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2.
Front Psychol ; 13: 860289, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35496158

ABSTRACT

Objective: We conducted the following cross-sectional study to comprehensively assess the anxiety among Chinese international students who studied online during the COVID-19 pandemic and its influencing factors. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed through "Sojump," and a total of 1,090 valid questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire was divided into two parts: general situation and anxiety assessment of students. The former used a self-made questionnaire, and the international general GAD-7 scale was used to measure anxiety. Chi-square test was used to analyze the differences between groups, and logistic regression analysis was performed for the factors with differences. Results: Anxiety was found in 707 (64.9%) of 1,090 international students. Chi-square test and multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the incidence of anxiety was higher in the group under 22 years of age than in the group over 22 years of age (68% vs. 61%, p = 0.015; OR = 1.186, 95% CI 1.045-1.347, p = 0.008); International students living in big cities had a higher incidence of anxiety than those living in rural areas (67% vs. 60%, p = 0.022; OR = 1.419, 95%CI 1.038-1.859, p = 0.011); international students who socialized 3 times or less monthly had a higher incidence of anxiety than those who socialized more than 3 times per month (68% vs. 58%, p = 0.003; OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.160-1.992, p = 0.002); international students who expected purely online teaching had a higher incidence of anxiety than those who expected purely offline teaching or dual-track teaching (72% vs. 64%, p = 0.037; OR = 1.525, 95%CI 1.069-2.177, p = 0.02); international students with a subjective score of online learning experience of 6 or less had a higher incidence of anxiety than those with subjective scores of more than 6 (70% vs. 60%, p = 0.001, OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.099-1.422, p = 0.001). However, gender, emotional status, BMI, major of study, vaccination status, and degree type had no significant difference in the incidence of anxiety among international students who studied online during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: During COVID-19, international students who were younger, came from big cities, had low social frequency, expected purely online teaching, and had poor experience of online classes were risk factors for anxiety during online classes.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 833865, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370861

ABSTRACT

Objective: This paper used meta-regression to analyze the heterogenous factors contributing to the prevalence rate of mental health symptoms of the general and frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) in China under the COVID-19 crisis. Method: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Medrxiv and pooled data using random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the prevalence rates, and ran meta-regression to tease out the key sources of the heterogeneity. Results: The meta-regression results uncovered several predictors of the heterogeneity in prevalence rates among published studies, including severity (e.g., above severe vs. above moderate, p < 0.01; above moderate vs. above mild, p < 0.01), type of mental symptoms (PTSD vs. anxiety, p = 0.04), population (frontline vs. general HCWs, p < 0.01), sampling location (Wuhan vs. Non-Wuhan, p = 0.04), and study quality (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The meta-regression findings provide evidence on the factors contributing to the prevalence rate of mental health symptoms of the general and frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) to guide future research and evidence-based medicine in several specific directions. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=220592, identifier: CRD42020220592.

4.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226321, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1354787

ABSTRACT

Aim: This cross-sectional observational study aimed to evaluate the influence of the Universities lockdown measures on academic perspectives and psychosocial aspects of Brazilian finalyear dental students. Methods: 268 undergraduate students regularly enrolled in a Dentistry course at public universities were asked about anxiety, depression, stress sensitivity, and their academic perspectives by using an online survey. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression, while the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) evaluated stress levels. The academic perspective was evaluated by five affirmatives regarding possible difficulties that will be faced when school reopens and after graduation. The possible association between fear of having COVID-19 with psychosocial outcomes and COVID-19 association with academic perspectives were analyzed by ANOVA and chisquare tests, respectively, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering possible associations between the fear of having COVID-19 and psychosocial aspects, significant values were found for anxiety (P = 0.018) and stress sensitivity (P = 0.002). Regarding students' academic perspectives, COVID-19 had significant impact on less opportunity to perform procedures (P = 0.023), additional expenses with personal protective equipment (P = 0.007), and concerns of consulting elderly people (P = 0.012). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased psychological impairments and enlarged concerns with learning and biosecurity, which might impact academic perspectives. Thus, being aware of these apprehensions, university professors and staff can improve the clinical training of final-year dental students in an empathetic way


