciais que antecederam a contratação de psicólogos por parte do poder público municipal para continuidade das ações. Por meio de relatos de experiência em intervenções psicológicas, obtidos em diferentes instituições para a assistência às vítimas, este trabalho também visa apresentar alternativas que possam servir de referências para a intervenção do psicólogo e da psicóloga em situações de emergências e desastres, especialmente ocorridas na comunidade escolar. Observou-se que a realização do trabalho interdisciplinar e interinstitucional somado à participação da direção da escola no planejamento das ações e a realização de plantões psicológicos e rodas de conversa junto à comunidade escolar foram fundamentais para a assistência às vítimas do ocorrido.(AU)

Timely response to emergency and disaster situations is a major challenge for Psychology professionals and require particular interventions, from initial contact with the victims and the affected environment to interdisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration with public security, justice, assistance and health agencies. Based on the experience of providing assistance to the victims of the State School Raul Brasil, this paper presents the adversities and specificities faced during the first semester of emergency interventions implemented before psychologists were hired by municipal officials for the continuity of care. By analyzing experience reports on psychological interventions obtained from different institutions for victim assistance, this paper proposes alternatives to be used as reference for psychological intervention in emergency and disaster situations, especially those experienced by the school community. Interdisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration with the school board for planning actions and offering psychological services and conversation circles for the school community was fundamental to assist the victims.(AU)

La actuación en situaciones de emergencias es uno de los grandes desafíos a los profesionales de la psicología, pues demanda intervenciones singulares desde el primer contacto con las víctimas y con el contexto afectado por lo ocurrido, pasando por la interdisciplinaridad e interinstitucionalidad junto a los organismos públicos de seguridad, justicia, asistencia y salud. Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar, por medio de la experiencia de la asistencia a las víctimas del colegio estadual Raul Brasil (en São Paulo, Brasil), las particularidades y adversidades enfrentadas durante el primer semestre de las intervenciones de emergencia que antecedieron la contratación de psicólogos por parte del municipio para continuidad de las acciones. Por medio de reportes de experiencia en intervenciones psicológicas, obtenidos en diferentes instituciones para la asistencia a las víctimas, este estudio también pretende presentar alternativas que puedan servir de referencia en la intervención de psicólogos y psicólogas en situaciones de emergencia y desastres, especialmente ocurridas en la comunidad escolar. Se verificó que la realización del trabajo interdisciplinar e interinstitucional, la participación de la dirección del colegio en la implementación de acciones y la realización de guardias psicológicas y círculos de conversación con la comunidad escolar fueron fundamentales para una asistencia a las víctimas.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Schools , Emergencies , Anxiety , Panic , Parent-Child Relations , Politics , Prisons , Psychiatry , Psychology, Educational , Psychology, Social , Psychopathology , Punishment , Reality Therapy , Religion , School Health Services , Self Mutilation , Social Change , Social Problems , Socialization , Stereotyping , Violence , Social Control Policies , Bipolar Disorder , Alcohol Drinking , Bereavement , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Attitude , Child , Child Abuse , Child Rearing , Residence Characteristics , Adolescent , Police , Panic Disorder , Domestic Violence , Rescue Work , Life , Crime Victims , Eulogy , Substance-Related Disorders , Internet , Crime , Criminal Law , Crisis Intervention , Terrorist Assault , Terrorism , Death , Defense Mechanisms , Delivery of Health Care , Information Dissemination , Law Enforcement , Friends , Minors , Aggression , Depression , Disaster Planning , Emergency Medical Technicians , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Mass Casualty Incidents , Fear , Bullying , Apathy , Emergency Shelter , Fires , Emotional Adjustment , Peer Influence , Harassment, Non-Sexual , Emotion-Focused Therapy , Survivorship , Academic Failure , Ethnocentrism , Extremism , Cyberbullying , Frustration , Gun Violence , Respect , Psychological Distress , School Mental Health Services , Internet Addiction Disorder , Disinformation , Family Support , Suicide Prevention , Group Processes , Guilt , Homicide , Hostility , Human Rights , Jurisprudence , Anger , Life Change Events , Mass Media , Mental Disorders , Motivation , Neurotic Disorders , Antisocial Personality Disorder
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243764, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1422423


