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1.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078185

ABSTRACT

Changes in the territorial pattern of the Beibu Gulf, an environmentally sensitive and ecologically fragile area in China, will directly or indirectly affect the regional ecological environment, while profoundly influencing economic development and human well-being. Therefore, it is significant to understand the ecological response in the process of territorial space changes in the Beibu Gulf to promote the coordination between sea and land and sustainable regional development. This paper used remote sensing image interpretation to generate land-use maps in 2000, 2010 and 2020, and then analyzed the spatial and temporal evolution of the territorial pattern of the Beibu Gulf from 2000 to 2020. Finally, this paper proposed a comprehensive carrying capacity evaluation system and explored the spatial functional zones of the coastal areas of the Beibu Gulf. The results showed that the demand for urban development and ecological protection between 2000 and 2020 increased built-up land and forestland by 386.71% and 25.56%, respectively, and reduced farmland by 28.33%. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in various land-use types. Where forestland is mainly distributed in the west, farmland is mainly distributed in the east, wetland is mainly distributed in the south, and orchards are spread throughout the whole area. The evaluation results of land resources, water resources and ecological conditions in the Beibu Gulf area showed that its comprehensive carrying capacity was high in the south and low in the north, and high in the west and low in the east. On this basis, this paper considered the actual situation of natural resources, ecological conditions, socio-economic development, protection and development in coastal areas; divided the study area into four categories: developed areas, priority development areas, ecological reserve areas and coastal reserve areas; and put forward corresponding control suggestions. The results of this paper could provide a scientific basis for regional development and territorial spatial planning in the coastal areas.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Wetlands , China , Economic Development , Ecosystem , Humans , Sustainable Development
2.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078270

ABSTRACT

At present, nearly half of the population of China live in water-deficient areas where water needs to be transferred from surrounding or remote water sources to meet local water demands. Although the water transfer project has alleviated the demands for water in the water-deficient areas, and brought water-supply income to water source regions, it has also posed some cross-regional negative impacts, including the changes in the original ecology within the water source, the impacts on the downstream water demands, and the risk of biological invasion in the distant water receiving areas. Therefore, it can be seen that the impact of water transfer is complicated and will be manifested in various aspects. The Middle Route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP-MR), as the world's largest cross-watershed water transfer project, exerts particularly important effects on regional sustainable development; however, it also produces complex interactions within the ecological environment itself, downstream and in the distant water receiving cities. Thus, this work attempts to apply a metacoupling analysis framework of water transfer to explore the ecological interaction of water transfer in SNWTP-MR on each system. The metacoupling framework can be divided into intracoupling, pericoupling and telecoupling. This study focuses on the analysis of the causes and effects of the intracoupling, pericoupling and telecoupling of SNWTP-MR from the perspective of ecological values and ecological risks. We found that the coupling of water transfer brings about 23 billion yuan of ecological service value to the water source annually, but also increases the internal ecological risk index by 9.31%, through the calculation of changes in land use; secondly, the power generation benefit significantly increases, and the flood control standards have shifted from once-in-20 years to once-in-a-century. However, the ecological risks are also significant, such as poor water quality, eutrophication of water resources, competition for water between industry and agriculture, deterioration of waterway shipping, and threats to biodiversity, etc. Considering only water supply, the population carrying capacity of the water resource in distant water receiving cities is increased by 16.42 million people, which enhances the value of water resources and creates a cross-regional green ecological landscape belt. Nevertheless, the biological invasion and water pollution have greatly affected the safety of water supply. It can be seen that the cross-regional water transfer does not always damage the interests of the sending system and the spillover system while benefiting the receiving system; its impacts are complex and variable. Through this paper, it is hoped to provide a reference for the analysis of the ecological compensation, resource development and allocation in SNWTP-MR by revealing the metacoupling relationship of SNWTP-MR. This paper will provide new ideas for researching the metacoupling relationship, thereby offering valuable reference for the study of the interaction generated by large-scale water transfer.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Water Supply , Agriculture , China , Humans , Water Quality
3.
J Environ Manage ; 321: 115956, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987052