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anxiety , Students, Dental , Depression , Pandemics , COVID-19
5.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 63: 103888, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The present cross-national study addressed the relationship among three pandemic-related variables and multiple sclerosis (MS) disability outcomes among people with MS in Italy and the United States (US). METHODS: This cross-sectional web-based study was administered to 708 patients with MS from the US and Italy in late Spring through mid-Summer of 2020. Pandemic-related variables assessed worry, self-protection, and post-traumatic growth. The Performance Scales© assessed MS disability. Multivariate multiple regression models addressed, separately by country, the relationship among worry, protection, and post-traumatic growth with MS disability, after covariate adjustment. RESULTS: The Italian sample (n = 292) was younger and less disabled than the US group (n = 416). After covariate adjustment, all three pandemic-related variables were associated with MS disability outcomes in the US sample, but only worry and post-traumatic growth were associated in the Italian sample. Worse cognitive and depression symptoms were associated with worry, and lesser mobility disability was associated with endorsed growth in both countries. More disability variables were associated with worry and growth in the Italian sample. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic's negative aspects were associated with worse disability in both countries, and reported post-traumatic growth was associated with lesser disability. These findings may suggest directions for clinical intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , United States/epidemiology
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682388

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) and the worldwide health crisis have significantly changed both people's habits and lifestyles. Most of the studies found in the literature were carried out on specific professional categories in the socio-health sector, taking into consideration psychological disorders in relation to work. The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychological impact on a portion of the normal population subjected to lockdown. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed in the period between 23 March 2020 and 18 May 2020 (during Italian lockdown) using an online platform. The scales GAD-7, IES-r, PHQ-9 and MANSA were used to investigate the level of anxiety, the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder, the severity of depression and the perceived quality of life, respectively. Results: Four hundred and eight Italian subjects responded. Females and younger people were more affected by anxiety and depression. Post-traumatic stress disorder affected about 40% of the population sample, significantly young people and women, thus attesting to an important psychopathological response. About one-fifth of the sample population recorded an unsatisfactory quality of life. Conclusions: The results highlight the need to set up preventive interventions (primary and secondary), trying to focus on the most fragile group of subjects from a psychosocial point of view, in order to obtain a significant reduction in psychophysical damage in terms of relapses and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Physical Distancing , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682394