A população em situação de rua (PSR), em seu cotidiano, se relaciona com diferentes pessoas, grupos e/ou coletivos ligados à execução das políticas públicas, às organizações não governamentais, familiares ou a membros da sociedade civil. Pensar nessas dinâmicas de trabalho, cooperação e auxílio remete a pensar sobre uma rede de apoio que constrói estratégias com essa população. Tendo presente essas problematizações, este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as narrativas das pessoas em situação de rua sobre como é produzida sua rede de apoio. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, de orientação etnográfica, sendo utilizada a observação participante, registros em diário de campo e entrevistas narrativas. Participaram seis pessoas em situação de rua que recebem alimentação ofertada por projetos sociais em uma cidade do interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados produzidos foram analisados a partir da Análise Temática. As análises expressam as especificidades das narrativas das trajetórias de vida associadas à chegada às ruas e à composição de uma rede de apoio na rua. Ao conhecer como se produz e opera essa rede de apoio, a partir das narrativas das pessoas em situação de rua, problematiza-se a complexidade dessa engrenagem e o desafio de produzir ações integradas entre as diferentes instâncias da rede. Nisso, destaca-se a potencialidade de práticas que levem conta à escuta, ao diálogo e à articulação na operacionalização de políticas públicas atentas às necessidades dessa população.(AU)

The street population, in their daily lives, relates to different people, groups and/or collectives linked to the execution of public policies, to non-governmental organizations, family members, or to members of civil society. Thinking about these dynamics of work, cooperation, and assistance leads to thinking about a support network that builds strategies with this population. Having these problematizations in mind, this study aims to analyze the narratives of homeless people about how their support network is produced. To this end, a qualitative study was carried out, with ethnographic orientation, using participant observation, records in a field diary, and narrative interviews. Participated in the research six homeless people who receive food offered by social projects in a municipality in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. The data produced were analyzed using the Thematic Analysis. The analyzes express the specifities of the narratives of life trajectories associated with the arrival on the streets and the composition of a support network on the street. By knowing how the support network is produced and operated, the complexity of this gear and the challenge of producing integrated actions between the different instances of the network are problematized. Thus, it highlights the potential of practices that consider listening, dialogue, and articulation in the operationalization of public policies that are attentive to the needs of this population.(AU)

Las personas en situación de calle en su cotidiano se relacionan con distintas personas, grupos y/o colectivos, que están vinculados a la ejecución de políticas públicas, organizaciones no gubernamentales, familiares o miembros de la sociedad civil. Pensar en estas dinámicas de trabajo, cooperación y ayuda nos lleva a una red de apoyo que construye estrategias con estas personas. Teniendo en cuenta esta problemática, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las narrativas de las personas en situación de calle acerca de cómo se produce su red de apoyo. Con este fin, se realizó un estudio cualitativo, etnográfico, utilizando observación participante, registros de diario de campo y entrevistas narrativas. Este estudio incluyó a seis personas en situación de calle que reciben alimentos ofrecidos por proyectos sociales en una ciudad del interior de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil). Se utilizó el Análisis Temático. Los análisis expresan las especificidades de las narrativas de las trayectorias de vida asociadas con la llegada a las calles y la composición de una red de apoyo en la calle. Al saber cómo se produce y opera la red de apoyo, a partir de las narrativas de las personas en la calle, se problematizan la complejidad de este equipo y el desafío de producir acciones integradas entre las diferentes instancias de la red. Destaca el potencial de las prácticas que tienen en cuenta la escucha, el diálogo y la articulación en la implementación de políticas públicas que estén atentas a las necesidades de esta población.(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Public Policy , Ill-Housed Persons , Community Support , Poverty , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Relief Work , Safety , Social Change , Social Conditions , Social Isolation , Social Support , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Unemployment , Violence , Emergency Feeding , Health Surveillance , Occupational Risks , Illicit Drugs , Charities , Hygiene , Disease , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Hunger , Crack Cocaine , Clothing , Interview , Community Health Services , Community Participation , Substance-Related Disorders , Criminology , Shelter , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Risk , Personal Autonomy , Gift Giving , Human Rights Abuses , Alcoholism , Economics , User Embracement , Existentialism , Family Conflict , Drug Users , Alcoholics , Social Stigma , Emergency Shelter , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Food Deprivation , Frailty , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Solidarity , Life Course Perspective , Housing Instability , Social Status , Citizenship , Family Support , Health Services Needs and Demand , Human Rights , Income , Mental Disorders
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 30(supl.1): e2023032, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506290