ABSTRACT

Variation analysis of ecosystem services (ESs) is an important means of regional watershed management, especially for the ecologically fragile Three-River Headwaters Basin (TRHB), which is an important part of the national ecological security barrier. In this study, meteorological data, remote sensing images and land use data from 2000 to 2020 in the TRHB were collected. Based on the estimation of ecosystem service values (ESVs), the spatial-temporal variations of ESVs in the three watersheds were analyzed via spatial autocorrelation analysis, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and correspondence analysis. The study indicates that for the 20-year changes in the TRHB, the provisioning service (PS) and regulating service (RS) increased in most areas except for a small decrease in the northwest, while the supporting service (SS) value in most areas in the southwest showed a decreasing trend. Through the difference results of different watersheds, it can be seen that the differences in the PS and RS values among the three watersheds became increasingly more significant with the passage of time. Moreover, a significant correspondence was identified between each watershed and each ESV level, whereby the highest ESV levels (SS-VI, RS-VI, and PS-VI) mainly corresponded to the Yellow River watershed, the high values (SS-V, RS-V, PS-V, SS-IV, RS-IV, and PS-IV) mainly corresponded to the Lancang River watershed, and the low values (SS-I, RS-I, and PS-I) corresponded to the Yangtze River watershed. Our analysis shows the variation characteristics of ESVs to provide a guiding basis for ensuring the precise implementation of the management and protection of watersheds in the TRHB or similar areas.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Rivers , China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Meteorology , Spatial Analysis
4.
Ground Water ; 60(5): 583-590, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811302

ABSTRACT

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) involves the intentional recharge of water to aquifers for subsequent recovery or for environmental benefits. It is an increasingly common water resources management strategy but, despite its use for many decades, is unfamiliar to many. This lack of widespread understanding makes it essential that MAR projects are developed using a systematic, comprehensive and transparent approach. This paper outlines a proven and successful approach to planning and developing MAR projects. The process includes three steps, consisting of developing project objectives, developing evaluation criteria for potential MAR projects, and, after collecting and evaluating pertinent data, ranking potential projects against those criteria. Project objectives help define the data that should be collected and the evaluation criteria that are relevant to consider. Commonly used criteria include those relating to water supply, aquifer restoration, water quality and environmental protection. Key evaluation criteria that are discussed in more detail include the availability of water that would be used for recharge, the suitability of receiving aquifers to accept and retain the recharged water, and the compatibility of recharged water with the aquifer into which it is placed. Potential MAR projects can be ranked objectively by quantifying the evaluation criteria and assigning ranking scores to them. The potential project that best meets the project objectives will score the most favorably. Using a quantitative and objective process to evaluate and rank potential projects will increase support by project stakeholders and increase the likelihood that the project will be successful.


Subject(s)
Groundwater , Conservation of Natural Resources , Water Quality , Water Resources , Water Supply
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268879, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789329

ABSTRACT

A key component of behavior-based energy conservation programs is the identification of target behaviors. A common approach is to target behaviors with the greatest energy-saving potential. The concept of behavioral spillover introduces further considerations, namely that adoption of one energy-saving behavior may increase (or decrease) the likelihood of other energy-saving behaviors. This research aimed to identify and describe household energy- and water-saving measure classes within which positive spillover is likely to occur (e.g., adoption of energy-efficient appliances may correlate with adoption of water-efficient appliances), and explore demographic and psychographic predictors of each. Nearly 1,000 households in a California city were surveyed and asked to report whether they had adopted 75 different energy- and/or water-saving measures. Principal Component Analysis and Network Analysis based on correlations between adoption of these diverse measures revealed and characterized eight water-energy-saving measure classes: Water Conservation, Energy Conservation, Maintenance and Management, Efficient Appliance, Advanced Efficiency, Efficient Irrigation, Green Gardening, and Green Landscaping. Understanding these measure classes can help guide behavior-based energy program developers in selecting target behaviors and designing interventions.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Water Resources , Water , Family Characteristics , Physical Phenomena , Water Supply
6.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271200, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802737