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has involved healthcare workers (HCWs) both as caregivers and as patients. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the HCWs working in a third-level hospital in Central Italy who were infected with COVID-19 from March 2020 to April 2021. This research aims at identifying the physical and mental health outcomes of HCWs infected with COVID-19 who returned to work after the infection, the determinants of those outcomes, such as age and sex, and the identification of possible vulnerable professional groups. METHODS: A questionnaire about the acute illness, the experience of returning to work, and health perceptions after the disease was administered to 427 healthcare workers 3 months after recovering from the SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The majority interviewed (84.5%) reported symptoms at the time of the positive test, with no significant differences regarding age or sex, while a significant difference in the mean age was found regarding hospitalization (p < 0.001). At 3 months after the infection, females (p = 0.001), older workers (p < 0.001), and healthcare assistants (p < 0.001) were more likely to report persistent symptoms. Sex (p = 0.02) and age (p = 0.006) influenced the quality of sleep after the infection. At work, the nurses group reported increase in workload (p = 0.03) and worse relationships (p = 0.028). At 3 months after the infection, female workers perceived worse physical (p = 0.002) and mental (p < 0.001) health status according to the SF-12. A negative correlation was found between age and PCS score (p < 0.001) but not MCS score (p = 0.86). A significant difference in PCS score was found between nurses and physicians (p = 0.04) and between residents and all other groups (p < 0.001). Finally, the group of workers reporting sleep alterations showed lower PCS and MCS scores (p < 0.001) and working relationships had an impact on MCS scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Age, sex, and type of job had an impact on physical and mental outcomes. Organizing specific interventions, also tailored to professional sub-groups, should be a target for healthcare systems to protect and boost the physical and mental health of their workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Retrospective Studies , Return to Work , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 72: 103279, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe critical care nurses' perception of moral distress during the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN/METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving a questionnaire was conducted. Participants responded to the Italian version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised, which consists of 14 items divided in dimensions Futile care (three items), Ethical misconduct (five items), Deceptive communication (three items) and Poor teamwork (three items). For each item, participants were also invited to write about their experiences and participants' intention to leave a position now was measured by a dichotomous question. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. The study followed the checklist (CHERRIES) for reporting results of internet surveys. SETTING: Critical care nurses (n = 71) working in Swedish adult intensive care units. RESULTS: Critical care nurses experienced the intensity of moral distress as the highest when no one decided to withdraw ventilator support to a hopelessly ill person (Futile care), and when they had to assist another physician or nurse who provided incompetent care (Poor teamwork). Thirty-nine percent of critical care nurses were considering leaving their current position because of moral distress. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, critical care nurses, due to their education and experience of intensive care nursing, assume tremendous responsibility for critically ill patients. Throughout, communication within the intensive care team seems to have a bearing on the degree of moral distress. Improvements in communication and teamwork are needed to reduce moral distress among critical care nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Morals , Pandemics , Perception , Pilot Projects , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 430, 2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virtual communities played an important role in mental health and well-being during the Covid-19 pandemic by providing access to others and thereby preventing loneliness. The pandemic has accelerated the urge for digital solutions for people with pre-existing mental health problems. So far, it remains unclear how the people concerned communicate with each other and benefit from peer-to-peer support on a moderated digital platform. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the project was to identify and describe the communication patterns and verbal expression of users on the inCLOUsiv platform during the first lockdown in 2020. METHODS: Discussions in forums and live chats on inCLOUsiv were analysed using text mining, which included frequency, correlation, n-gram and sentiment analyses. RESULTS: The communication behaviour of users on inCLOUsiv was benevolent and supportive; and 72% of the identified sentiments were positive. Users addressed the topics of 'corona', 'anxiety' and 'crisis' and shared coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The benevolent interaction between users on inCLOUsiv is in line with other virtual communities for Covid-19 and the potential for peer-to-peer support. Users can benefit from each other's experiences and support each other. Virtual communities can be used as an adjuvant to existing therapy, particularly in times of reduced access to local health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Communicable Disease Control , Data Mining , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604528, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755952

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate if change in physical activity during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic predicted severity of anxiety and depression symptoms 6 months later in physically active adults. Methods: A total of 855 respondents (32.6% women) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at two time points and reported change in physical activity habits in the first 3 months of the COVID-19 lockdown in Norway. Results: Women had higher prevalence rates than men for both anxiety and depression symptoms in the Unchanged, Increased and Decreased physical activity (PA) subgroups. Women and men who reported Increased PA at baseline were associated with increased risk for anxiety symptoms at time 2. Increased PA was associated with higher risk for depression at time 2 for women, but not for men. Conclusion: The results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with deterioration in mental health also for physically active adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics
11.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604742, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755954

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the mediating effect of perceived isolation and the moderating effect of COVID-19 related concerns in the relationship between social disconnectedness and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of 11,682 Chinese residents were conducted during the COVID-19 outbreak. Conditional process analysis was performed to test the mediating effect of perceived isolation and the moderating effect of COVID-19 related concerns. Results: Social disconnectedness was positively related to mental health problems, and perceived isolation significantly mediated their relationship. COVID-19 related concerns exacerbated the direct link between social disconnectedness and mental health problems as well as the indirect link via perceived isolation. Conclusion: Social disconnectedness was a key predictor of mental health problems during the COVID-19 outbreak. The direct and indirect effects of social disconnectedness on mental health problems were stronger for respondents who had more COVID-19 related concerns. Understanding the underlying mechanisms by which social disconnectedness is related to mental health problems has important practical implications for the prevention of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 835356, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757638