Resumo O artigo aborda as escolhas políticas do governo brasileiro relacionadas aos programas sociais de transferência condicionada de renda feitas em meio à pandemia de covid-19. O objetivo é analisar como a implementação do Auxílio Emergencial, o fim do Programa Bolsa Família e a implementação do Auxílio Brasil estão relacionados ao rearranjo e ao desmanche da rede de proteção social brasileira diante da conjuntura de generalizado empobrecimento dos trabalhadores brasileiros. Espera-se não só apresentar um registro dessas ações, mas estabelecer chaves de leitura que, contextualizadas historicamente, permitam explicar a análise de tais ações em meio ao aprofundamento das políticas neoliberais no país.

Abstract This article addresses the political choices made by the Brazilian government concerning conditional cash transfer programs during the covid-19 pandemic. The aim is to analyze how the covid-related Emergency Aid (Auxílio Emergencial), the extinction of the Bolsa Família Program, and the implementation of its replacement, Auxílio Brasil, interacted in the rearrangement and dismantling of Brazil's social protection network in a broader context of a generalized impoverishment of Brazilian workers. The article not only presents a record of these actions, but also offers an interpretative approach that, historically contextualized, can shed light on these actions, which ran parallel to the deepening entrenchment of neoliberal policies in the country.

Public Policy , Social Support , Disaster Emergencies , Relief, Assistance and Protection in Disasters , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Brazil , History, 21st Century
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(4): 1013-1031, oct,-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421581


Abstract Brazil has experienced several major epidemics of influenza, and the most destructive was in 1918-1919. This article focuses on mortality, mitigation policies, and the consequences of pandemic influenza during the national period. We provide the first mortality estimates for the 1890-1894 influenza pandemic and correct figures for later epidemics. The 1918-1919 episode cost more lives than assumed, although some cities suffered less, possibly because of public health actions. Influenza caused pandemics in 1957, 1968, 1976, and 2009, but these did not cause unusual outbreaks in Brazil.

Resumo O Brasil passou por várias epidemias importantes de influenza, a mais letal em 1918-1919. O artigo focaliza a mortalidade, as políticas de mitigação e as consequências das pandemias de influenza no período nacional. Fornecemos as primeiras estimativas de mortalidade para a pandemia de 1890-1894 e corrigimos números de epidemias posteriores. O episódio de 1918-1919 custou mais vidas do que se considerou anteriormente, embora algumas cidades tenham sofrido menos, possivelmente devido a ações de saúde pública. A influenza gerou pandemias em 1957, 1968, 1976 e 2009, mas elas não causaram surtos incomuns no Brasil.

Public Health , Mortality , Disaster Planning , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , History, 20th Century , COVID-19
Serv. soc. soc ; (144): 193-212, maio-set. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377369


Resumo: O artigo analisa os impactos socioterritoriais provocados por desastres com barragens à luz da Vigilância Socioassistencial. Adotou-se o método qualitativo, por meio de análise documental e técnica, de cidades impactadas por desastres com barragens de mineradoras em Minas Gerais (Brasil). Concluiu-se que as condições objetivas de respostas no campo da Assistência Social estão aquém dos preceitos internacionais de Gestão Integral de Riscos e de Desastres (GIRD), destacando foco para o aprimoramento específico para uma gestão planejada e compartilhada de Redução de Riscos de Desastres (RRD).

Abstract: The article analyzes the socio-territorial impacts caused by disasters with dams in the light of Social Assistance Surveillance. We adopted the qualitative method based on documental and technical analysis of cities impacted by disasters with mining dams in Minas Gerais/BR. We concluded that the objective conditions of answers in the field of Social Assistance fall short of the international precepts of Disaster Risk Management (DRM), highlighting a focus for specific improvement for a planned and shared management of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR).

Mar Pollut Bull ; 183: 114047, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029584


The oil spill that reached Brazilian Coast in 2019 was one of the most extensive disasters and its effects on distinct species are still under investigation. This study evaluated the effects of the oil spill on the crab Pachygrapsus transversus in four reef areas in Northeast of Brazil that are also under different levels of chronic anthropogenic impacts. Changes in population aspects were investigated including maturity, sex ratio, and relative growth considering periods before and after the oil spill. An acute decrease in the number of females captured in areas most affected by oil spill was evident and may be associated with the closure of burrows used for protection. Crabs from the most touristic area presented a decrease in the medium size of carapace and maturation compared to crabs from other less visited areas, which highlights the importance of studying the effects of impacts on marine fauna.