ABSTRACT

China's Loess Plateau regions have experienced severe soil erosion for many decades due to fragmented landscapes, steep slopes, and concentrated rainfall storm-events. Restoring sub-optimal or marginal farming fields, mostly on steep, hilly terrain, to plantation forests has been a long-standing strategic policy in China aimed at rehabilitating degraded environments and reducing soil and water erosion. While there are numerous studies that have focused on the effects of forests at controlling soil erosion at relatively short time scales, few have addressed longer-term effects of plantation forests on reducing runoff and the mechanisms that inhibit erosion. Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) has been widely planted in abandoned or reclaimed lands that were formerly farmed in Northwest China; however, there is limited knowledge about the effectiveness of the tree species at reducing soil and water erosion. In this study, we examined reduction rates of runoff and erosion by Chinese pine plantation in comparison with agricultural land as a control (i.e., wheat, a dominant agricultural commodity in the region), based on long-term monitoring of modified standard erosion plots with slopes of 10°, 15°, and 20°. Results showed that as the slope of the land increased, rates of erosion increased for both plantation and agricultural land use. However, the runoff and soil erosion rates under Chinese pine plantation forest were about 11% and 60% lower, respectively, than those under agricultural land use of the same slope. Scaling with the slope, the highest reduced runoff and erosion rates by Chinese pine forest were 17% and 72%, respectively, on 20° slope. Also, it was found that runoff rates from the forested land were positively related to erosive rainfall (i.e., rainfall when runoff generated), and varied with forest canopy coverage. The rates of runoff and erosion can be well model led with multiple regression models. Taken together, this study provides insight into the importance and potential of Chinese pine plantations in the conservation of soil and water in China's Loess Plateau.


Subject(s)
Pinus , Agriculture , China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Soil , Water
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805408

ABSTRACT

This study examines the effect of the intergroup social comparison approach in promoting water conservation. In an online survey experiment, participants first encountered normative persuasive messages, informative persuasive messages, or intergroup social comparison messages and then reported their willingness to conserve water, prior water usage, and demographic information. Results showed a significantly higher willingness to conserve water in the intergroup social comparison condition compared to other conditions. We further investigated whether this social comparison effect was moderated by prior water usage and the strength of comparison. Results suggest that prior water usage, rather than the strength of comparison, moderated the influence of intergroup social comparison. Moreover, the moderating effect of prior water usage only works when participants receive a low level of strength of comparison.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Water Resources , Social Comparison , Humans , Persuasive Communication , Surveys and Questionnaires , Water
8.
Environ Manage ; 70(2): 329-349, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699739

ABSTRACT

Water provision and distribution are subject to conflicts between users worldwide, with agriculture as a major driver of discords. Water sensitive ecosystems and their services are often impaired by man-made water shortage. Nevertheless, they are not sufficiently included in sustainability or risk assessments and neglected when it comes to distribution of available water resources. The herein presented contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals Clean Water and Sanitation (SDG 6) and Life on Land (SDG 15) is the Ecological Sustainability Assessment of Water distribution (ESAW-tool). The ESAW-tool introduces a watershed sustainability assessment that evaluates the sustainability of the water supply-demand ratio on basin level, where domestic water use and the water requirements of ecosystems are considered as most important water users. An ecological risk assessment estimates potential impacts of agricultural depletion of renewable water resources on (ground)water-dependent ecosystems. The ESAW-tool works in standard GIS applications and is applicable in basins worldwide with a set of broadly available input data. The ESAW-tool is tested in the Danube river basin through combination of high-resolution hydro-agroecological model data (hydrological land surface process model PROMET and groundwater model OpenGeoSys) and further freely available data (water use, biodiversity and wetlands maps). Based on the results, measures for more sustainable water management can be deduced, such as increase of rainfed agriculture near vulnerable ecosystems or change of certain crops. The tool can support decision making of authorities from local to national level as well as private enterprises who want to improve the sustainability of their supply chains.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Biodiversity , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Humans , Water , Water Resources
9.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115477, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751274