ABSTRACT

Introduction: First evidence suggests that internet-based self-help interventions effectively reduce COVID-19 related psychological distress. However, it is yet unclear which participant characteristics are associated with better treatment outcomes. Therefore, we conducted secondary analyses on data from a randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of a 3-week internet-based self-help intervention for COVID-19 related psychological distress. In this exploratory analysis, we examined several predictors ranging from sociodemographic variables to psychological distress, resource-related, and treatment-related variables. This includes, for example, age, motivation, and emotion regulation skills. Treatment outcomes were defined as post-treatment depressive symptoms and post-treatment resilience. Methods: In a total of 107 participants with at least mild depressive symptoms, possible predictor variables and treatment outcomes were assessed using self-report measures. For example, emotion regulation skills were assessed by the Self-report measure for the assessment of emotion regulation skills. In a first step, we performed a separate linear regression analysis for each potential predictor. In a second step, predictors meeting a significant threshold of p < 0.05 were entered in linear multiple regression models. Baseline scores of the respective outcome measure were controlled for. Results: The mean age of the participants was 40.36 years (SD = 14.59, range = 18-81 years) with the majority being female (n = 87, 81.3%). Younger age predicted lower post-treatment depressive symptoms. Additionally, higher motivation to use the intervention and better pre-treatment emotion regulation skills predicted higher post-treatment resilience. Conclusion: The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the relationship between participant characteristics and treatment outcome in internet-based self-help interventions for COVID-19 related distress. Our results suggest that under the circumstances surrounding COVID-19 such interventions might be particularly beneficial for young adults regarding depressive symptoms. Moreover, focusing on participants' existing strengths might be a promising approach to promote resilience through internet-based self-help interventions. However, since this was an exploratory analysis in an uncontrolled setting, further studies are needed to draw firm conclusions about the relationship of participant characteristics and treatment outcome in internet-based self-help interventions for COVID-19 related psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 896843, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757645

ABSTRACT

Due to the unprecedented impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care systems, there has been great interest in the mental wellbeing of healthcare workers. While most studies investigated mental health outcomes among frontline vs. non-frontline healthcare workers, little is known about the impact of various work-related variables. The present study aimed to examine the association between work-related [i.e., having contact with COVID-19 patients, being redeployed due to the pandemic and availability of sufficient personal protective equipment (PPE)] and subjective (i.e., worries about getting infected or infecting others) exposures and self-reported mental health outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress symptoms). Between February and May 2021, 994 healthcare workers employed at a variety of healthcare settings in the Netherlands filled out an online survey as part of the COVID-19 HEalth caRe wOrkErS (HEROES) study. Mental health outcomes were measured using the General Health Questionnaire-12, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5. Approximately 13% reported depressive symptoms, 37% experienced psychological distress, and 20% reported posttraumatic stress symptoms. Multilevel linear models consisted of three levels: individual (work-related and subjective exposures), healthcare center (aggregated redeployment and availability of sufficient PPE), and regional (cumulative COVID-19 infection and death rates). Worries about infection were associated with all three mental health outcomes, whereas insufficient PPE was associated with psychological distress and depressive symptoms. There were no differences in outcomes between healthcare centers or provinces with different COVID-19 infection and death rates. Our findings highlight the importance of adequate PPE provision and the subjective experience of the COVID-19 pandemic. These factors should be part of interventions aimed at mitigating adverse mental health outcomes among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(25): e29125, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems, including burnout among nurses, are common and important. With the rapid development of information and communication technologies and the rise in use of smartphones, the use of e-mental health strategies is increasing in public and clinical settings, and initial clinical trials using this intervention have been conducted. This systematic review evaluated whether e-healthcare interventions improve burnout and other mental health aspects in nurses. METHODS: Six electronic databases including MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Elsevier), the Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and PsycARTICLES were searched to collect relevant randomized controlled trials up to January 28, 2021, using e-healthcare interventions for mental health in nurses. The e-healthcare intervention was classified as web-based, smartphone-based, and real-time online interventions. The primary outcome was burnout in this population. Due to the heterogeneity of the interventions used in the included studies, quantitative synthesis was not performed, but included studies were analyzed qualitatively. Also, the details of e-healthcare for the mental health of nurses were analyzed. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using Cochrane's Risk of Bias tool. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials were included in this study. The 20-minute session of an online form of the emotional freedom technique was reported to significantly improve burnout severity compared to no intervention (P < .001). Other outcomes, such as career identity, quality of work life, workplace bullying, job stress, turnover intention, distress, anxiety, and resilience in nurses, were also reported to be improved by e-healthcare interventions. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally poor. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, there was some evidence that e-healthcare interventions may improve mental health outcomes, including burnout in nurses, compared with no intervention. However, due to the poor methodological quality and wide heterogeneity of the interventions and outcomes in the included studies, we were not able to reach sufficiently reliable conclusions. E-healthcare intervention for nurses in the new coronavirus disease era was discussed. High-quality clinical trials in this area should be conducted in the future.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Occupational Stress , Telemedicine , Anxiety , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Humans , Mental Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(25): e29440, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758380