Brachyura , Disasters , Petroleum Pollution , Animals , Brazil , Female
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 2): e20210399, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730896


The 2019 oil spill was the biggest in Brazilian history. Oil was found along more than 3,000 km of the Brazilian coastline, mainly in the Northeast, in more than 1,000 localities. This article analyzes the disaster's damage using a sample of interviewers who were impacted - fishers, tourism and beach hawkers - distributed along 40 of the affected municipalities in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The socio-economic indicators obtained by the research show that the impacts were not homogeneous between the segments and cities researched. Localities specialized in tourism and with a workforce relatively more specialized in fishing were the most affected. Accordingly, the populations of fishers and beach hawkers suffered the most severe impacts in terms of income reduction and the sale of products. These agents report a negative impact of the disaster on their work activities of 73% (fishers) and 65% (beach vendors), while the lodging and food sectors reported losses in about 38% of the cases. The interviewees' health indicators demonstrated that the volunteers at the oil spill clean- up suffered damage due to the exposure experienced, evidencing the public health emergency dimension of the disaster.

Disasters , Petroleum Pollution , Brazil , Humans , Petroleum Pollution/adverse effects , Socioeconomic Factors
Environ Pollut ; 306: 119370, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526646


On November 5th, 2015, the Fundão dam collapsed in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, releasing millions of cubic meters of mud containing mining residue into the Doce River. Two weeks later, the mud arrived to the marine environment, triggering changes in franciscana dolphin habitat, Pontoporia blainvillei, from Franciscana Management Area Ia. This is an isolated population of the most endangered cetacean species in the South Atlantic Ocean. Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) may pose a threat to this endangered population because of their endocrine disrupting properties. Hence, this study sought to determine if there were differences in the bioaccumulation profile of OHC (PCBs, DDTs, Mirex, HCB, HCHs, PBDEs, PBEB, HBBZ and MeO-BDEs) in franciscana dolphins before and after dam collapse and to build a temporal trend. Blubber of 33 stranded individuals was collected in Espírito Santo state for organohalogen assessment between 2003 and 2019. Differences were found between franciscana dolphins collected prior to and after the disaster. Additionally, significant temporal trends for organochlorine pesticides and natural and anthropogenic organobromine were detected. The increase in pesticide concentrations after 2015 is suggestive of their reavailability in the environment. The decline in organobromine over time could be due to their debromination in the marine environment and alterations in the composition of their natural producers. PCBs remained stable during the period of the study. Our findings show an increase in endocrine disruptor concentrations, which is of great concern for this endangered population.

Disasters , Dolphins , Pesticides , Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Mining , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; 19 de maio de 2022. 62 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, PIE, SDG | ID: biblio-1370193