ABSTRACT

The stable supply of water resources is an important foundation for maintaining human production and life. With the development of economy and society, climate, socioeconomic and land factors directly or indirectly affect surface Water yield ecosystem services (WY). The driving factors of WY in the Yellow River Economic Belt (YREB) show the spatial spillover effect, which has been neglected in previous related studies. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2015, WY in YREB showed an obvious downward trend, with Henan and Shandong having the largest declines; (2) The decrease of WY is positively correlated with climate factors and negatively correlated with socioeconomic and land factors. (3) WY of YREB presents is characterized by obvious spatial heterogeneity characteristics of uneven distribution in the north and south, which is mainly due to the spatial spillover effect caused by climate and socioeconomic factors. Scientifically identifying the spatial heterogeneity of WY and the spatial spillover effect of the driving factors can help managers better understand the spatial driving mechanism of the driving factors on WY. This conclusion provides support for the ecological protection and high-quality development strategy of YREB.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Rivers , China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Economic Development , Humans , Water , Water Resources
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 500, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701693

ABSTRACT

The water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) is a carrying capacity of natural resources. It affects the application and expansion of the carrying capacity of water resources. This subject involves various elements, such as water resources, the ecological environment system, humans and their economic and social systems, and a wider range of biological groups and their survival needs. Based on the objective recognition of the complex relationship between the water resource system, ecological environment system, and economic and social system, the support scale of water resources and the ecological environment for economic and social development is studied. Current research on the carrying capacity of water resources has mostly shifted from the previously limited support capacity of water resources to include factors such as the population, economy, and ecology, establishing the internal relationships between the economics, water resources, and ecological environment. This reflects the comprehensive carrying capacity of the entire region (or river basin) of water resources and the ecological environment system on an overall economic and social scale. Based on the conceptual connotation of the WRCC and the actual problems facing water resources in Henan Province, the paper uses a system dynamics method to develop information feedback between the four subsystems of Henan Province: economic, population, water resource, and water environment subsystems. The index system of the WRCC in Henan Province is also determined. The weight of each index is comprehensively determined by a combination weighting method of the analytic hierarchy process and an entropy weight method, and then a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate the WRCC of Henan Province under four different development models. The validation period of the model is 2010-2020, and the forecast period is 2021-2030. The results indicate that during the period 2021-2030, the WRCC of Henan Province showed a slight upward trend overall under the four models, but the increase rates were different under the different models. Among the four models, the comprehensive model's benefit was the best, which not only maintained the healthy and stable development of the economy and society but also improved the pressure on the water resources and the quality of the water environment.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Water Resources , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Rivers , Water
11.
J Environ Manage ; 318: 115476, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714471

ABSTRACT

Although it is well acknowledged that the improvement of ecosystem services is conducive to human well-being, there is still a lack of approach to determining reasonable improvement goals, especially for ecosystem services with trade-off relationship. Based on the method of production possibility frontier (PPF), this study presented a novel approach to identifying the improvement goals of interacting ecosystem services with considering their context dependency. By calculating the gap between the current supply of ecosystem services and the reasonable improvement goal, the ecosystem services supply efficiency was defined and measured to identify the optimization potentials of ecosystem services with trade-off relationship. The results showed that the supply efficiency of ecosystem services (grain production and water purification) decreased and then increased significantly along with the increasing of farmland area ratio in the Dongting Lake Basin (DLB). Meanwhile, the inflection point appeared when the farmland area ratio was 0.16. The change of farmland area ratio was significantly influenced by the change of elevation, with the regression coefficients of elevation on the left and right sides of the inflection point being -1.28 and -0.5 respectively, which were higher than that of other factors. Along with the increasing of elevation, the ecosystem services supply efficiency decreased but increased when the elevation exceeded 721.74 m. Furthermore, the sub-watersheds with farmland area ratio below the inflection point, i.e. mainly high elevation areas, were located around national or provincial level poor counties, posing a great challenge for improving ecosystem services with trade-off relationship. Development strategies for sub-watersheds should consider the non-linear trade-offs of ecosystem services, especially the opposite stages of supply efficiency. This study highlighted the elevation dependency of ecosystem services supply efficiency through farmland area ratio in great lake watershed.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Lakes , China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Humans
12.
Water Res ; 221: 118766, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759851