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We explored factors related to health-related quality of life (HRQOL), including psychiatric symptoms and stigma related to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, among MERS-CoV survivors during the recovery period.Sixty-three MERS-COV survivors were recruited from five hospitals for a cohort study, one year after their infection in 2015. The subjects' demographic information and medical conditions associated with MERS-CoV were recorded. HRQOL was evaluated using the Short Form-8 Health Survey (SF-8). Depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms, chronic fatigue, and perceived stigma were assessed using several questionnairesThe mean physical component summary (PCS) and mean mental component summary (MCS) of the SF-8 score were below 50 T (43.47 ±â€Š9.60, 45.74 ±â€Š10.18). Depression, chronic fatigue, posttraumatic stress symptoms and stigma were negatively correlated with the SF-8 PCS and MCS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the PCS was associated with stigma (OR 8.66, 95% CI 1.96-38.23), whereas MCS was associated with depression (OR 26.62, 95% CI 3.56-198.85).The estimated HRQOL of MERS-CoV survivors during recovery was poor and appeared to be associated with depression and MERS-related stigma.


Subject(s)
Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , Survivors
16.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758958

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of stress, anxiety, depression, burnout and risk factors in frontline healthcare workers during first two outbreaks of COVID-19 in Russia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted two surveys in May and October 2020. Data of 2195 frontline healthcare workers were collected. Stress, anxiety, depression, burnout and perceived stress were assessed using the Russian versions of SAVE-9, GAD-7, PHQ-9, MBI and PSS-10 scales, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors. RESULTS: In May 2020 25.5% of healthcare workers had high level of anxiety, 30.4% - high level of stress. In October 2020 the rates of stress, anxiety, depression, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and perceived stress were 34.2%, 36.6%, 45.5%, 74.2%, 37.7%, 67.8%, respectively. Moreover, 2.4% of HCWs almost every day had suicidal thoughts. The rate of anxiety was higher in October 2020 compared with May 2020 (36.6% vs. 25.5%).Revealed risk factors included: female gender, younger age, being a physician, working for over a week, living outside of Moscow or Saint Petersburg, the absence of vaccination against COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate the urgent need for supportive programs to the frontline healthcare workers fighting COVID-19 and its increasing significance over time. Such programs should mainly focus on revealed risk groups and potentially modifiable risk factors.

17.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(7): e638, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in 2020 has led to millions of deaths worldwide. Case reports suggested that infection of SARS-CoV-2 is potentially associated with occurrences of cardiovascular pathology. However, the mode of action and mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 influencing cardiomyocytes still remain largely unclear. AIMS: To explore the mechanisms underlying cardiomyocytes damage induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS & METHODS: the serum markers of cardiovascular injury were analyzed by ELISA. The isolated SARS-CoV-2 virus were co-cultured with human cardiomyocytes (AC16) and immunofluorescence assay was used evaluate the invasion of virus. Moreover, serum obtained from acute stage of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and healthy controls were used to incubate with AC16 cells, then indicators associated with cell stress and DNA damage were analyzed by Western-blot. RESULTS: we found that high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), an indicator of cardiovascular disease, was higher in the acute stage of COVID-19. Additionally, in vitro coculture of SARS-CoV-2 and AC16 cells showed almost no infectious ability of SARS-CoV-2 to directly infect AC16 cells. Results of serum treatment suggested that serum from infected subjects induced cell stress (upregulation of p53 and HSP70) and elevation of DNA damage risk (increased γH2Ax and H3K79me2) in AC16. DISCUSSION: our observations indicated a hard way for SARS-CoV-2 to infect cardiomyocytes directly. However, infection-induced immune storm in serum could bring stress and elevated DNA damage risks to cardiovascular system. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated the possibilities of SARS-CoV-2 inducing stress and elevating DNA damage risk to cardiomyocytes without direct infection.