Contexto: Na década de 1970, o Relatório Lalonde apresentou-se como uma nova perspectiva de saúde e um ponto de partida para o conceito de Cidades Saudáveis. Ele expôs um conceito ampliado de saúde ao afirmar que as melhorias das condições de saúde da população podem ser resultado de mudanças no ambiente físico-social e no estilo de vida. Pergunta: Quais são os critérios adotados em diferentes partes do mundo para caracterizar cidades/municípios saudáveis? Método: As buscas foram realizadas em PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde e Social Systems Evidence, em 8 e 10 de março de 2022, com o propósito de identificar estudos primários e secundários que abordassem critérios para caracterização de Cidades Saudáveis. Utilizando atalhos de revisão rápida para simplificar o processo, apenas o processo de seleção por títulos e resumos foi realizado em duplicidade e de forma independente. Foram incluídos estudos publicados em inglês, espanhol e português, e não houve limitação para inclusão quanto ao delineamento ou data de publicação. Os estudos incluídos foram avaliados quanto à qualidade metodológica com instrumentos específicos para cada delineamento. Resultados: As publicações recuperadas nas fontes de dados foram 2.723, das quais 24 foram incluídas após o processo de seleção. Os domínios das Cidades Saudáveis propostos pela OMS foram utilizados para agregar os estudos incluídos, conforme apresentado a seguir. Domínio 1: Melhorar a governança da cidade para a saúde e bem-estar. Seis artigos foram indicados neste domínio, que trata sobre parcerias locais para promover a saúde; responsabilização e prestação de contas; utilização de um perfil de saúde na cidade em conjunto com um plano de desenvolvimento de saúde; promoção da saúde nas políticas públicas; e diplomacia na cidade. Domínio 2: Reduzir/minimizar as desigualdades em saúde. Cinco artigos foram incluídos neste domínio, que aborda o significado e as formas de medir os problemas de desigualdade social e impacto sobre a sociedade; e desenvolver um plano de ação para resolver os conflitos. Domínio 3: Promover a abordagem de saúde em todas as políticas. Sete artigos são apresentados neste domínio, que se refere a mecanismos de formulação de políticas locais com coerência para benefício da saúde e para aumentar a capacidade de avaliação dos impactos na saúde. Domínio 4: Promover o desenvolvimento e o empoderamento da comunidade e criar ambientes sociais que apoiem a saúde. Cinco artigos foram associados a este domínio, que abarca temas de promoção do letramento e resiliência da comunidade; promoção da inclusão social e projetos comunitários; garantia de acesso à assistência social; incentivo à prática de atividade física em todas as idades; criação de ambientes físicos e sociais livres de fumo; incentivo à alimentação saudável e limitação do acesso a alimentos ricos em açúcares; e abordagem de problemas de saúde mental e bem-estar social. Domínio 5: Criar ambientes físicos e construídos que apoiem a saúde e as escolhas saudáveis. Onze estudos foram arrolados neste domínio, que aborda temas como criar bairros seguros e limpos; promover e investir em deslocamento saudável (a pé ou de bicicleta); enfrentar os problemas de saneamento básico, poluição sonora e do ar, mudanças climáticas, diminuição da emissão de carbono, higiene e habitação; incentivar a receptividade de crianças e idosos; garantir acesso a áreas verdes para convívio social e investir em planejamento urbano saudável. Domínio 6: Melhorar a qualidade e o acesso aos serviços locais de saúde e sociais. Um estudo foi associado a este domínio, que é caracterizado por assegurar a cobertura universal na saúde e remover barreiras; melhorar a qualidade de serviços para a comunidade e a articulação entre os serviços de atenção primária à saúde e outros serviços públicos de saúde. Domínio 7: Considerar todas as pessoas no planejamento da cidade e priorizar os mais vulneráveis. Quatro artigos foram relacionados neste domínio, que se refere à prática saudável para crianças no início da vida, garantir acesso à educação para todos, garantir o envelhecimento saudável e identificar nas cidades as necessidades das pessoas mais vulneráveis. Domínio 8: Fortalecer os serviços locais de saúde pública e a capacidade de lidar com emergências relacionadas à saúde. Um artigo foi citado neste domínio, que trata de temáticas de investimento em programas de promoção da saúde e prevenção de doenças com base na população e comunidade; cuidar do problema de obesidade em jovens e adultos; e lidar com emergências relacionadas às mudanças climáticas e fenômenos como epidemias e desastres naturais. Domínio 9: Manter um plano de preparação, prontidão e resposta urbana em emergências de saúde pública. Nenhum estudo foi associado a este domínio, que é caracterizado pelo desenvolvimento de práticas de vigilância inclusivas; promoção de informações e práticas com base em evidências; entendimento e ação sobre as vulnerabilidades; trabalho em fortalecimento e respostas comunitárias; e planejamento de medidas de emergências. Outras propostas: Dois estudos abordam proposições que não foram associadas diretamente aos domínios recomendados pela OMS, mas que podem contribuir para aprimorar os critérios de Cidades Saudáveis. Um deles discute o conceito de cidades inteligentes, que utilizam tecnologias de informação e comunicação para melhorar a produtividade e organizar uma governança mais aberta. O outro estudo tem como foco o ecofeminismo, trabalho reprodutivo e de cuidado, planejamento urbano feminista e o incentivo para integração da saúde humana e ambiental. Considerações finais: Os estudos incluídos apresentam informações relevantes sobre a caracterização de Cidades Saudáveis, principalmente os diferentes conceitos abordados acerca do que considerar na avaliação e implementação de cidades e comunidades saudáveis. Os resultados mostram que ainda são escassos os relatos sobre experiências de implementação da proposta de Cidades Saudáveis. As ações de promoção da saúde, como a criação de ambientes físicos e construídos que apoiem a saúde e as escolhas saudáveis, o planejamento urbano voltado à abordagem de uma grande diversidade de problemas e soluções, a promoção da abordagem de saúde em políticas de outros setores e a melhora da governança na cidade para saúde e bem-estar, fazem parte do rol de critérios de Cidades Saudáveis, e têm sido postas em prática em muitos municípios, inclusive no Brasil. No entanto, as estratégias de busca desta revisão rápida não conseguiram recuperar tais experiências nacionais. O fato de não terem sido recuperadas nas buscas pode ser um indicativo de que o termo "cidade saudável" não tem sido considerado por muitos pesquisadores em suas publicações.