ABSTRACT

Water scarcity and quality deterioration often occur in economically developing regions, particularly during crises related to climate change or increasing human activities. The assignment of priority areas is considered a suitable strategy for stakeholders to mitigate water crises and cope with water stress. However, most studies focused on protecting water bodies in priority areas and did not consider the hydrological/hydrochemical/hydroecological interaction between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We divided a watershed into manageable areas to select priority areas for multiple water-related ecosystem services (WES-priority areas), considering the aquatic-terrestrial interactions to predict the effects of climate change and human activities. The proposed novelty framework couples the soil and water assessment tool and maximum entropy models with a systematic conservation planning tool. It uses the gross domestic product as the economic cost to assess dynamic changes and social-environmental driving forces. A case study is conducted in the Xiangjiang River basin, a modified watershed of the main tributary of the Yangtze River, China. Results revealed that most of the WES-priority areas were located in the southern and southeastern regions of the upper reaches in all climatic scenarios. The conservation efficiency of the WES-priority areas decreased from 1.264 to 0.867 in 50 years, indicating that the level of protection declined as climate change accelerated. The precipitation was positively correlated with the WES-priority area selection in all climate scenarios. The temperature was only negatively correlated with the WES-priority areas when it exceeded 20 °C, and this effect became more pronounced as the temperature increased. The topographic factors had the most crucial impacts on the upstream priority areas selection. The water flow regulation service played a leading role in identifying WES-priority areas in the middle reaches because the priority areas' distribution here was closely related to the water yield, and its proportion decreased with the acceleration of global warming. The number of WES-priority areas was relatively low in the lower reaches. It was positively associated with the gross domestic product and the amount of built-up land. The proposed framework for WES-priority areas identification enables a sound trade-off between environmental protection and economic development.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Ecosystem , China , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Hydrology , Rivers
13.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 149(3): 115-123, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641024

ABSTRACT

We have recently reported that the urea osmolyte-associated water conservation system is activated in fluid loss models such as high salt-induced natriuresis, renal injury-induced impaired renal concentrating ability, or skin barrier dysfunction-induced transepidermal water loss. The system consists of the interaction of multiple organs including renal urea recycling, hepato-muscular ureagenesis, and suppression of cardiovascular energy expenditure. Here, we determined the effect of pharmacological fluid loss induced by tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, on water conservation. We evaluated the water conservation system in rats that consumed a control diet or a diet containing 0.1% tolvaptan. Tolvaptan increased urine volume on day 1, but this renal water loss then gradually decreased. Body water and osmolyte content were decreased by tolvaptan on day 1 but had normalized by day 7. Tolvaptan induced fluid loss on day 1, and the following restoration of body fluid on day 7 was associated with an increase in urea transporter A1-associated renal urea recycling. Tolvaptan did not affect hepato-muscular ureagenesis on day 1 and day 7, or cardiovascular energy expenditure during treatment. Thus, tolvaptan-induced fluid loss leads to activation of the water conservation system via renal urea recycling.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , Conservation of Water Resources , Animals , Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Benzazepines/pharmacology , Rats , Tolvaptan , Urea , Water
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 2): 156005, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584749

ABSTRACT

Monitoring of access to water and sanitation services is stipulated in Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 6.1 and 6.2, respectively. The monitoring is carried out with a global, regional and country vision. However, in most developing countries, decentralization of services in water and sanitation management has tended to the sub-national level or has shared responsibilities between national and sub-national governments. Management at the subnational level becomes more important, since everything that is done there will impact the objectives and goals of the country. However, little or nothing progress has been made in harmonizing global indicators with those at the subnational level. Therefore, in this study we have proposed a way to disaggregate information and form WASH ladders at the subnational level. The results show using disaggregated data to interpolate models at the subnational level requires overcoming three main points: the validation of the data through statistical methods, interpolation techniques that go according to the compositional characteristics of the data and the incorporation of the uncertainty of the data into the model results. It also shows that subnational behavior is heterogeneous, which a general analysis does not capture correctly, i.e., there is a masking effect of subnational trends that the country's trend does not represent. However, these have been exceptional cases in some specific categories. Finally, the applicability of non-linear models is contrasted in a broader context, an issue that is still under discussion for its application to global monitoring. This study also provides a way to disaggregate information from the global to the sub-national level, allowing any sector analyst to replicate the methodology in a broader context.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Sanitation , Sustainable Development , Uncertainty , Water Supply
15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564925