18.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 211-223, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759643

ABSTRACT

The endoplasmic reticulum is an abundant, dynamic and energy-sensing organelle. Its abundant membranes, rough and smooth, are distributed in different proportions depending on the cell lineage and requirement. Its function is to carry out protein and lipid synthesis, and it is the main intracellular Ca2+ store. Caloric overload and glycolipotoxicity generated by hypercaloric diets cause alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum, activating the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) as a reaction to cellular stress related to the endoplasmic reticulum and whose objective is to restore the homeostasis of the organelle by decreasing oxidative stress, protein synthesis and Ca2+ leakage. However, during chronic stress, the UPR induces reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation and apoptosis, exacerbating the state of the endoplasmic reticulum and propagating a deleterious effect on the other organelles. This is why endoplasmic reticulum stress has been considered an inducer of the onset and development of metabolic diseases, including the aggravation of COVID-19. So far, few strategies exist to reestablish endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, which are targeted to sensors that trigger UPR. Therefore, the identification of new mechanisms and novel therapies related to mitigating the impact of endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated complications is urgently warranted.


El retículo endoplásmico es un organelo abundante, dinámico y sensor de energía. Sus abundantes membranas, rugosa y lisa, se encuentran distribuidas en diferentes proporciones dependiendo del linaje y requerimiento celular. Su función es llevar a cabo la síntesis de proteínas y lípidos, y es el almacén principal de Ca2+ intracelular. La sobrecarga calórica y la glucolipotoxicidad generada por dietas hipercalóricas provoca la alteración del retículo endoplásmico, activando la respuesta a proteínas mal plegadas (UPR, Unfolded Protein Response, por sus siglas en inglés) como reacción al estrés celular relacionado con el retículo endoplásmico y cuyo objetivo es restablecer la homeostasis del organelo al disminuir el estrés oxidante, la síntesis de proteínas y la fuga de Ca2+. Sin embargo, durante un estrés crónico, la UPR induce formación de especies reactivas de oxígeno, inflamación y apoptosis, exacerbando el estado del retículo endoplásmico y propagando un efecto nocivo para los demás organelos. Es por ello que el estrés del retículo endoplásmico se ha considerado un inductor del inicio y desarrollo de enfermedades metabólicas, incluido el agravamiento de COVID-19. Hasta el momento, existen pocas estrategias para reestablecer la homeostasis del retículo endoplásmico, las cuales son dirigidas a los sensores que desencadenan la UPR. Por tanto, se justifica con urgencia la identificación de nuevos mecanismos y terapias novedosas relacionadas con mitigar el impacto del estrés del retículo endoplásmico y las complicaciones asociadas.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there have been reports of increased perinatal anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic (Stepowicz et al., 2020), there has been a lack of research on the relative importance of objective hardship and subjective distress. In this study, we explored the extent to which resilience, tolerance of uncertainty, and cognitive appraisal of the pandemic's consequences moderate the effect of prenatal objective hardship and subjective distress due to the pandemic on 2-month postpartum anxiety. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Birth in the Time of COVID (BITTOC) study. We measured objective hardship and subjective distress, mental health, and potential psychological moderators in 419 pregnant women residing in Australia, and at two months postpartum. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used. RESULTS: Objective hardship and subjective distress independently predicted postpartum anxiety. All three psychological factors moderated the effect of objective hardship on anxiety. For women with low/neutral resilience, or low/moderate tolerance of uncertainty, or a negative cognitive appraisal, greater objective hardship predicted higher postpartum anxiety. Conversely, for women with high resilience, or high tolerance of uncertainty, or neutral/positive cognitive appraisal, there was no association. Only a neutral/positive cognitive appraisal significantly buffered the effect of subjective distress on anxiety. LIMITATIONS: Participants self-selected themselves into the study. The generalizability of our results could be restricted to women of higher socio-economic status. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help us better understand options for intervention and assessment of vulnerable women during times of stress, along with the mechanisms by which COVID-related stress during pregnancy contributes to postpartum anxiety.

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