Context: In the 1970s, the Lalonde Report presented itself as a new perspective on health and a starting point for the concept of Healthy Cities. He exposed an expanded concept of health by stating that improvements in the population's health conditions can be the result of changes in the physical-social environment and in lifestyle. Question: What are the criteria adopted in different parts of the world to characterize healthy cities/municipalities? Method: The searches were carried out in PubMed, Virtual Health Library and Social Systems Evidence, on March 8 and 10, 2022, with the purpose of identifying primary and secondary studies that addressed criteria for the characterization of Healthy Cities. Using rapid review shortcuts to simplify the process, only the title and abstract selection process was performed in duplicate and independently. Studies published in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included, and there was no limitation for inclusion in terms of design or publication date. The included studies were evaluated for methodological quality with specific instruments for each design. Results: The publications retrieved from the data sources were 2,723, of which 24 were included after the selection process. The Healthy Cities domains proposed by WHO were used to aggregate the included studies, as shown below. Domain 1: Improve city governance for health and well-being. Six articles were indicated in this domain, which deals with local partnerships to promote health; accountability and accountability; use of a health profile in the city in conjunction with a health development plan; health promotion in public policies; and diplomacy in the city. Domain 2: Reduce/minimize health inequalities. Five articles were included in this domain, which addresses the meaning and ways of measuring problems of social inequality and impact on society; and develop an action plan to resolve conflicts. Domain 3: Promoting the health approach in all policies. Seven articles are presented in this domain, which refers to mechanisms for formulating local policies with coherence for the benefit of health and to increase the capacity to assess health impacts. Domain 4: Promote community development and empowerment and create social environments that support health. Five articles were associated with this domain, which covers topics of literacy promotion and community resilience; promoting social inclusion and community projects; guarantee of access to social assistance; encouraging the practice of physical activity at all ages; creating smoke-free physical and social environments; encouraging healthy eating and limiting access to foods rich in sugars; and addressing mental health and social well-being issues. Domain 5: Create physical and built environments that support health and healthy choices. Eleven studies were enrolled in this domain, which addresses topics such as creating safe and clean neighborhoods; promote and invest in healthy commuting (on foot or by bicycle); face the problems of basic sanitation, noise and air pollution, climate change, reduction of carbon emissions, hygiene and housing; encourage the receptivity of children and the elderly; ensure access to green areas for social interaction and invest in healthy urban planning. Domain 6: Improve the quality of and access to local health and social services. One study was associated with this domain, which is characterized by ensuring universal health coverage and removing barriers; improve the quality of services for the community and the articulation between primary health care services and other public health services. Domain 7: Consider all people in city planning and prioritize the most vulnerable. Four articles were listed in this domain, which refers to healthy practice for children early in life, ensuring access to education for all, ensuring healthy aging and identifying the needs of the most vulnerable people in cities. Domain 8: Strengthen local public health services and capacity to deal with health-related emergencies. An article was cited in this domain, which deals with investment themes in population and community-based health promotion and disease prevention programs; to take care of the problem of obesity in young people and adults; and dealing with emergencies related to climate change and phenomena such as epidemics and natural disasters. Domain 9: Maintain an urban preparedness, preparedness, and response plan for public health emergencies. No studies were associated with this domain, which is characterized by the development of inclusive surveillance practices; promotion of evidence-based information and practices; understanding and acting on vulnerabilities; work in community strengthening and responses; and planning of emergency measures. Other proposals: Two studies address propositions that were not directly associated with the domains recommended by the WHO, but that may contribute to improving the Healthy Cities criteria. One of them discusses the concept of smart cities, which use information and communication technologies to improve productivity and organize more open governance. The other study focuses on ecofeminism, reproductive and care work, feminist urban planning, and encouraging the integration of human and environmental health. Final considerations: The studies included present relevant information about the characterization of Healthy Cities, mainly the different concepts approached about what to consider in the evaluation and implementation of healthy cities and communities. The results show that there are still few reports on experiences of implementing the Healthy Cities proposal. Health promotion actions, such as creating physical and built environments that support health and healthy choices, urban planning aimed at addressing a wide range of problems and solutions, promoting a health approach in policies in other sectors and the improvement of governance in the city for health and well-being, are part of the list of Healthy Cities criteria, and have been put into practice in many municipalities, including Brazil. However, the search strategies of this rapid review failed to retrieve such national experiences. The fact that they were not retrieved in searches may be an indication that the term "healthy city" has not been considered by many researchers in their publications.