ABSTRACT

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a significant source of gold production globally despite the sector being informal and illegal. The rapid increase in the number of roving mining camps has negatively impacted the surrounding environment; however, the formation and transformation of roving mining camps have not been well studied. This study investigated the long-term trends and significant hotspots of roving camp-type ASGM (R-C-ASGM) in Katingain Regency, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, from 1988 to 2020 using remotely sensed data, including Sentinel-1 time-series, global surface water (GSW), and world landcover datasets. Results show that several active R-C-ASGM sites existed in the Galangan and Kalanaman areas in 2017/2018. According to the GSW dataset, the Galangan area was estimated to be formed earlier, whereas the Kalanaman areas were recently formed and were associated with the Kalanaman river expansion. Notably, the center of Galangan was still a significant R-C-ASGM hotspot. The findings of this study broaden our understanding of R-C-ASGM transformation and identify significant R-C-ASGM hotspots over a long period. This study contributes to the development of timely and appropriate interventions for strengthening environmental governance.


Subject(s)
Gold , Mercury , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Policy , Mercury/analysis , Mining , Water
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8336, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585115

ABSTRACT

The construction of check dams is an important measure to prevent soil erosion on the Loess Plateau and reduce the amount of sediment entering the Yellow River. Based on an analysis of the current situation of soil and water conservation on the Loess Plateau and the three major problems faced by the traditional homogeneous soil check dam construction, the study of anti-scouring materials, hydrological calculation methods, dam design and construction technology and soil and water conservation monitoring are carried out in this paper. The results showed that the current soil and water conservation measures on the Loess Plateau have achieved remarkable outcomes. The new design and application concept of check dams with anti-burst and multi-sand interceptions is innovatively proposed in this paper. The new materials of solidified loess have good durability and anti-scouring characteristics and could meet the overflow and anti-scouring requirements of the new check dam. The small watershed high sand content of hydrological calculation can establish the upper limit of the flood sediment boundary for the anti-scouring protection layer of the check dam. The new technology of dam design and construction can achieve no collapse or slow collapse when encountering floods exceeding the standard. Intelligent monitoring systems can realize real-time dynamic monitoring for soil and water conservation on the Loess Plateau. The results will eventually contribute to the national strategy of the Ecological Protection and High Quality Development in the Yellow River basin.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Water Resources , Soil , China , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Rivers , Sand
17.
Nature ; 605(7908): 103-107, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444280

ABSTRACT

International policy is focused on increasing the proportion of the Earth's surface that is protected for nature1,2. Although studies show that protected areas prevent habitat loss3-6, there is a lack of evidence for their effect on species' populations: existing studies are at local scale or use simple designs that lack appropriate controls7-13. Here we explore how 1,506 protected areas have affected the trajectories of 27,055 waterbird populations across the globe using a robust before-after control-intervention study design, which compares protected and unprotected populations in the years before and after protection. We show that the simpler study designs typically used to assess protected area effectiveness (before-after or control-intervention) incorrectly estimate effects for 37-50% of populations-for instance misclassifying positively impacted populations as negatively impacted, and vice versa. Using our robust study design, we find that protected areas have a mixed impact on waterbirds, with a strong signal that areas managed for waterbirds or their habitat are more likely to benefit populations, and a weak signal that larger areas are more beneficial than smaller ones. Calls to conserve 30% of the Earth's surface by 2030 are gathering pace14, but we show that protection alone does not guarantee good biodiversity outcomes. As countries gather to agree the new Global Biodiversity Framework, targets must focus on creating and supporting well-managed protected and conserved areas that measurably benefit populations.