Humans , Quality of Life , City Planning , Healthy City , Health Sector Stewardship and Governance , Health Promotion , Disaster Sanitation , Vulnerable Populations , Carbon Footprint
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153590, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122850


Mining dam disasters contribute to the contamination of aquatic environments, impacting associated ecosystems and wildlife. A multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain (B2C) was isolated from a river water sample in Brazil after the Mariana mining dam disaster. The genome was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform, and de novo assembled using Unicycler. Resistome, virulome, and plasmidome were predicted using bioinformatics tools. Data analysis revealed that E. coli B2C belonged to sequence type ST219 and phylogroup E. Strikingly, a broad resistome (antibiotics, hazardous heavy metals, and biocides) was predicted, including the presence of the clinically relevant blaCTX-M-2 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) gene, qacE∆1 efflux pump gene, and the mer (mercury resistance) operon. SNP-based analysis revealed that environmental E. coli B2C was clustered along to ESBL-negative E. coli strains of ST219 isolated between 1980 and 2021 from livestock in the United States of America. Acquisition of clinically relevant genes by ST219 seems to be a recent genetic event related to anthropogenic activities, where polluted water environments may contribute to its dissemination at the human-animal-environment interface. In addition, the presence of genes conferring resistance to heavy metals could be related to environmental pollution from mining activities. Antimicrobial resistance genes could be essential biomarkers of environmental exposure to human and mining pollution.

Disasters , Escherichia coli Proteins , Mercury , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Ecosystem , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Mercury/toxicity , beta-Lactamases/genetics
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4579-4590, 2021 Oct.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730645


The article presents the project "Of Our Territory, We Know" (De Nosso Território Sabemos Nós), carried out in two communities in the mountain cities of the state of Rio de Janeiro that suffered the 2011 disaster, aiming at creating a device for online communication, associated with social cartography, seeking to establish a dialogue between the city management and citizens in a permanent and dynamic way. The device allows local needs to be visible for the creation of public policies. The implementation of the Extended Research Communities (Comunidades Ampliadas de Pesquisa), consisting of residents and their associations, participants of the municipal management, and researchers in a regime of ecology of knowledges, took place through cartographic workshops. The identification of the vulnerabilities and potentials of the communities, the emergence of memories and local knowledges allow the strengthening of community resilience. Therefore, the appraisal of the experience in the creation of social cartographies brings out the group's self-awareness. The mapping process demonstrated how unknown the territories are to the municipal management and even to their inhabitants.

O artigo apresenta o projeto De Nosso Território Sabemos Nós, em duas comunidades das cidades serranas fluminenses que sofreram o desastre de 2011, com o objetivo da criação de dispositivo para comunicação on-line, associado à cartografia social, buscando pôr em diálogo gestão e cidadãos de maneira permanente e dinâmica. O dispositivo permite que as necessidades locais sejam visíveis para deliberação de políticas públicas. A constituição das Comunidades Ampliadas de Pesquisa, composta por moradores e suas associações, participantes da gestão municipal e pesquisadores em regime de ecologia dos saberes, se realizaram através de oficinas cartográficas. A identificação das vulnerabilidades e potencialidades das comunidades, o aflorar das memórias e conhecimentos locais permitem o fortalecimento da resiliência comunitária. Dessa forma, a valorização da experiência na elaboração das cartografias sociais faz emergir a autoconsciência do grupo. O processo de mapeamento demonstrou o quanto os territórios são desconhecidos para a gestão municipal e até mesmo para seus moradores.

Disaster Planning , Disasters , Brazil , Cities , Communication , Emergencies , Humans