Subject(s)
Birds , Conservation of Natural Resources , Animals , Biodiversity , Ecosystem
18.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 95(3): 212-228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437120

ABSTRACT

AbstractWe show here that evaporative water loss (EWL) is constant over a wide range of ambient relative humidity for two species of small, mesic habitat dasyurid marsupials (Antechinus agilis and Antechinus swainsonii) below thermoneutrality (20°C) and within thermoneutrality (30°C). This independence of EWL from the water vapor pressure deficit between the animal and its environment indicates that EWL is physiologically controlled by both species. The magnitude of this control of EWL was similar to that of two other small marsupials from more arid habitats, which combined with the observation that there were no effects of relative humidity on body temperature or metabolic rate, suggests that control of EWL is a consequence of precise thermoregulation to maintain heat balance rather than a water-conserving strategy at low relative humidities. The antechinus appear to manipulate cutaneous EWL rather than respiratory EWL to control their total EWL by modifying their cutaneous resistance and/or skin temperature. We propose that there is a continuum between enhanced thermoregulatory EWL at high ambient temperature and so-called insensible EWL at and below thermoneutrality.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Water Resources , Marsupialia , Animals , Body Temperature/physiology , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Marsupialia/physiology , Water Loss, Insensible/physiology
19.
J Environ Manage ; 313: 115005, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390652

ABSTRACT

As concerning with water insecurity driven by water scarcity threatens the lives and livelihoods of humanity worldwide, urban water demand management is focused on promoting residential water conservation behaviors (WCBs) as a critical policy response to water scarcity. However, urban water conservation initiatives cannot be successful unless households involve in residential WCBs voluntarily by adopting water curtailment and/or water-efficiency actions. Thus, understanding motivations and mechanisms underlying accepting these two types of WCBs and interpreting their distinctions are primary policy considerations to make sustainable water consumption behaviors. Hence, the purpose of this research was twofold: (1) To explore intentions to household adoption of water curtailment and water-efficiency actions, key corresponding determinants, and distinctions between them; and (2) To evaluate the capability and robustness of the Health Belief Model (HBM) to explain residential WCBs. The present research design was a cross-sectional survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. The outcomes from structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) Water curtailment intention was solely determined by self-efficacy and perceived benefits; (2) In addition to self-efficacy and perceived benefits, perceived severity, cues to action, and perceived barriers were significantly related to water-efficiency intention; (3) While only perceived susceptibility was not a significant determinant for water-efficiency intention, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers, and cues to action could not significantly explain water curtailment intention; (4) Self-efficacy also emerged as the strongest predictive variable behind intentions to adopt both WCBs; (5) The perceived barriers had a negative significant relationship only with water-efficiency intention; and (6) The HBM could explain 72% and 61% of the variance in households' intentions to adopt water curtailment and water-efficiency actions, respectively. These outcomes supported that the HBM could propose a reliable and practical heuristic theoretical framework to predict residential WCBs. Moreover, the findings confirmed significant differences among socio-psychological factors behind intentions to household adoption of both WCBs, which need to be addressed. The research results introduced numerous implications from theoretical and policy standpoints for improving residential WCBs.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Water Resources , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intention , Iran , Policy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Water , Water Supply
20.
J Environ Manage ; 312: 114890, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313151

ABSTRACT

This work aims to extend the previous Pinch Analysis framework to the industrial site material recycling network with site headers synthesis from single quality to multiple qualities. The analysis provides guided resources management strategy in any eco-industrial park to reduce the reliance on raw resources that are extracted from the environment. The Pinch Point(s) are first identified for the overall network using the Material Recovery Pinch Diagram for all the qualities. The guideline for the cross-plant material sources transfer is then built upon the concept of the Pinch Point(s) for all the qualities to minimise the cross-plant source transfer or a number of connections. An iterative header targeting framework is then proposed to determine the flowrates and the qualities of the headers. Two case studies, which have single and multiple qualities Total Site water recycling network, are used to demonstrate the proposed framework, comparing results obtained using direct integration and centralised headers. The single quality case results in 4.1% lower fresh resource intake compared to without cross-transfer, while the multiple qualities case could have 5.3% lower fresh resources for two and three plants scenarios. This framework provides a proper analysis of the problem, which allows users to gain insights on the effective cross-plant source transfer schemes with headers constraint by resource qualities.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Water , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Industry
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